It was during the late years of 19th century that the United States of America became the leading industrialized nation on the globe.
Shortly after the civil war, the industry was still characterized by hand labor that minimized the ability of production for most industries. However, the industry quickly gained momentum with hand labor being replaced by machines thereby increasing the rates of production. Many people therefore began concentrating in cities to work in these industries.
Accompanying this change was the sharp contrast between the workers and the employers. The discontent of workers brought about movements that aimed at protecting workers’ rights. This work explains how the industrial workers and farmers organized themselves in response to industrialization in the United States of America after the civil war.
Effects of Civil War on Workers The American civil war of 1861-1865, was followed by many movements. Some of them include the National Farmers Alliance, in Texas, and another organization dominated by the Blacks called ‘Colored Farmers’ Alliance.
Racial problems caused the National Farmers’ Alliance not to achieve much. The Alliances were movements created mainly to fight for the rights of its members who were mainly farmers during this period (Liu 13). This is because before the civil war began, the richest one percent of Americans owned 26 percent of America’s national property.
The period after the civil war was characterized by change in work patterns within the workers’ community. Most farmers came to rely on mowers, reapers, and harvesters. Labor organizations formed in many northern cities thereby making many workers to strike over underpayment. The civil war therefore enhanced the growth of industrialization especially in the northern regions of the United States.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was after the civil war that new opportunities to work outside the home emerged for women. The opportunities include clerical works and teaching which were previously dominated by men. Nursing was also considered particularly suited to female skills. This change mainly occurred in the northern states of the U.S. Northern women could also find jobs as teamsters, in bridge keeping, and also as undertakers.
Organization of Farmers and Industrial Workers in Response to Industrialization The United States became the world’s leading industrialized country by the year 1913. This was because there were so many natural resources available together with many other factors such as availability of labor, land, and the diversity of climate in the entire nation. It was also during the period of 1865-1913, that new technologies in iron and manufacturing of steel came up. As a result, well paid skilled workers emerged. They include the engineers who replaced the skilled labor of the old-fashioned artisans and craftsmen. The influx of immigrants caused cheap labor to become more and more available particularly in the mining industry.
The civil war also heralded several farming practices such as sharecropping. This made most of the sharecroppers to be locked in a cycle of debt thus acting as the impetus for the emergence of movements that aimed at addressing general agricultural problems.
It is worth noting that workers and employers do not have anything in common because the worker’s lifestyle is characterized by hunger and want while the employer’s lifestyle is characterized by good things of life. This is the reason why there are many conflicts between the two classes of people. The working class will always be moved towards abolition of capitalism.
The federal government has been engaging in several endeavors to assist the working class through national legislation concerned with labor laws, and by influencing public opinion by peaceful legal methods that appear to be categorically favoring the organized labor. This is the reason why the national government supports the labor organizations. As a result, labor organizations have continued to grow year by year.
The average annual union membership has been increasing since the year 1870. Empirical data indicate that apart from agricultural workers, the number of industrial workers has been increasing with a corresponding increase in union membership. In the year 1870, the number of workers in the industrial sector was just over six million with a three hundred thousand membership subscription in the union.
The figure has continued to increase thereby realizing the twenty five million mark by the year 1910, with an eight percent subscription to the union (Document A).
We will write a custom Essay on Industrialization after the Civil War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the workers union has been engaged in national political issues such that it has been able to make decisive steps in determining who gets what in the national politics. The leaders of these unions have been engaging in battles with political parties urging them to respect workers rights and enhance their welfare.
There are also many employment malpractices that the workers’ union addressed. They include issues such as underpayment and poor working conditions. This is because many workers were forced into very cheap labor, of which they would be forced to quit should they feel otherwise (Document D).
For instance, Pullman trial describes the plight of Theodore Rhodie, a painter who tried to explain the reason that made him strike. His daily wages continued to diminish; he was being abused by his employers. At the same time, Rhodie owed his grocer and butcher some debt. As a matter of fact, together with his fellow workers, Rhodie could barely make a living out of their daily wages (Document E).
