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Importance of the Great Exhibition of 1851

Provide some details of the Great Exhibition of 1851, and say why it was so important.
The Great Exhibition of 1851 was the world’s first world exposition. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London. The 1851 was means the years and The Great Exhibition of 1851 was from 1 May to 11 October 1851. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was mainly focus on the world’s cultural and industrial technology. In The Great Exhibition 1851, Britain wanted to tell all of the public, the success of the achievement after The Industrial Revolution, and that were to become a prevalent 19th-century feature. The Great Exhibition was enormously influential on the development of many aspects of society including art and design education, international trade and relations, and even tourism.
The Great Exhibition 1851 was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch, Queen Victoria. The aim of this activities was to celebrate the new trend of modern industrial technology and design. Maybe due to the Prince and the Queen’s aides very enthusiastic to promote this fair can be profitable, finally persuaded the British government on January 3, 1850 Royal Commission was set up to organized the Expo 1851, Accordingly greatly enhance the feasibility of the plan, and this committee Britain was included most prestigious engineers Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
The Crystal Palace was very important for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Joseph Paxton’s design is inspired by the Amazon water lily Victoria, found the water lily can support huge leaves, when Joseph Paxton checking underneath, there are radiation-like elongated blade support ribs hard to obtain a design inspired, and application in architecture.
Joseph Paxton’s plan for the garden, fountains, terraces, small waterfalls and other skills was very good, in this Crystal Palace have many elm was planted, acreage approximately nine acres. The Crystal Palace also has a lot of small fountains and waterfalls, the highest up to 250 feet height, initial water tower construction as load-bearing problems and collapse, after deliberations , the two powerful towers, is divided into three reservoirs, namely the north and the south end of the place, as well as the central part of the garden, to spread the weight. The main idea is to find the power structure, durability, simplicity and speed.
Firstly, The Crystal Palace was a famous building in the Great Exhibition of 1851, The Crystal Palace was made by iron and glass. The building used the area of nine hundred thousand square feet, the equivalent of eighty-four thousand square meters of glass or eight half-standard football field. Included the iron prop have three thousand three hundred, Iron beams two thousand three hundred and covers seventy-four thousand square meters, width and length are about 408 feet, 1851 feet equivalent to 125 meters, 564 meters, has around 3-story building. This is a very extensive building in 19th-century.
Secondly, This design and building were very fashionable and originality on 19th-century. Since
It is an important symbol of the Industrial Revolution, it was originally pavilion for the first time in 1851 World Expo held in London, the official name of this World’s Fair Exposition of Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations. In five months, from May to October 1851, six million visitors throng the gigantic trade show, marveling over the latest technology as well as displays of artifacts from around the world. Until to 1936, the Great Exhibition had previously attracted numerous various social classes of tourists come to visit.
Thirdly, World Expo visit year only six months, the building was supposed to be disposed. But but the final decision was made to subvert by parliament, Within two years, meet again by Queen Victoria opening ceremony this was long-term exhibition, for London, especially the addition of the two railway stations. this is one of the still running Crystal Palace railway station now, another station is the gateway to the parade area, today all of the passengers can still see its Italian style mosaic roof.
Finally, Among the exhibits, almost every Victorian’s generation left are surprising for the visitors, there are included pottery, porcelain field, iron factories, steam hammer, hydraulic, perfume, pianos, houses, diving gear, guns, barometers, Textiles and fireworks etc.
On the other hand, The Crystal Palace was have a lot other problems to affect contemporary design and develop the building.
Firstly, in the items of the materials, the traditional earth, wood, brick, stone was replaced by iron and glass. Although is not of the first to used iron as a building material, however, used the iron prefabricated frame was unprecedented. Its effects open to suspicion since it is a unprecedented case, they can not have a successful case to support they when they are develop the building.
Secondly, in terms of construction, traditional brick and stone stack technology is rivet, sleeve and screw fittings, fasteners replaced as the house as a machine to install. It is an unsafe practice as the Crystal Palace has around 3-story building and mainly items of the materials were a iron and glass, the Crystal Palace have a lot of visitors to visit, so the structure of the building must be very safety.
Finally, In November 1936 the Crystal Palace was tragically destroyed in a spectacular fire. the Crystal Palace was made by iron and glass which are building materials. When the light from the sun is direct exposure on the Crystal Palace, it will initiate a fire and the iron is not to receive a high temperature, it is easy to become deformed. The result is the fire will spread so fast.
However, Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, Australia Expo again inherited the London Crystal Palace style. The difference is mainly due to Crystal Palace is not a permanent building, the main materials were iron and glass, all set up was for the convenience and short-term used, was not a long-term used and was not a one of the Exhibition Building.
World Expo and a number of cities in Europe after several decades of years, many of the pavilion type buildings are modeled on glass frame structure by Crystal Palace. Royal Exhibition Building is a permanent building with solid walls and roof. Until today, the Royal Exhibition Building is still standing in the Riccarton Park Melbourne. A hundred years ago, making it increasingly fascinating Victorian’s elegance. In all of the buildings in Melbourne, its influence comparable to stabilizer. In June 2004, Royal Exhibition Building was included in the World Heritage List of the United Nations, Australia has become the only ranked as the world’s cultural heritage buildings.
The Crystal Palace in London had only provided a venue for the Expo exhibits show, but has become the first World Expo of the most successful works and exhibits, it not only witnessed to the infinite glory of the Victorian era has also become a symbol of the world exposition. Today, the modern city building is very fast, however, if we can careful to inquiry, we can observe many of today’s building materials and methods are within from the impact of the Crystal Palace, Although The Crystal Palace was a historical buildings, yet in a different form changing Joseph Paxton’s creative ideas. In this sense, the “Crystal Palace” is still alive in our side, and will long continue.

