Education is a dynamic process occurring in a continually changing context. The nature and structure of education is influenced by and intertwined with the society, culture and community of which it is a part. In recent decades education has changed significantly. Welch (2013) argues these changes have been affected by “forces well outside education – and all too often, it seems, according to principles that have little to do with education” (p.187). Today, more than ever, education functions within a highly political context involving a large range of stakeholders both from outside and inside education (Meadmore, 1999). In addition to students and parents, these stakeholders include “communities, governments, political parties, industry and commerce” (Meadmore, 1999, p.3). Each stakeholder seeks to influence the direction and outcomes of education so that their own agendas are met. The organisation and implementation of education continues to be widely debated. Education now operates in a complex context which is influenced by political and economic pressures at both national and global levels. This report discusses the emergence and rise of neoliberalism that has resulted in a refocussing of priorities in education policies and practices.
2. Changing concept of education
The concept of education and the learning that is offered continually evolves. Education plays a significant role in supporting society to develop and gain the knowledge, skills and attributes a society seeks at a particular time. During the 19th century educating children was significantly influenced by industrialisation and a rapidly growing population. Less child labour was required and, in the name of progress, children were educated to become literate and moral citizens who could contribute to society by providing labour in the work force (Meadmore, 1999). During the latter part of the 19th century in Australia, state-funded education through legislation became available to the masses, which was “free, secular and compulsory” (Meadmore, 1999, p.4). The turn of the century saw educational reformists beginning to argue for the need for compulsory secondary education in order to strengthen communities and build the nation. However, educational inequities in opportunities and outcomes remained. The model of education available at this time was not one of equality and inequities continued on the basis of “class, gender, race and geographic location” (Bottrell
Impacts of Gender Inequality in Education
Many powerful and inspirational women throughout history have created much change in the past and present Along with making many societies and countries more advanced. Though women have created many inventions, artwork, and many other incredible things, it wasn’t and still isn’t so easy for them to get the same equality as men. Since the beginning, women and men have been two different categories. Men being the ones who provide for his family and his community by doing all the hard work. Women, however, were seen as not having much of a purpose besides to cater to men and obey their commands. Men’s roles are ‘glorified’ while women’s roles are viewed completely the opposite. Over the centuries, women have been able to fight back, demand better treatment, and be viewed as equal to men. Women have accomplished many things over the years but the fight isn’t over yet. Although women have come a long way, they still have to put up with the traditional views of women, education, and the unequal pay gap between the sexes.
Throughout history, women have been put into a box. Women were to follow certain rules and were to obey men. “Throughout history, women have faced intense discrimination-from a lack of legal rights and very little independence from their husbands, to being taught to have inferior brains in many societies…” (kitch 1). Women have always been beneath men. It has always been a male-dominated world with only having women serve men. Women were always expected to be around, only serve men and provide them serves in order to make the men’s lives a bit better. This box that women have been put into has stopped them being able to advance and be able to have their own mind. The “traditional” view of women has caused them to be viewed as less inferior to men, causing them to be unable to move forward and create a new point of view for women.
By keeping the traditional views/roles of women, society won’t be able to move forward. Women will be only viewed as an object that provides for men. Women will be left to do housework and serve their family and their husbands. “While these stereotypes and ideal roles may seem innocent and harmless, they have a dramatic effect on the everyday lives of people. From personality development to careers and education, gender roles have set boundaries that cause a negative effect on both genders.” (Jones 1). The traditional roles that are expected of women can affect their way of thinking. Women are not expected to think on their own but are expected to obey the commands of men in their families are their husbands. Women can’t have a mind of their own. Due to this, women will never reach the equality they deserve and deserve. Keeping the traditional roles of the sexes can leave women to stay in the spot that society has molded them into. Traditional views of women need to be eliminated from society in order for women to gain or else women will never see equality.