Many people would also champion for farmers rights as evidenced by William Jennings Bryan, in his July 9, 1896 speech at the Democratic National Convection, in Chicago. In this particular speech, Jennings explains why agriculture is such an important tool to the American society. He disputes with certain ideologies that the large cities have been built by gold. Rather he says that if one destroys the cities, they will grow again as if by magic, because of agriculture (Document F).
Conclusion The civil war acted as the impetus of industrialization as the United States developed into the leading industrialized nation on the globe. Due to this industrialization, there arose many conflicts between workers and their employers. This is because the capitalist employers did not do much to solve the problems of the lives their workers lived.
Thus workers union was formed to champion for the rights of workers. This resulted into the harmonization of the relationship between the workers, farmers and employers, a relationship that continues to prevail until now.
Works Cited Document A: source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. Union Membership, 1870-1910.
Document D: source: 1892 Populist Party Platform in Omaha, Nebraska.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrialization after the Civil War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Document E: source: Pullman Trial 1894.
Document F: source: William Jennings Bryan, July 9, 1896, at the Democratic National Convention, Chicago.
Liu, Henry. “The Shape of US Populism: Part II: Long term effects of the Civil War.” Independent Critical Analysis and Commentary, March 14, 2008. 15 Jan. 2011.
Types of Learning Theories and Models Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Introduction The brain is by far the most complex organ in the human body. Its ability to receive, decipher, and store massive amounts of information is to say the least amazing. Over the years scientists and other medical practitioners have dedicated their time and resources into trying to understand how it works, what makes it work and how it relates and functions with other organs in the human physiology. As such, they have developed theories that indeed help divide it according to various parts and their functionality.
As a result, in-depth research has ensued as pertaining to how the brain processes our thoughts, assists in locomotion and most importantly how it helps us learn and actually retain knowledge and experience. An individual’s ability to learn and retain most of the knowledge greatly depends on the learning model adopted.
Using the case provided, this study shall focus on the creation and retention of memory as some of the core functions of the brain. Using documented proof, the discussion shall set to ascertain the fact that human memory does indeed comprise multiple cognitive systems as regarding to the different types of learning theories and models.
Every field of research must always have a main focus through which questions and answers for that particular study are structured and provided. This having being said, learning research evolves around the belief that there are different types of memory systems that are interconnected and interact with each other to provide a particular outcome.
Additionally, these systems are sub divided into those that handle long- term memories and those that are in charge of short- term memories. The task, hence, is not to define the mechanism of memorizing events and thing, but to explain why some events fail to be remembered by a person.
Learning models Contrast and compare of learning models in relation to analyze the case
The process of learning implies memorizing and retaining events and models of behavior, which enables individuals to change and adjust to new conditions. With regard to the case studying the problems of memorizing and rejecting the experience, it is purposeful to study Freud’s regression theory of human behavior and Skinner’s theory of behavior science, particularly the study of reinforcement that shapes the occurrence of particular behavior patterns (Chance, 2008, p. 160).
Freudian theory of resurgence, or regression, is the recurrence of reinforced behavior that is attached to a tendency to use more primitive modes of behavior because the new ones turn out to be unacceptable in particular situations. In psychology, this learning mode takes place when the actions performed are removed from our consciousness to an unconscious state. Hence, if a particular model of behavior fails to be effective in a situation, it will continue to decrease in frequency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This pattern of learning and behavior can be interpreted as a defense mechanism being a particular form of adjusting to a situation. Unlike Freud, Skinner insists on the fact that reinforcement, but not extinction, can also lead to a failure to adjust to new forms of behavior, if the reinforcement is negative (Chance, 2008, p. 157).
Apparently, negative experience stimulates the removal or even avoidance of an adverse event. Skinner’s theory is apposed to Freud’s position about the defense mechanism. In particular, reinforcement facilitates the frequencies of behavior whereas the process of extinction leads to a decrease in the behavior frequency.
Extinction makes an individual return to previously established patterns via the decrease of using new methods whereas reinforcement lies in strengthening the existing behavior pattern. In both cases, both reinforcement and extinction lead to a decline in a future probability of an occurrence of new models of behavior.
