In Trinidad and Tobago the spiraling crime situation has been committed predominately by young males. This study focuses on the relationship between the violence in schools and the crime situation in the wider society in Trinidad.
By curbing school violence it will greatly reduce the criminal activities occurring in society. Studies have shown that young minds are easier to mould rather than adult minds. This strategy is a proactive measure in the reduction in the level of crime in society.
Violence in schools has been a reflection of on the level of crime in the society in Trinidad. Early research has shown that Trinidad was a crime free country, a paradise, where crime was not a concern.
Today, crime is the number one problem which faces the government and people of Trinidad and Tobago. The escalating crime rate in the country affects the economy (investments, business, tourism), society well being and safety. Violence in school was not seen as a contributing factor for crime among male students.
The point in focus is the supervision of young male secondary students from the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years which is lacking at their homes and at schools over the years.
Review of literature
School violence in Trinidad have become a serious problem with most recent out breaks of violence among rival schools in El Dorado especially where weapons such as guns or knives are involved. It incorporates violence among school students as well as physical attacks by students on the school staff members. The latest incident of school violence in Trinidad was in November where two secondary school students were stabbed to death by fellow students on separate occasions. Four students from the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years from secondary schools are in police custody at present for these murders.
Due to the escalating crime situation in Trinidad and Tobago the Government seeks to identify and implement both proactive and reactive strategies in combating crime. By analyzing the lives of male criminals and their physiological development at the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years we can minimize the likelihood of them becoming criminals. By analyzing the students’ family situations, their discontentment with education, parental involvement, the physiological influence by violence in the media and effect of poverty we can determine the likelihood of students becoming violent.
Many of them are from single parent families most often without fathers and with working mothers. A recent study suggest that “Teens from single-parent or stepparent homes are more likely to commit a school crime (possess, use or distribute alcohol or drugs; possess a weapon; assault a teacher, administrator or another student) than teens from intact homes.” (Orr 41)
The current Euro-centric education system does not provide young people with the imperative paraphernalia, discipline and self awareness to survive in the world today. After many years, some children in the public schools are allowed to pass through the school system without gaining a proper education. However, these students find themselves as a social drain on the economy being unemployed, unaccepted and unsuited to society. These persons have a lack of self confidence and find themselves in a total failure syndrome with no way out and nowhere to turn. They in turn hate the education system that did this to them. In their limited reasoning capability they feel that revenge is the only way of curbing their downfall and resorts to violent behavior.
Patricia Neufeld conducted an experiment proving that parent involvement causes the reduction of aggression in students to become violent. The experiment concluded that parental involvement was positively correlated with positive student attitudes towards schools and negatively correlated with problem behaviors such as school violence and aggression (Neufeld).
Parents who are aware of how their children feel about school can assist them in solving the problems that they may be facing before these children become violent (Neufeld). A child whose parents are readily available for him/her is less likely to hold resentment towards their parents, and take their aggression out on classmates at school. Parents need to be more involved in their children’s’ lives and become familiar with their feelings to decrease the animosity that their children feel towards them, so that anger is not brought to school the environment.
Violence in schools has risen from one-on-one hand fights for personal disagreements to all-out, deadly weapon assaults on innocent lives for no good reasons. This is due to the effects of the society, media content, video games and other factors, especially movies and television. The violence shown on recent movies portrays gruesome acts by criminal minds. This is in such detail that we feel and see all angles of the crime. The news media broadcast murders, serious crimes and other heinous activities on a daily basis. These broadcast has become commonplace in the everyday society as it is so frequent. Forty years ago a fist-fight between two individuals was an uncommon and extreme violent act in schools. However, at the present time extreme violence is shown so prominently and graphically every day, however, the escalation in school violence by the impressionable youth who look and copy from it should follow that direction.
The effects of poverty on the student would enable them to commit acts of violence on order to appease the lack of financial stability at home. Students that generally grow up in repressed areas such as Betham Gardens in Trinidad may be likely to commit acts of violence. Studies have shown that the lower socioeconomic class is more likely to engage in criminal activity than those who are financially well-off. The economic inequality which exists in Trinidad is a major contributor to numerous criminal issues.
This study would be based on the effects of violence among young male secondary school students from the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years in Trinidad and the tendency to commit crimes. It would involve a cross sectional survey. Eligible schools within the eight counties of Trinidad would form the sample frame. There are one hundred and four secondary schools with approximately twelve hundred children each, approximately half are males between the ages of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years. One in every three schools from each county would be chosen randomly.
The police reports within the time frame of four years would be examined on the students that are being profiled.
The Curepe Junior Secondary School was selected as the pilot test and of the survey. It was found that twenty six persons had violent conduct record at the school. Seven of them were arrested by the police custody two for serious crimes and the other five for petty crimes.
Number of Schools
Number of Schools selected
The figures given above are used to illustrate the sampling method that would be applied.
The thirty three schools (33) were chosen using the stratified random sampling method. The instrument that would be used for the survey is a questionnaire, police criminal records and schools records from the Ministry of Education. The questionnaire would contain questions on age, ethnicity, family status, area of residence, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, drug use, gang affiliation, educational status and potential aggression.
