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Impact of Human Behaviour on the Rise of Superbugs

What type of organisms cause infection and why? Describe with some examples. Are these organisms prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
Some agents that cause infections to the human body are the living organisms of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. Virus’, although they don’t have the characteristics of living things, they too can also cause infections. These organisms cause infection when they are able to enter the body and multiply. We can identify organisms as either eukaryotes or prokaryotes. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, eukaryotes are ‘an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus.’ However, Prokaryotes are slightly different, a prokaryote is ‘a microscopic single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.’ Bacteria is classified as a prokaryote because it does not contain a nucleus. Fungi and protozoa are eukaryotes because their cells contain a nucleus. An example of a bacterium that causes infection could be Mycobacterium. Mycobacterium is commonly known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy in humans. An accurate example of a type of fungi causing an infection would be trichophyton rubrum which causes the infection, athletes foot. Amebic dysentery (bloody diarrhea) is caused by the protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica.
What are antibiotics, what type of infections do they treat and how do they act.
Antibiotics could be defined as a ‘substance that can inhibit or destroy susceptible microorganisms’ as according to the Oxford dictionary. Antibiotics can treat a bacterial infection but cannot treat a viral infection. In response to a bacterial infection, antibiotics can work in three ways to either kill or slow down the production of the bacteria. They act by attacking the cell wall of bacteria or the coating surrounding it. They can stop or slow down the reproduction / multiplying of bacteria. Thirdly they can have a negative effect on the way cells functions by blocking protein production in the bacteria
What is the biological definition of a superbug?
A superbug is usually defined as ‘a microorganism that’s resistant to commonly used antibiotics’ according to The Molecular Bioscience, UQ.
What do you think it means for a disease to be resistant to a drug, such as an antibiotic? List some issues related to treating a disease caused by bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.
Bacteria can adapt and evolve to become resistant to antibacterial drugs. After a bacteria is exposed to an antibiotic the bacteria may change in form so they can, therefore, resist an attack on their cell walls or they will even go to the extent to produce specific enzymes to kill the antibiotics. There are issues that come with antibiotic resistance. For instance, it will take longer for the body to fight off the infection. You become more likely to develop complications in the infection later on. By remaining infected or longer, it increases the likelihood of the infection being transmitted, which magnifies the problem of antibiotic resistance.
Discuss what our lives might be like if most bacteria adapted to the presence of antibiotics and became resistant to them.
It could get to a point in time where most bacteria have evolved to antibiotics and this could have disastrous effects on the world as we know it. It would become too dangerous to perform surgeries such as c-sections or transplants for the fear of developing a superbug infection. If most bacteria became resistant doctors would have fewer antibiotics to draw upon. Humanity would go back to times when there were no such antibiotics and people succumbed to the common infections that are easily treatable right now. The World Health Organisation (WHO) states that ‘antibiotics resistance is one of the greatest threats to global public health today’.
Discuss how human behavior has contributed to the rise of superbugs and how overuse and misuse of antibiotics are risky, both for those who overuse or misuse them for human survival.
The Institute of Molecular Bioscience made a claim that ‘Globally, the major cause of drug resistance is the overuse of the drugs.’ This isn’t specifically targetted at developing countries, India and some small Asian countries are the worst when looking at data for overuse and inappropriate prescription. There are many places around the world where antibiotics are available over the counter. This confuses people into thinking the minute they feel sick that antibiotics can solve that. The Institute of Molecular Bioscience made a further claim stating ‘probably two-thirds of antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed,’ doctors will prescribe antibiotics to someone who has a simple cold or flu. It is believed that doctors may overprescribe antibiotics because the patient may be demanding some sort of medication to make them feel better, or the doctor could possibly feel as if they have to prescribe their patients some sort of medication. Antibiotics are also being widely misused. When patients take antibiotics they are prescribed a dosage. This dosage tells the quantity they are to take for a certain amount of time. People will take the medication until the point where they feel ‘better’ and decide that they don’t need to take the antibiotics anymore, even though they may have for example ? of the prescription left. What they don’t realize is that when they don’t finish they may not have efficiently killed every single bacterium. There may be one or a few still lingering around. These tend to be the strongest bacteria as they have endured for the longest. As soon as the patients stop taking the medication the bacteria begins to multiply again, thus making the person sick again or even sicker than they were before.
Currently, approximately 700 000 people die from superbug infections each year and that number will continue to rise in the future. Discuss two ways Australian (scientists/politicians) are trying to fight the war on superbugs.
One professor at the Unversity of Queensland Institute of Bioscience is dedicating his time to find a way to fight the war on superbugs. Professor Matt Sweet is the director of IMB’s Centre for Inflammation

Generation of ATMP in Cell Metabolism

Cell Metabolism
This essay will examine cell metabolism and in connection to this will be looking to the generation of ATP in metabolism, metabolic pathways and how they are regulated as well as how tricarboxylic acid cycle in generating ATP. To assist with the explanation of diagrams will be throughout.
The term adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used for the processes which energy transferring within cells, this includes the nerve impulses, metabolism functions and preforming muscles contractions. ATP is within the cytoplasm within cells and this is the best location for ATP as it needs to be near all parts of the cell to ensure the energy is beneficial for all chemical and mechanical reactions and it can be generated when it is required. The intermediary molecules build energy of exergonic and endergonic processes which lead to chemical reactions, some of these include fermentation, cellular division, photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. ATP is fulfilled with pentose sugar which is known as ribose along with its base adenine, they make nucleoside adenosine which have three phosphate groups.