Breaking the traditional norms of women and the roles they play in society can be quite easy especially now in with this new generation. People are beginning to break this outdated view on women and becoming more educated. “…stereotypes are a thing of the past…People adhere to gender roles less strictly than in previous years.” (Bauer and Sandstorm). Women have been able to break away from the traditional views that have prevented them from growing as individuals. By doing so, women can achieve more and have an equal opportunity as men. They can live their lives with more options when the stereotypes of how women have changed from how society would view them as stay-at-home wives/moms. Breaking away from the stereotype, women can create a new look upon themselves and societies and a take a huge step towards change. The tradition of women being viewed as little compared to men is changing little by little and could be the solution to breaking gender inequalities.
Education for women hasn’t always been granted to them. In fact, many women aren’t allowed to reserve the same education as men because women as seen as having an inferior brain compared to men. “Although the world is making progress in achieving gender parity in education, girls still make up a higher percentage of out-of-school children than boys. Approximately one-quarter of girls in the developing world do not attend school.” (Global Issues: Gender Equality and Woman’s Empowerment”). Women are more likely to become school dropouts or not even receive an education in most developing countries. The reasons why women don’t receive the same educational rights as women are because women are expected to attend to their men and provide help around their home. Women aren’t seen as having a successful future compared to men because they are seen as weak and unable to do things the same as a man. Due to this, society sees it best that women stick to their regular routine and stay home so they can serve their men and provide nothing to their families besides serves. Education for many isn’t provided primarily for women due to the harsh views on women.
There are many consequences to women not receiving the same education as men. Women around the world who don’t receive an education face many difficulties that many men won’t have to face. “Because you don’t go to school, you don’t learn to read and write, making you one of the 781 million illiterate women around the world.” (Kooser 1). The number of women who are uneducated suffers from it. Women are unable to do basic requirements that are expected out of people. Without education, women have nowhere to go and have no opportunity for a job. Women only have a choice of staying home and doing housework in order to please her family/husband. Education is a major factor of women being able to control their own minds and actions. By not providing education to women, society will stick to its views of how women in the world should receive and what they shouldn’t. the consequences of women not receiving an education are too high and risk women of not receiving the same respect as men receive in this society.
Although many women don’t receive an education, solutions are in progress. Many countries have stepped up and are providing the women of their countries with better educational resources. “educating women and girls and positive outcomes for maternal health, economic empowerment, and social mobility. Education gives a voice to girls and women in their communities.” (“Global Issues: Gender Equality and Woman’s Empowerment”). By providing women with an education, society can improve and can provide women with an equal opportunity in the world. Education is a major key to the equality of women. Providing women, the same educational chance as men can create a larger economy and job field. The future can be brighter with the help of women. Creating a new outlook on things and bring new ideas never thought of before. Education is the future to a new movement of female empowerment and provides a new equal chance in this world.
Over time, women have been able to get into the work field and be able to provide for themselves. Women can get the same jobs as men and be able to work in any field. Although women can work the same jobs as men and work the same amount of work or even more, women are paid much less. “…women working full time in the United States typically were paid just 80 percent of what men were paid, a gap of 20 percent?” (Miller 2). The pay gap between the two genders is quite big. Women are paid much less compared to men. Women can do the same amount of work as men and still won’t make the same as men who either does the same amount of work or much less. Although women have been able to receive the same job as a man, women still have to face the unequal pay between the sexes. Men receive a bigger salary compared women because men have always been viewed as the ones who need to provide to their family and should be paid. Women have been able to come far from just simple housework to being able to receive the same hard-working job as men. women still, however, don’t receive the same amount of money as men which are a huge problem if there is ever a chance for equality.