All male secondary school students between the ages of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years old with records of violent conduct from January 2005 to January 2009 would be surveyed by way of questionnaire. These students’ names would be cross reference with that of the Police Criminal Records to indicate the number of persons involve in serious crimes. These students will be selected from the school records at the Ministry of Education with permission from the Minister of Education responsible for all schools in Trinidad, also from the Minister of National Security responsible for violence and crime.
The ethical issues raised were that the privacy of student’s record was reviewed in order to carry out the exercise. The parents of students, students and principals of schools were assured that the information would be kept confidential by way of a sworn document. However, person who refused to take part in the survey and persons who do not return the questionnaire will simply not be considered.
The information collected through the survey would be inputted into a computer system where the statistical analysis will be performed using a computer program (SPSS). This program would give the results which would show the relationship between violence among young male secondary students from the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years and the escalated crime situation present in Trinidad.
The results obtained from this analysis would be use to see if the hypothesis stands of should be rejected.
Recommendations and Conclusion
Based on the results obtained from the study, conclusions can be made with respect to the relationship between violence among young male secondary students from the age of twelve to seventeen (12-17) years and the escalated crime situation present in Trinidad. This study can be extended to the wider Caribbean.
-Please tick the box corresponding to your response:
-Please write on line space provided.
Name of School……………………………………………..
Age:………… Date of Birth…………………
Ethnicity: African Indian Chinese Mix Other
How much quality time do your parents/ guardians spend with you?
A lot Fair amount Minimal None
Living With: Both Parents Single Parent (Father) Single Parent (Mother)
Grandparents Step parents
Living Standard: Rich Middleclass Poor
Do you: Smoke Cigarettes Use Drugs
Are you affiliated with a gang: Yes No
Have you ever been arrested by the police Yes No
Is there domestic violence at your home: Yes No
What is your standard of school work: Excellent Very Good Good Fair
How quickly do you become aggressive: Easily Moderate Rarely
On a scale of 1 to 10 how do you rank the stress level experienced daily at home? ……………
On a scale of 1 to 10 how do you rank the stress level experienced daily at school? ……………
Have any of your parents or other family members been involved in serious crimes?
Donald Orr, “Premature Sexual Activity as an Indicator of Psychosexual Risk, Pediatrics, 87:2, Feb. 1991, 141-7, as cited in Free Teens “Deciding Your Future” multi-media presentation.
Neufeld, Patricia “School Violence – Finding Solutions.” www.123HelpMe.com. 25 Nov 2009
Harris, Chyrise “Alternatives to Profiling in Preventing SchoolViolence. ”http://writing.colostate.edu/gallery/talkingback/v2.1/harris.htm. 25 Nov 2009
Cima Defines Management Accounting As The Process Of Identification Accounting Essay
Accounting is the methodical or precise recording, reporting, and assessment of financial deals and transactions of a business. Accounting also involves the preparation of statements or declarations concerning assets, liabilities, and outcomes of operations of a business
CIMA defines Management Accounting as the process of identification, measurement, calculation, analysis, preparation, interpretation and communication of information used by management to plan, evaluate and control within an entity and to ensure appropriate use of and accountability for its resources. An important contrast between the two segments of accounting is that management accounting is not mandatory in the sense that a company is free to do as much or as little as it likes and no regulatory bodies or agencies specify what is to be done, or, for that matter, whether anything is to be done at all.
The sole objective of management accounting is to provide the managers with a detailed analysis of the cost incurred and to assist them develop strategies to increase profits and
reduce costs. Costing is a function which links both financial and management accounting. Without proper product cost information a manufacturing, wholesale or retail organization would be unable to segregate the cost of sold and unsold outputs. Such segregation is essential to obtain periodic profitability measurement.
Introduction of finance Finance can be defined as the art and science of managing money. Virtually all individuals and organization earn or raise money and spend or invest money. Finance is concerned with the process, institutions, markets and instruments involved in the transfer of money among and between individuals, business and governments.
Finance, in another word, can be defined as the management of the flows of money through an organization, whether it be a corporation, school, bank, or government agency. Finance concerns itself with the actual flows of money as well as any claims against money.
The term financial management, managerial finance, corporate finance, and business finance are virtually synonymous and are used interchangeably, most of the managerial finance.
Finance is regarded as the life-blood of the business unit. This function involves planning, procurement and effective utilisation of the funds of the business.
Relationship Between finance and accounting Finance concerns with account because financial accounting is one branch of accounting. Accounting relates to booking of the historical transaction of an organization and it leads to preparation of financial status of the company stating that asset and what liabilities are held by the entity as on the day when relevant period like a year ends i.e. Balance Sheet
Financial status is concluded from the accounting records (i.e. balance sheet, profit and loss account). Account keeps the record of the organizations income, expenditure, asset liabilities and by evaluating those transactions finance makes the decision for investment like where to invest? How much funds to invest? Etc. In a short form we can say that where account ends of keeping records, finance starts the work by evaluating them.
