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Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology Essay

Table of Contents Legal issues

Importance of confidentiality

Impact of legislation

Role of competence

Conclusion

References

Psychology is a developed field of study which can be applied in broad fields which include educational, clinical, sports, business, and health areas.

Psychologists, just like other professionals, undergo intensive education and training before they are allowed to practice (Nancy, 2007). Professional psychologists are equipped with scientific foundations that prepare them to offer high quality services and use their practical skills effectively.

The skills include, but not limited to, psychological examination, clinical supervision, consultation, as well as psychotherapy. Owing to the broadness of this field, there are a number of legal aspects which should be considered in the practice of professional psychology.

The code of ethics clearly provide for the general principles expected in the practice of virtually all professional fields such as medicine, law, and dentistry. The essay elaborates the legal issues related to knowledgeable approval and refusal of medical care as well as evaluating the legal issues associated evaluation and diagnosis in the field of professional psychology.

It also offers the explanation of the need to enhance confidentiality in the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the psychologist. Moreover, the essay offers an evaluation of the impact of government legislation and the role of competence in professional psychology.

Legal issues The legal aspects in the field of professional psychology apply to all instances where psychological ethics are to be exercised. Professional psychologists are expected to understand the legal issues and concerns that may be raised especially by their clients. Apart from the practical concerns, the legal aspects of psychology cover broad areas such as understanding the role of government laws and the regulations associated with human behavior as well as the various mental processes (Nancy, 2007).

The practice of professional psychology should not violate any of the legal provisions stipulated in the professional code of conduct and ethics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The codes of ethics are generally uniform in all the states although licensing may be done by individual states. The handling of clients by psychologists is one of the most sensitive areas which should abide by the legal requirements. Professional psychologists are expected to ensure that they get informed consent from their clients.

This implies that the client has to agree with terms and conditions of medical treatment or any assessment/testing (Nancy, 2007). Such consent must be well informed, competent and voluntary in nature. In case the client is not in a position to give consent, then a recognized health attorney or next of kin may be allowed to stand in for the patient.

The doctor must inform the client of the possible risks as well as benefits associated with the intended treatment process (Berger, 2002). Additionally, the client should be given the alternative ways of treatment in order to make appropriate personal choices. Another legal doctrine under informed consent is self-determination.

It refers to the right of an adult client who is of sound mind to decide what can be done on their body in the course of treatment (Nancy, 2007). The psychologist is expected to communicate sufficient information to the client in order to facilitate the consent process. At the end of the consent process, the client should sign appropriate documents before the commencement of any medical care.

The right to informed refusal is another legal requirement in the practice of professional psychology. This provision empowers the client to refuse any given medical care regardless of how crucially important it is meant to save his or her life (Berger, 2002). For example, a patient suffering from kidney failure may decline a transplant despite knowing that refusal may result in death.

Furthermore, a client suffering from serious heart attack may opt to depart the hospital even though they are likely to die (Nancy, 2007). A client may refuse treatment due to several reasons such as depression, lack of trust, fear, and misunderstanding. A psychologist may make further attempts to convince the client if he or she thinks the decision to refuse treatment is incompetent.

Importance of confidentiality The legal provisions are also geared towards ensuring confidentiality between clients and their psychologists. The professional code of conduct and ethics protects clients from any form of abuse especially emotional and or physical.

We will write a custom Essay on Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommended practices by professional psychologists are guaranteed. They include the maintenance of medical files, and appropriate ways for terminating a given therapy process. A psychologist is not expected to share any of the client’s crucial medical information in public (Berger, 2002).

This goes a long way in enhancing the trust between the client and the doctor. If the patient develops confidence towards the therapist, then the treatment process is bound to be successful.

In a situation where confidentiality is breached, the client may initiate legal action against the therapy provider (Berger, 2002). In general, confidentiality in the practice of professional psychology ensures that clients receive professional as well as humane handling that protects them from any form of abuse.

Impact of legislation The government in the United States plays a central role when it comes to the practice of professional psychology. Some legislations passed from time to time by the federal government influence this filed directly (Nancy, 2007).

Decisions which affect the financing and practice in the healthcare profession, particularly psychological services are made regularly. The state of healthcare policy in the United States has a lot of impacts on the training of psychologists.

All professional psychologists in America are regulated by the American Psychological Association (APA) (Berger, 2002). The legislations provide the required academic achievements in order to be recognized as a professional psychologist. Clinical and counseling psychologists are the most common and are responsible for providing psychotherapeutic services and other psychological examinations.

Government legislations, however, may vary from state to state but they are all designed to safeguard the clients and the credibility of the profession (Berger, 2002). The legislations in some states have allowed psychologists with appropriate additional qualifications to provide psychiatric medicine. Efforts by other states to pass the same legislation have been unsuccessful.

