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Lobbying and Bribery: The Fine Line between Legal and Illegal Influence Critical Essay

Many arguments have been made whether a difference exists between lobbying and bribery. There are those who feel that lobbying is a form of polished and sophisticated bribery, whereas others are of the view that a clear line of demarcation exists between the two. This essay is going to look at the differences between lobbying and bribery and what legislations in the United States of America treat the two.

The story carried by the Washington Post on January 15, 1999, brought to the fore the arguments supporting or refuting the differences between bribery and lobbying. The paper reported that lobbyists of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games have been accused of bribery in their efforts to influence the members of the International Olympics’ Committee (Washington Post, 1999).

The story reveals that a fine line which is sometimes blurred separates lobbying from bribery. Lobbying can be conceptualized as efforts to influence politicians and other key individuals to make decisions on ones favor (Atkinson, 2008). On the other hand, bribing is also described as efforts to influence politicians and other key individuals to make decisions on one’s favor. However, the difference between the two is the fact that lobbyists offer no money or gifts.

But the main motivator in bribery is the offer or promise of money and property by the individual (United States Department of Justice, 2008). This means that lobbying is legal and is carried out overtly. In contrast, legislations such as Foreign Corrupt Practices Act illegalize and criminalize bribery. Bribery is mainly carried out covertly (Rich

Bankruptcy and Ethics Essay

Nursing Assignment Help According to Sandage (2006), bankruptcy can be described as the inability of an individual or business entity to pay debts owed to them. When an individual or entity files for bankruptcy and they are declared so, they can be exonerated from major debts that they owe. There are times in history when cases for bankruptcy have been high, depending on the economic status at the time.

For example, according to Irby (2010), bankruptcies increase during times of economic hardships.

There are different types of bankruptcies in the United States of America and elsewhere in the world. In the United States of America, bankruptcies are named according to the chapter of the bankruptcy law that they fall under (Balleisen, 2001).

There are three main classifications of bankruptcies under this classification. These are chapter 7 bankruptcy, chapter 11 and chapter 13 bankruptcies. There are different eligibilities for these bankruptcies.

Chapter 7 is the most common of these bankruptcies, and it is what most people refer to when they talk of personal bankruptcy. Silverman