Finance is connected with accounting. The accounting process produces one of the essential raw materials needed to make financial decisions, financial data. Accounting is a tool for handling only the financial aspects of business operations. It is geared to the financial ends of business only because these are measurable on the scale of money values. The distinction between financial management and management accounting is semantic one, but the gap between the two is rapidly closing. Financial management, however, has the broader meaning of planning and control of all activities by financial means, while management accounting originally meant the internal management of finance. The accountant devotes his attention to the collection and presentation of financial data. The financial officer evaluates the accountant statements, develops additional data and arrives at decisions based on his analysis. As a matter of fact, sound financial management is a matter of good accounting
Accounting and Finance is a very important function of any business either for profit making or for non-profit making institutions. It provides an avenue where a business analyses its operations in terms of what they own, what comes and what goes out. This write-up looks deeper into the accounting and financial processes in an organization and the problems associated with these processes. The introduction part tries to look into the meaning of accounting and finance and the processes involved in each case. The main discussion focuses on deeper diagnosis of the problems encountered in accounting and financial processes.
Functions of the business The function of a business can be divided into two parts.1) Primary function 2) secondary function
Primary function is a function of that kind which is needed basically to operate an organization. The primary function of business can be divide into these parts
Finance function: finance is regarded as the life blood of the business unit. This function involves planning, procurement and effective utilization of the funds of business. Without finance function it is not possible to run a business
Production function: The function of production involves making or production of a product or creating services by using human resource, raw materials and capital. A number of process, technology, and techniques are use for production. It entails plant location and layout, plant building, production planning and quality control. For the production function it involves with human resource function and finance function of business. Since production helps in the creation of utilities, this has been considered as the most important function of the business.
Marketing functions: this function is primarily linked with the distribution of manufactured product or services. It involves with the sale of the product. For that function it uses human resource and finance. For smooth marketing of the product, the marketing manager decides on the product, its packing and branding, deciding the distribution channel and promoting the future sales.
Secondary function of the business is accounting. When a business comes in an operation, it has its some transactions of income and expenditures. Those transactions lies in accounting function of the business. The secondary function can be divided into these parts
Collect and analyze data from business transactions.
Keep transactions according to system of accounting
Prepare financial statements
Send the report to other departments of the business.
Relating finance with other business functions Financial management is an integral part of overall management. It is not a totally independent. Finance is omnipresent and it is associated with the plans and results of every functional department because every proposal and every decision entails financial problems or has an influence on financial results. it is closely associated with economics, accounting and interfaces with such areas as marketing, production, human resource management and quantitative techniques.
Finance and economics:
Finance and economics are closely related. Economics as defined by economist is the study human’s behavior in producing, exchanging, and definition the materials, goods and services he wants. The definition is somewhat similar to our definition of finance. Finance might be viewed as the study of economics events in which it is possible to put a rupee sign on the transaction. In this context, finance is an application of economics. The individual interested in making financial decision is well served by having a sound foundation in economics. The link between economics and financial management is close. A study of financial management is likely to be barren if it is divorced from the study of economics. Financial management has, in fact, evolved over the years as an autonomous branch of economics.
. Finance and marketing:
Financial management is intimately related with marketing. The financial manager while formulating credit and collection policies for the firm must consult the marketing manager because these policies directly affect magnitude of sales of the firm. Whether to sell for credit, to what extent and on what terms are parts of the sales strategy of a firm. But they have financial implications too because the funds will be tied up in receivables must be made available and any shift in policies will affect on receivables. Thus this aspect of business decisions involves both sales and finance. Alongside this, the financial manager will have to draw upon the fundamentals of marketing while deciding whether to invest funds in a given business enterprises and in discovering how to market stocks and bonds (R.M. srivastava; 1986). What marketing personnel forecast, the financial manager then determines the financial dimension of the forecasts.
Finance and Production Function:
Financial management is also closely associated with production functions. Any changes in the production functions may necessitate capital expenditures, which the financial manager must evaluate and finance. He is primarily responsible for supplying funds to finance inventory and fixed assets, which must earn sufficient return to cover the cast involved in procuring funds.
Finance and human resources management:
Human resources management, the management of investment in personnel or employees has important financial considerations. At the organizational level, financial manager must decide whether it would be profitable to finance special training for employees or not.
Finance and Quantitative techniques:
Financial management is also closely related with quantitative techniques. The advance study of finance requires considerable sophistication in quantitative methods. An understanding of statistical techniques appears to be especially valuable since May financial decisions rely on observing relationship and acting on the basis of these relationships.
Cash at bank
Interest in debenture
Profit and loss appropriation account
Trial Balance Adjustments Closing stock at the end of the year was of £ 30000
Provide Depreciation on building at 5% and machinery at 10% and provision for doubtful debts to be maintained at 5% on sundry debtors
Outstanding salary was £2000 and wages were prepaid for £ 3000
The Directors decided to pay 10% dividend on paid up capital and transfer £10,000 to the reserve fund out of profit.
To stock 1-1
To fuel, power
To wages 20000
Less, pre-paid 3000
To gross profit c/d
By closing stock
830000 830000 Total 830000