APA has been very influential in pushing for appropriate legislations by the government. Emerging issues in the field of professional psychology have resulted in key legislations that are aimed at enhancing the quality of services offered to the clients as well as improving the welfare of the psychologists (Berger, 2002).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Legal Aspects in Professional Psychology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Role of competence All professional psychologists are legally expected to provide excellent services for their respective clients. Professional psychologists should therefore demonstrate outstanding competence in their responsibilities. Competence can be defined as the ability to effectively perform specific tasks within a given field. Psychologists are trained to perform specialized tasks using the acquired skills (Berger, 2002).

Psychologists are ethically expected to provide services that are within their areas of competence. They should take clients who have problems which they can competently offer solutions. Competence, therefore, ensures that psychologists utilize their acquired knowledge, skills, and appropriate behavior in handling their clients.

Conclusion The essay has discussed the various concerns related to knowledgeable approval and the right to denial of treatment and concerns touching on evaluation and determination in the field of professional psychological. It has also given the details of upholding confidentiality in the therapeutic relationships between the client and the doctor.

Furthermore, the essay has offered an evaluation of the impact of government legislations as well as the role of competence in professional psychology. The various legal aspects in professional psychology, therefore, play a major role in regulating the general provision of services by psychologists.

References Berger, L. S. (2002). Understanding professional psychology: government regulation and competence. Trafford Plc.

Nancy, M. (2007). Professional psychology: a psychologist’s comprehensive guide (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill Plc.

Symbolism in Death of a Salesman Essay

Nursing Assignment Help “Death of a Salesman” is a play written in 1949 by an American playwright, Arthur Miller. The play is based on both Miller’s personal experiences and the theatrical traditions in which he was instructed in. “Death of a salesman” revolves around the Loman family with Willy Loman, the father, who also works as a salesman as the main character.

Willy Loman has indulged himself in a myth of being well-liked and being attractive to succeed in the business world. He believes that personal talent is not as important and actually uses this myth against his neighbors and friends, Charley and Bernard, who he does not consider to be physically attractive.

Due to this belief implanted in them, the Lomans lead an unpleasant and unfulfilled life while their neighbors enjoyed success. Willy is also in a delusional mental state and is caught in between the past and the present in which he keeps having hallucinations and reveries.

He lives in a flimsy fantasy world which is full of excuses and daydreams as he desperately attempts to make sense of himself, his hopes and the world that once held so much promise.

In the play, Miller uses different styles and devices to bring out Willy’s situation, and what it is all about and symbolism is one of these styles. Here is an analysis of symbolism in the play: Willy Loman’s character, including his salesman career, symbolizes an ordinary man in American society.

He acts as a representation of the ordinary man leading a fruitless life in a flourishing nation. Somehow, Willy reflects the dilemma of the common man fighting for his survival and trying to pay his bills yet live like everyone else. This is mainly observed when he is caught in a dilemma on how to pay his last mortgage payment.

Besides, Charley, his neighbor constantly gives him money to take home to his wife as if it was his salary as his salesman job is fluttering around him and he does not earn enough from it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In one of their conversations, he even tells Charley that a gentleman is valuable more when he is departed than when he is living. It’s ironical that in the end, he commits suicide so that his family can get his life insurance money to pay for the mortgage.

Contrary, Charley’s character symbolizes the voice of reason in Willy’s deluded world. Charley who is Willy’s neighbor and only friend is a successful man with his own sales business. He tries to offer Willy a job several times and even after Willy is fired, but Willy turns down the offers as he regards it as an insult to his image. However, Charley is only trying to help him out, but Willey couldn’t appreciate that.

In one of the scenes, Charley is present during one of Willy’s daydream and as he tries to talk to him convincingly, but instead Willy yells back at him. This confuses Charley, and he decides to leave him alone as he does not understand what is going on. Apart from his family, only Charley and Bernard, his son, attend Willy’s funeral.

In the play, leaves are often seen to appear around the present setting during Willy’s reveries. These leaves are a representation of the leaves from the two elm trees which were situated next to the house in the early days. This was before Willy cut them down to build a hammock for him to relax with his family.

The trees were also cut down to pave the way for the development of the apartment blocks around their neighborhood. When Willy first moved into the neighborhood, the air was clean and fresh and the atmosphere, serene and quiet. However, in the present day, development and construction of new apartments have taken over, and the atmosphere is no longer the same, it been over-exploited and polluted.

In parts of the flashbacks, Biff and Happy are dressed in high school football sweaters. This is a symbol of the hope they had and the success that seemed so close during that time. Biff was the star of his high school football team and was even invited to attend three universities during his senior year.

