IPR stands for Inflow Performance Relationship. The relation between the flow rate (q) and the flowing bottom-hole pressure (Pwf) states the inflow performance relationship. For a gas well to flow there must be a pressure differential from the reservoir to the well bore and the fluid characteristics and changes with time. There is a linear relationship between the reservoirs producing at the pressures above the bubble point pressure, this is the pressure when Pwf is greater or equal to bubble point pressure.
Inflow Performance Relations
The linear form of an IPR represents the Productivity Index (PI), which is the inverse of the slope of IPR. The gas reservoir is deliberately evaluated using the well inflow performance relationship (IPR). Gas well IPR also depends on the flow conditions, that is, transient, steady state or pseudo state flows which are determined by reservoir boundary conditions.
Uses of IPR:
It is special type of measurement property which is used to measure life and productivity of reservoir.
Inflow performance relationship is useful as a tool monitor well performance and predicts the simulation and artificial lift requirements of a number of wells.
In order to check or correct the size of a well to an accurate value IPR of a well must be known.
2. List three main factors affecting IPR?
The three important factors affecting IPR are:
Pressure inside the reservoir.
Nature of reservoir fluids.
Types of rocks.
3. Explain inflow and outflow performance?
Inflow performance of a reservoir is defined as the functional relationship between the flowing bottom-hole and the resulting flow rate. It is the rate at which fluid will flow towards the wellbore and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the permeability of the rock, and the driving force. For a gas well to flow there must be a pressure difference from reservoir to the well-bore at the reservoir depth. If the well-bore pressure is equal to the reservoir pressure there can be no inflow. If the well-bore pressure is zero , the inflow would be a maximum possible i.e the Absolute Open Flow (AOF).
For intermediate well-bore pressures, the inflow will vary. For each reservoir, there will be unique relationship between the inflow rate and wellbore pressure. For a heterogeneous reservoir, the inflow performance might differ from one well to another. The performance is commonly defined in term of a plot of surface production rate (stb/d) versus flowing bottom hole pressure (pwf in psi). Several models are available for determining the different types of Inflow performance Relation; they are Straight line flow, Vogel’s method, Future IPR flows, The Fetkovich method and many more.
Outflow Performance involves fluid flow through flow through the production tubular, the wellhead and the surface flow line. In general the fluid flow involves the pressure difference across each segment of the fluid flow. Calculating the pressure drop at each segment is serious problem as it involves the simultaneous flow of oil, gas and water(multiphase flow), which implies the pressure drop dependent on many variables in which some of them are inter-related.
Due to this, it is very difficult to find an analytical solution. Instead, empirical formulas and mathematical models have been developed and used for predicting the pressure drop in multiphase flow. In order to obtain the realistic results, it is therefore important to define the input parameters carefully, through close co-operation with production engineers and to check the results of the Vertical Flow Performance which is also called as the Outflow Performance.
4. State and explain Darcy’s Equation?
Darcy’s Law states the fundamental law of fluid motion in the porous media. It is used to describe the flow of fluid particles, which includes oil, water
Syllabus: Designing Needs Assessment
The two terms of prime focus of this study are: ‘Syllabus’ and ‘Needs’. This chapter includes a literature review on different aspects of syllabus designing and needs assessment .The characteristics and many faces of Curriculum Development/ Syllabus Design are presented in addition to needs assessment, reasons for conducting needs assessment, steps in needs assessment and the relationship between syllabus designing and needs assessment.
2.1 Curriculum A key term of this study is-‘Curriculum’, hence this section aims to give clarity on the meaning, scope and process of curriculum. A common error that comes into notice while studying curriculum development process is the synonymous use of the words-‘curriculum’ and ‘syllabus’. This section also attempts to demarcate and differentiate these two words so that the course designers and developers may systematically initiate the process in context to SGBAU.
2.1.1 Definitions of Curriculum Although the idea of curriculum is not new and has been extensively used by education planners yet there remains considerable dispute as to meaning. The word is from the Latin root “currere.” It means “a course or race.” It term originated from the running/chariot tracks of Greece. It was, literally, a course. In Latin curriculum was a racing chariot; currere was to run.
Throughout the history of second-language programmes, the concept of ‘curriculum’ has been important. However, there is little general agreement on actual form, function, and scope of curriculum. Before discussing the theory of curriculum development, some definitions of curriculum as quoted by Finch, A.E. (2000)1 are presented below:
Stenhouse (1975) describes Curriculum as “an attempt to communicate the essential properties and features of an educational proposal in such a form that it is open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective translation into practice”