The pay gap between the two genders can lead to a tragic future for many women. Women being paid much less than a man can leave women with less money for the future. “… 45-year-old men today who will retire at age 65 will fall $212,256 short, while women will be behind by $268,404.” (Covert 1). Women being paid less can affect them in the long run. When women are older, they won’t be able to provide for themselves like a man could because they’ve been able to earn more money to provide for themselves in the future. If women aren’t paid the same amount as a man, women won’t be able to care for themselves leaving many women to suffer to do them being unable to provide for their health later on. Men being paid more won’t have to worry about not having enough money to be able to provide for themselves, unlike a woman. Equal pay between the two genders can lead to women having an uncertain future. Giving women the same as men can inspire young girls and women to take risks and create change in their society. Without the proper pay and same respect men get, women won’t go far in this society. They’ll be expected to be paid less for the same amount of work simply because they are women. Without it, women will always be seen to society as nothing less than a stereotype that needs to stay home and provide for their men.
Pay between women and men has been changing in some parts of the world. Many places are making a change to the unfair treatment between the two sexes. “Iceland has taken a big step in its attempt to close the gender pay gap by making illegal to pay women less than men for the same job. All companies and government agencies with more than 25 employees must now obtain an official certification to show that they give equal pay for work of equal value. Otherwise, they risk being fined.” (O’kane 1). Countries are taking steps towards change. Women in some countries are now at the same level of pay as men. Having the governments involvement can lead to faster change. Women no longer have to worry about their future and how they’ll be able to provide for themselves. Women are getting closer to receiving the same benefits as men and is a huge step towards equality. By providing women with the same pay, it can show how the two sexes are the same and how women are able to do the same work as men. women gaining the same as a man can create a new view of how women should be treated in their society.
Overall, women have always been treated as lesser than. Women have been shaped into the ideal housewife, to serve men and clean around the house and care for children. But in a new era, women have been able to raise their voice and stand up against social norms. By providing women the same chance as any other man, society can move forward and create a new world where women are placed on the same level as men. Providing women with everything can change the world. Women have been thought to be less inferior than men. The mold that women have been put into has prevented them from building up and making themselves into something much more. Women have to break the mold they’ve been put into in order to gain something from society. Change needs to provide for women in order to thrive and pursue something greater than what society expects from them. In order to create change and move forward, women must break out of the traditional norms of women, equal educational rights for women, and providing women with the same salary as men.
Bauer, Tonya and Carrie Sandstrom. “Breaking down the gender role barriers.” Bismarck tribune. http://bismarcktribune.com/lifestyles/fashion-and-style/breaking-down-the-gender-role-barriers/article_3982bca2-54c7-11e0-94ea-001cc4c03286.html.
Covert, Bryce. “The Lifelong Effects of the Gender Wage Gap.” Think Progress. https://thinkprogress.org/the-lifelong-effects-of-the-gender-wage-gap-8b4d7049c64c/
“Education for Women and Girls is Progress for All on International Women’s Day.” Brookings, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2014/03/07/education-for-women-and-girls-is-progress-for-all-on-international-womens-day/.
“Global Issues: Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment.” Peace Corps. https://www.peacecorps.gov/educators/resources/global-issues-gender-equality-and-womens-empowerment/.
Jones, Amiee. “The Negative Effects of Gender Roles.” Odyssey. https://www.theodysseyonline.com/negative-effects-gender-roles.
Kitch, Sally. “What are the roots of Gender Inequality?” News Wise. https://newswise.com/articles/what-are-the-roots-of-gender-inequality-women-s-rights-race-and-reproduction
Kooser, Allison. “Empowered Women Change the World” Opportunity. https://opportunity.org/news/blog/2017/03/empowered-women-change-the-world?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI8eyMmq6j2QIVB5R-Ch1sJQ2REAAYASAAEgK9RfD_BwE?gclid?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI8eyMmq6j2QIVB5R-Ch1sJQ2REAAYASAAEgK9RfD_BwE?gclid.
Miller, Kevin. “The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap.” AAUW. https://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/.
O’kane, Caitlin. “Women of Iceland are now Required to Earn Equal Pay to Men.” CBS. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/women-of-iceland-are-now-required-to-earn-equal-pay-to-men/.