Adenine
Phosphate groups
These cannot be broken

Ribose
Although ATP is very important for cells, they only contain a small amount at each time, this is because the cells must recycle it due to cells not importing it. ATP can be produced by several cellular processes which have three pathways in eukaryotes which are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation. The ATP produced by redox reactions also which is by using carbohydrates or fat as a source of energy, fuels like glycogen and starch then need to be broken to smaller molecules as they can be used to synthesise ATP. The oxidation process of glucose which is needed is called cellular respiration which can create 30ATP from one molecule of glucose.
This leads on to metabolic pathway, they help the body’s metabolism function smoothly as different factors can change the body’s metabolism rate for example genes and diseases and life style. The metabolic pathway is connected to cells within the body and the chemical reactions that occurs as it is the reaction chains from where the chemical products become the substrate to the next step. Substrate are transformed chemically through the reactions that belong to one of the two pathways which are the anabolic pathway and the catabolic pathway. Due to complex chemicals that living organisms require the metabolism process is put into different stages so that one reaction can follow another, specific enzymes control each of the reactions and how fast these happen as well as when they happen.
Anabolic pathways need energy which means they change molecules into more complex molecules. An example of this is that amino acids can be used to build carbon dioxide and proteins which can be used to make sugar and nucleic acid, these can then be used to make new DNA strands (These are found in most cells)

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Catabolic pathways are used to release the energy while it breaks down molecules into smaller/simpler molecules. An example of this is cellular respiration, sugar is taken in by the cell and then released into energy.
Many metabolic pathways are self-regulated, this means that if a substance is needed then one of the two pathways are activated so that the substance is produced. The pathway becomes deactivated once the substance has been produced this is due to the enzymes within the metabolic pathway become inhibited by the end which leads to the being lifted or removed however the enzymes could be switched on again for the pathway to begin again. This process is known as negative feedback which is a mechanism used to ensure that homeostasis is maintained within the body. The information found from the end of the pathway is then sent back to the start which leads to a negative effect because it leads to a reduced production rate.
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The end product blocks all five genes transcription. This means no enzymes are produced.

The end product feeds back which inhibited any activity from enzyme 1 which blocks the pathway.
As you can see enzymes play a big part in the bodies metabolism, it is important they are normal and healthy to act in the most beneficial way to the task they need to undertake, there a different conditions however that can influence them and the way the work for example the temperature of the enzymes need to be correct at 35-40 degrees, they also need to be within the correct pH level range as they are healthy if they are not this will lead to the metabolised being halted. Enough energy is needed within them to process with the pathway as if they have no energy the pathway be not be able to happen.
The tricarboxylic acid cycle (The kerbs cycle) is a closed pathway which is enzyme-controlled, its energy is important as it yields the adenosine triphosphate. The cycle has different steps and there is always a supply of electrons being provided to the electron transport chain which then leads to the oxidative phosphorylation process. The cycle happens within the mitochondrion and then follows the processes of link reaction and glycolysis which is from the process of respiration.
There is 1 molecule of oxaloacetate which is important to keep the cycle flowing.
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There are 3 molecules of reduced NAD within the cycle.
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

There are 2 molecules of carbon dioxide within the cycle. (co2)

Oxygen is only required for the final stage of respiration which is oxidative phosphorylation.
There is 1 molecule of reduced FAD within the cycle
(flavine adenine dinucleotide)

There is 1 molecule of ATP(Substrate level phosphorylation)
The cycle must happen twice so that there are 2 molecules of ATP
The cycle is important for removing carbon dioxide so that it does not affect the pH levels which are important for the enzymes and their performance within the body. As well as this the cycle assist with reducing the power so the electron transport chain which produces hydrogen atoms as well as providing different substance such as fatty acids and amino acids. Within the cycle proteins and organic molecules are within the inner membrane or the mitochondria and as electrons pass from one another it causes to a series of redox reactions. The energy releases within the reaction and captures as a proton gradient. This then makes use of the ATP and this together is chemiosmosis. Together the electron cycle and the chemiosmosis make up oxidative phosphorylation. This important to deliver electrons by NADH and FADH, the respiration transfer ensures cellular respiration.
Throughout this essay cell metabolism has been examined especially in connection with ATP and how the metabolic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle work with it. It is important to take this information and look at how individuals’ lifestyles assist with the process of the body’s metabolism as well as how different diseased can prevent it from working to the best ability. The use of diagrams within this essay ensure that that information can be easily understood.

References
ATP: Definition

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