Analyzing the case under consideration, both theories explain the problem of memory loss, but differently. In particular, Maura’ problem is closely connected with reinforcement and extinction procedures serving as a defense mechanism. Memory loss, therefore, occurs when she encounters a negative experience and, on the contrary a negative experience occurs when she is disappointed by the relationships with her partner.
Such reactions and process are also associated with the specifics of memory systems that include patterns of perceptual learning, and emotional responses (Nevid, 2008, p. 189). In order to explain the problem, it is necessary to analyze the case from the viewpoint of memory organization.
Judging from the case, Maura repeats certain patterns of behavior due to the inability to adjust to new experience, or due to the ignorance of other models of behavior.
She refuses to remember previous behavior patterns because her episodic memory is unable to accumulate experience for constructing a successive chain of life episodes (Chance, 2008, p. 335). The reason for such disorganization can lie in Maura’s reluctance to endeavor negative experience once more.
We will write a custom Essay on Types of Learning Theories and Models specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Explaining the case problems with regard to a particular model
After considering both theories thoroughly, it is quite challenging to decide which learning mode explains best the case. In particular, Freudian theory of resurgence explains why Maura constantly returns to previous pattern of behavior and, in this respect, Maura’s loss of memory can be explained as her desire to return to initially established repetitive patterns and inability to switch from psychological form to another.
Skinner’s model also manages to provide an explanation to Maura’s losses of memory through reinforcement of negative experience.
Hence, when Maura finds out that her partner fails to make a greater romantic commitment, which is a negative condition for her, she tries to do everything possible to stop the influence of bad experience. In other words, loss of memory is strengthened by the consequence of avoiding hurt and disappointment in relations.
The above-presented considerations show that Skinner’s model is more consistent in explaining the mechanism of Maura’s action because it explains why she makes use of the same patterns and why she is unable to adjust to changes. Moreover, Skinner’s theory also explains why Maura resorts to the same actions.
Designing a Modification Program for a Patient Using Skinner’s Model
Due to the fact that Skinner’s theory of learning and behavior is based on using past patterns and consequences as the trigger of future actions, it is necessary to work out a modification plan that would impose change on initially established patterns of behavior that will enable Maura to employ new forms of learning.
A particular emphasis should be made on acquiring experience of past events and changing patterns in accordance with that experience. The starting point should be placed at the moment when Maura seeks to find a greater romantic commitment from her partner. This is the stage when it is necessary to introduce another factor impelling the patient to make other decisions.
According to Skinner, it is possible to shape another learning approaching by means other methods of reinforcement. For example, it would be purposeful to understand the reason why Maura choose a particular type of partners and why she wants them to be romantically oriented.
Considering Ethical Issues While Choosing a Modification Plan
Certainly, every aspect of psychological development of individuals must be considered with regard to ethical issues. In this respect, language is the core in designing a modification plan because it depends on cultural, social and, emotional acceptance of individuals’ actions (Wierzbicka, 1986, p. 593).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Types of Learning Theories and Models by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The assumption that human emotions are universal and they do not depend on cultures and, therefore, language should not affect psychological state of the patient under consideration. Aside from language consideration, it is also necessary to analyze morale with regard to psychology. In particular, a modification plan will take morality and human emotions in the deepest consideration to cognize Maura’s memory systems.
Conclusion Learning and behavior are closely interconnected as learning is acquired through experience which shapes behavioral patterns. Inability to learn and gain experience leads to returning to repetitive patterns. In this study, I set out to explore life experiences of Maura and how various learning models can explain her predicaments.
In order to explain the reasons of the presented pathology, the presented modification plan has been based on Skinner’s theory of behavior disclosing the role of positive and negative reinforcements in shaping behavioral patterns.
Although both, Freudian and Skinner’s models have efficiently justified the cases, Maura’ problem will be solved with the help of the latter as memory loss is closely connected with negative reinforcement. In particular, the presented program will be aimed at shifting from using negative reinforcement to positive one.
Reference List Chance, P. (2008). Learning and behavior: Active Learning Edition. US: Cengage Learning.
Nevid, J. S. (2008). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. US: Cengage Learning.
Wierzbicka, A. (1986). Human Emotions: Universal or Culture Specific? American Anthropologist. 88(3), pp. 584-594.