Use of Porosity in Public Spaces

Introduction
The connection between the built and the unbuilt / between the “indoor” and the “outdoor”/ between the mass and the void is a very sensitive and debatable topic.
The experience of a space can be severely affected by the ways its edges are treated, i.e. by controlling how a person enters/exits the space. Transitional experience plays a vital role in overall feel and experience of spaces. Different types of spaces require different types of treatments on their edge conditions.
Porosity is one of the many guiding factors in designing a space, specially public places, which are the key strategic spaces in providing the area/city its character.
Not only does careful design of such spaces increase the aesthetic quality of the place, but also plays a major role in increasing the standards of functionality, safety, quality and many such factors under which a city can be categorised. Porosity, is one spatial quality that can definitely benefit the public spaces, specially in places like Delhi, where the individual is getting isolated from the community in his efforts to cope up with the pace of life that the city has to offer.
Also, with the increasing gap between the two extreme income groups of the city, the spaces, which are meant to be ‘public’, cater only to a certain section of the society, neglecting those which fail to fulfil the ‘entrant requirements’ .
Apart from giving spaces back to all the sections of the society, increasing porosity in community spaces can also act as a measure against increasing crime rates in the city, as it opens up the space to a larger section of the society.
Topic: Porosity in public spaces
Research Question: How can porosity in public spaces be increased to enhance their utility for the society in general ?
Public Spaces
Public spaces are an inevitable component of human settlements. Parks, plazas, roads, beaches, etc are typically considered public spaces. They are the common ground for people to interact with others, share knowledge or goods, or carry out their daily rituals, be it daily routine or occasional festivities. By definition, they are spaces that should be accessible to all the members of the society, irrespective of their economic strength.
It was stated that:
Regarding the criterion of access, public space is a place which is open to all. This means its resources, the activities that take place in it, and information about it are available to everybody. Concerning the criterion of agency, public space is a place controlled by “public actors” (i.e., agents or agencies that act on behalf of a community, city, commonwealth or state) and used by “the public” (i.e., the people in general). As for interest, public space is a place which serves the public interest (i.e., its benefits are controlled and received by all members of the society) (Akkar, Z 2005).

Of course, these definitions refer to an ideal public space, while the urban atmosphere is not entirely composed of rigidly public and private spaces; instead, it is an amalgamation of public and private spaces with different degrees of publicness. Accepting that the relation between public and private space is a continuum, it is possible to define public spaces as having various degrees of publicness. Regarding the dimensions of access, actor and interest, the extent of publicness will depend on three categories: the degree to which the public space and its resources, as well as the activities occurring in it and information about it, are available to all; the degree to which it is managed and controlled by public actors and used by the public; and the degree to which it serves the public interest.
Life in public spaces, not only has a function in the society as a whole, but it is also a rich source of individual amusement, pleasure and play. One criticism of the prevailing socio-functional approach towards urban public space can be that the individual’s perspective is often disregarded. To what extent do city dwellers like to meet other urbanites in public places? Hardly any planner, architect or urban administrator seems to be interested in that question. Planners and city councils are eager to speak about public spaces as meeting places. They find it an attractive idea to conceive of public spaces as a unifying element where all sectors of the urban population meet. With the help of that image they can present their cities as communities, despite all the contrasts and differences. Most social scientists dealing with urban public space also tend to regard processes that take place in the public realm as a contribution to the social organization, as a fulfilment of societal needs. This top-down-view, however, neglects the daily user’s perspective. Do city dwellers wish to get together with all their co-urbanites? Everybody who has ever been in a city knows the answer: no, certainly not with everyone. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that at least some individuals derive great pleasure from being in public.
Whether a space will function well depends on a range of aspects that include scale, use, safety and comfort, density and links. In many cases it is the individual’s experience of walking or dancing down a street, and the quality of environment, that is the most important element. Design then becomes about maximizing choice and trying to provide for different individuals’ goals.
Problems with public spaces
Despite the resurgence of interest in public spaces, urban design and planning litera- ture has frequently hinted at the diminishing “publicness” of public spaces in modern cities. Some researchers have pointed out the threat of recent privatization policies, and claimed that public spaces, traditionally open to all segments of the population, are increasingly being developed and managed by private agencies to produce profit for the private sector and serve the interests of particular sections of the population (Punter, J 1990). Others have commented on the high degree of control now maintained over access and use of public spaces through surveillance cameras and other measures intended to improve their security (Reeve, A 1996). Still others have argued that contemporary public spaces increasingly serve a “homogenous” public and promote “social filtering.”
These open-access public spaces are precious because they enable city residents to move about and engage in recreation and face-to-face communication. But, because an open-access space is one everyone can enter, public spaces are classic sites for “tragedy,” to invoke Garrett Hardin’s famous metaphor for a commons (H, Garrrett 1968, cited Ellickson, R 1996)
A space that all can enter, however, is a space that each is tempted to abuse. Societies therefore impose rules-of-the-road for public spaces. While these rules are increasingly articulated in legal codes, most begin as informal norms of public etiquette (Taylor, R 1984, cited Ellickson, R 1996). Rules of proper street behaviour are not an impediment to freedom, but a foundation of it (Ellickson, R 1996)

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