To ensure informed participation, Cone and Foster (2003) pointed out that it is critical to seek informed consent from the participants and also ensure their confidentiality. In this view, the researcher will ensure that a clear, informed and voluntary agreement is made by the participants (Ellis and Earley, 2006). The kind of informed consent, which will be used in this study, will have to meet specific requirements including a statement that the study is about research, specification of any experimental procedures, a description of the procedures that will be involved, an explanation of the purpose of the research, and details of the expected period of participants’ involvement (http://www.strath.ac.uk, accessed 22.02.2013).
Analysis of the results of the interview presented quantitative variables for establishing the girls’ effectiveness for learning football skills, which was statistically significant, meaning that single-sex environment was preferred. Similarly, the conclusion from the qualitative data was that single-sex physical education environment is a better learning environment,as it offers a more supportive and comfortable environment for girls than a coeducational environment (Elwood and Gipps, 1999).
To review the differences of female participation levels in both single sex PE and mixed sex PE
Introduction The issue of single-sex and coeducational physical education is a grand debate and has no sign of ending any time soon. Numerous research regarding the pros and cons of coeducational against single-sex has been undertaken in the UK and the world at large, though its results have been largely mixed and unclear (Mael, 1998). In other words, the results of these studies and reviews has been lacking of consistency or strong evidence about the disadvantages and advantages of signal-sex classes over coeducational classes (Mael, 1998). Nevertheless, one of the stronger suggestions is that, when evaluating the effectiveness of either single-sex or coeducational classes, it is important to assess both the social and and the cultural context of the school environment (Smithers and Robinson, 2006). This study is aimed at identifying the all-round debate that concerns the issues of social cultural environment including learning achievement, curriculum design, social issues, and the experience of children in learning physical education among many others.
Historically, the issue of gender and education has led to a perception of schools as crucial roots of fostering development of equal society and social change, whereby a social situation for the women is perceived to be less repressive (Salomone, 2004).
Nevertheless, the approaches to the question of single-sex physical education can be taken from different perspectives. In this regard, some academic sources provide that, in order to prepare women to stand out academically, it is also important to make sure they take part in physical education, a subject which is becoming compulsory in schools around the world (Oloffsson, 2007). Although this can only be successful if issues of structure, and conditions of physical education classes are put into consideration while designing an all inclusive educational curriculum. Unfortunately studies show that it is a constant battle to get girls to even participate in physical education as shown by Evans (2006) who states that 35% of girls do not enjoy PE compered to a mere 17% of boys.
Most importantly, it is argued that girls in single-sex schools can excel academically simply if the lesson is structured to encourage and motivate girls to acquire specific skills, even in areas that are perceived to be male domain, including the sciences (Salomone, 2004). It is also argued that schools should be symbols of equality and environments that can provide students with early knowledge and experiences of gender equality in order to avoid nurturing a society that propagates unequal gender patterns (Warrington and Younger, 2001). In respect to gender equality, the position has been that coeducational classes are a preparation for a society that values gender equality, however it is stated by Hoffman et al. (2008) that females experience gender inequality from a young age as males receive more direct attention from teachers from nursery through secondary school. Nevertheless, provided that gender inequality in most societies is natural, it is important to instill the virtue of gender equality and awareness in the stakeholders including teachers to avoid the reproduction of gender inequity in academic training (Salomone, 2004). The current educational environment focuses on the achievement of qualifications such as GCSE’s and general academic success. However, the educational experience of students throughout their school years must not be ignored.
Many researchers have shown how girls’ experiences within a coeducational PE environment is difficult for them in a number of different ways. For example, it was suggested that teachers intellectually motivated boys and rewarded girls for exhibiting ‘suitable’ feminine characteristics. Evans (2006) also comments to suggests that girls feel self conscious when par taking in physical activity as being ‘sporty’ is not considered to be a desirable feminine trait.
It was also found that the boys had a tendency of dominating the classes, in which case the teachers supported their domination by taking their contributions more seriously than that of the girls. Howe (2001) suggests that this is due to sports being viewed as a ‘man’s’ game possibly resulting in teachers over looking girls contributions. Notably, the tendency of boys to dominate classes does not affect all boys and at the same time some girls are not typically silent, but exhibit the behaviour of boys.
More recent research has shifted focus towards the differences within and between gender groups. The way that students experience schooling is affected by factors such as social class, ethnicity and race; however, the patterns of gender identified in early research is carried on throughout coeducational schools in the present day. This, however, does not mean that the educational system in single-sex environments is entirely positive – thus showing why this study is necessary to explore this rather undisputable issue.
The issues of coeducational and single-sex physical education classes has been largely researched but the long-term social implications have been scarcely studied – this study will explore this aspect in an extensive view. Notably, most of those who support coeducational classes can encourage males and females to work together constructively. In other words, coeducational set ups proponents suggest that the classes should be structured to mirror a ‘real-life’ situation.
In contrast, the proponents of single-sex class argue that, since the female classes do not reflect a ‘real-life’ situation, it is only important to have single-sex classes. In other words, they propose that, since the western societies are male-dominated and since women plays a second fiddle when it come to opportunities, power, and payments amongst other issues – there is a need to separate females and males classes. It is, therefore, important for the students as well as the educators to change this wave of inequality in schools and physical education in particular. Those who have supported single-sex have maintained that single-sex educational environment can present girls with an opportunity to deliver themselves from the strings of discrimination and get an opportunity to prove that they do not have to play a second fiddle to boys.
The little evidence that has been presented in relation to the long-term social implications of mixed and single-sex physical education classes has not shown any significant discrepancies in regards to personal development differences between males and females in coeducational and single-sex environments. However, on overall, more questions have been left unanswered in respect to this issue. Therefore, this study investigated whether it is advantageous to run single-sex physical education classes as opposed to coeducational classes, in which case the relationship between several variables was examined. In addition, the study attempted to establish the impact of these variables upon the effectiveness of physical education learning for girls.
Literature review A mixed-gender Physical Education (PE) has sparked a lot of argument amongst many stakeholders including researchers and educators (Issues, 1999), most of whom are interested in promoting the learning environment for the females so they can be educated effectively just like the male students (Carpenter
Education For Creative Innovation And Entrepreneurship Society
This study will be conducted using a qualitative method and this is just a concept paper. I will see past researches and journals that are related with this study. In this study, we will see the attitudes of the students to become a good engineer, the concept of murabbi in educators, and the implementation of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in the curriculum and the style of teaching and learning. I will generate a few questions that will be a guideline for me. The question will lead me to do this study. What can we do to make student became someone that is creative and innovative? How can we develop it? What is the attitudes and attributes that student must have to compete with the future challenges? What is the characteristic of murabbi? How do we raise the spirit of entrepreneurship in students?. Engineering is a discipline that applies the principles of science and mathematics in providing products and services that can shape and influence people’s lives. Now, the applications of engineering become more important to the world. So, we need to make an improvement on our engineering education. We need to do a research on every corner of engineering education to make it more systematic and can produce an engineer that will lead the technology of the future. So, this study will explain about creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in engineering education to help our education became more interesting and towards the education of the 21st century.
INTRODUCTION The world now is changing rapidly, the technology and innovation becoming more important to our development. The competition to be better than other make the people try to do beyond the expectation. So, our engineering education needs to be ready with the global changing and the future challenges. In order to prepare with the challenges, engineering training and education must be revised and modernised (Nguyen 1988). Creative, innovation, and entrepreneurship is not the new thing in education, but these three elements will be the best way to build the success in life. According to Mohd Zukime (2008), to face the future, students should be taught to be creative and innovative, and we must expose them with invention, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Liu