Bernard even begs Biff if he could carry his helmet as he goes for the Ebbets Field game in his senior year. (Miller 165) notes that “In the scene at Frank Chop’s house, Happy goes on to brag to the woman he’s flirting with that Biff is a quarterback with the New York Giants, which is a lie.”

We will write a custom Essay on Symbolism in Death of a Salesman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The jungle, which is constantly mentioned in connection to Ben, is symbolic of life. Willy even says “The woods are burning! I can’t drive a car!” (as cited in Miller, 22) when he has a foreboding sense of his life crashing around him. Ben is Willy’s dead brother who had gone to Africa, discovered a diamond mine in the jungle and became very successful.

Ben says in the play “When I was seventeen, I walked into the jungle. And by twenty-one, I walked out. And by God, I was rich!” (as cited in Miller, 49). He asked Willy to go with him at the time but he refused, and that became the cause for deep regret for the rest of his life.

In the same context, there is an appearance of diamonds which symbolize success. Willy idolizes Ben as he seems to be living the American dream while he is stuck in a rut he can’t pull himself out of. As the play comes to an end, Uncle Ben refers to the jungle by saying that “You must go into the jungle and fetch a diamond out” (Miller 65). Willy keeps wishing that he had followed Ben to Alaska and then Africa, then he might have been just as rich.

Stockings are another form of symbolism depicted in the play. They symbolize Willy’s infidelity and his uncaring attitude towards his wife.

Willy gives the stockings that his wife mends, to his mistress as gifts. During one of his flashbacks, Willy hears “The Woman’s” laughter and becomes agitated. He immediately gets angry and starts shouting at his wife, Linda, and Bernard. He even orders Linda to throw out the stockings and reprimands her for mending them.

His infidelity also costs him his relationship with his son when Biff accidentally found Willy with his mistress. Biff is dejected, and he loses all respect for his father. Consequently, the guilt Willy feels is the cause of his tense relations with Biff and his disconcerted behavior around his wife.

The recorder is another form of symbolism that is used in the play. When Willy goes to his boss, Howard Wagner, to try and get him to relocate him to the New York office, Wagner does not give him time to talk. (Miller 45) Says that “Instead, he interrupts him and makes him listen to his wife and kids on the wire recorder. This recorder and the voices in it symbolize the success that Willy has always dreamed of and wished he had.” In all his endeavors, this success seems to elude him even though he never gives up hope.

Willy goes on and tells Wagner that he would get a recorder as well, which is a symbol of his pride since there is no way he could afford to buy one. Eventually, his boss does not listen to him, turns down his plea and ends up firing him.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Symbolism in Death of a Salesman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the play, tennis rackets have also been used as a form of symbolism. They are a figure of Ironic metaphor of Bernard’s success. Bernard is seen going to take part in tennis with an associate of his, who owns a tennis court. This symbolism is seen as ironic because a glimpse from the past projected that the Loman brothers would be the ones to be successful in the sports department.

From the first act, Bernard would continuously be seen trying to intervene in Biffs academic life, which he did not seem bothered with as he was busy concentrating on his football vocation. In the end, due to neglecting his grades, Biff ends up losing football as well, whereas Bernard, who focused more on his books, becomes successful even in sports.

The flutes and flute music have been used to symbolize the far gone and good times when Willy was a stable person. They bring nostalgia and memories of the old times when he was younger and with great hope for immense success in the business world, comes the future. For instance, in one of the scenes where Willy goes into a reverie, he is talking with his brother Ben about his father, who used to manufacture and sell flutes.

Ben brags about how their father was a great man and inventor, and it is obvious from this talk that Willy’s father was just as successful as his brother is. Willy is therefore left wondering why the same fate did not befall him as he believes that his family is of a thriving heritage.

In the last Act, as the play is about to come to an end, Willy is seen planting seedlings in the garden. (Miller 47) notes that “The seeds symbolize a natural process of growth that prevails in nature and the garden is symbolic of Willy wanting to leave something as a commemoration of him.” He hopes to leave something that people will look at and be reminded of him as a great man.

He plants the seeds in the hope that the garden will one day grow into something substantial enough in contrast to his life which he considers a failure.

As he plants the seeds, he has a conversation with Ben about a $20,000 deal that would give Biff a good startup boost in his life and his business. In the end, this deal he is talking about ends up being his life insurance.

In conclusion, Miller uses symbolism in the play to bring out the hopelessness in the Loman’s family. Through this, the audience can empathize with them and their situation. It becomes evident how the ‘American dream’ myth can adversely affect a person as they try to pursue it.

Work Cited Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Oxford, UK: Penguin Classic, 1998. Print.

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