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Identifying Methods and Techniques Used For Training and Appraisal Research Paper

Human resource managers of successful business organizations incorporate proven methods and techniques in training and appraising employees as motivational performance enhancement tools to reap the best benefits.

According to Techniques of Performance Appraisal (2007), various methods and techniques, old and new, exist in pursuing and reaching the desired goals. This is evident with the European pharmaceuticals-distribution group Alliance Unichem. In its distribution channels, Unichem has used a 360 Degree Feedback to establish strong relationship with its employees.

This is manifested in employee development and the organization’s excellent change management initiatives incorporated by the organization’s Human Resource Managers (HRM) in driving change and employee development. According to Techniques of Performance Appraisal (2007), methods are identified as specific tools that perform specific tasks while techniques are ways of working with methods. Techniques are said to comprise a variety of methods.

Appraisal Methods The most important asset a business organization can posses is its human resources. These resources must develop and grow. Therefore training and development needs must be identified and appropriate training techniques and methods used to reach that goal. Old and modern methods are two approaches to methods and techniques for employee training and development.

The article, 11 Performance Appraisal Methods (2005) identifies one of the old methods as essay appraisal. This is a non-quantitative approach for managers to straight ranking where employees are ranked in order of performance i.e. best to worst.

Other techniques and methods include, Paired comparison, Critical Incident method, Field Review, Checklist method, Graphic Ratings scale where a manager reports on observed employee performance, and Forced distribution methods (11 Performance Appraisal Methods, 2005)

Modern methods include Management by objectives (MBO), 360 Degree Appraisal, Assessment centers, behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales, and Human Resource Accounting (11 Performance Appraisal Methods, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unichem’s procedure and 360 Degree Appraisal Business executives who talk about successful organizational HRM initiatives, development, growth and sustainability are actually talking about excellent employee development methods and techniques in achieving the above objectives. This is evident with Unichem. This pharmaceutical company has integrated components of Human Resource Appraisal in its 360 Degree Appraisal methods in carrying out the change that has transformed it to its current position.

Appraisal in this case implies that the Unichem’s HRM established performance appraisal standards in employee resourcefulness in pursuing and meeting the company’s goals and objectives.

The performance standards and expectations are communicated to the employees, actual performance of the employees are measured and compared against the set standards, results are discussed by providing feedback, and decisions are made and corrective action is taken.

This performance appraisal techniques were incorporated in its 360 Degree Appraisal techniques in pursuing employee satisfaction, development, and growth, factors which had real potential impact on the organization’s growth and employee motivation (Techniques of Performance Appraisal, 2007).

This modern approach to appraisal incorporated in Unichem focuses on the employee. One unique Human resource managers met strategy was Unichem’s rating of the organization’s employees. Such rating was accomplished by establishing performance standards that employee’s performance could be measured against.

Feedback was recognized and integrated at all levels of the organization involving managers, subordinates, employees at the same level of work in the organization in addition to senior managers and suppliers. The human resource department of Unichem recognized the benefits of integrating the 360 Degree Appraisal.

According to Performance Appraisal Skills (2009) the benefits reaped by the business concern included improved employee performance, organizational change, increase profits, customer loyalty and improved profits. To integrate the 360 Degree Appraisal, human resource managers noted that the Appraisal technique could help them in conducting regular performance discussions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Identifying Methods and Techniques Used For Training and Appraisal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method helped them identify weaknesses inherent in their employees, and pin point training needs within for their employees. Employee weaknesses could be identified and the best approach to employee training determined. In addition, employee needs and were addressed through this method thus enhancing their working conditions.

The case also illustrates the fact that management had conducted prior research and had effectively implemented the 360 Degree Appraisal method by effectively planning on its integration and implementation into the system, then conducted a thorough review of the method before implementing it.

According to Performance Appraisal Skills (2009), excellence was marked in the human resource management by their ability to pilot study the system to evaluate its effectiveness before fully adapting and integrating it into the organization. This saved the organization from the risk of incurring huge costs in reverting the whole organization to the old appraisal systems used should the 360 Degree Appraisal technique fail.

Nevertheless, it was a resounding success. Once the appraisal method was implemented, it is evident that feedback played a key role in determining the effectiveness of employee appraisal and the changes that needed to be introduced to enhance employee productivity.

The 360 Degree Appraisal is characterized by feedback. Feedback is an essential component in assessing employee satisfaction, performance, motivation, training and development needs, and employee retention should they want to opt out of their current jobs, and in determining other motivational factors that may help in improved productivity, profitability, and organizational image and its relationship with suppliers and the environment.

Feedback is also vital in determining organizational behavior, culture, and how the management, in its change management initiatives could communicate its vision and change strategy to employees and those involved in the change management initiatives.

A strong vision, dedicated management, and active employee participation coupled with reliable feedback entails successful change initiatives. These characterized unichem’s change strategy.

Fundamental benefits of the 360 Degree Appraisal method to the employees of unichem and the organization at large included unique ability to meet legal requirements and its basis on fair business practice. The method was also characterized by well trained raters and the organization’s employees were informed in writing about their performance expectations and requirements. Certainly, to a big extent employees had met the requirements.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Identifying Methods and Techniques Used For Training and Appraisal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unichem’s Appraisal method worked by involving the organization’s human resource managers in addition to establishing an environment where employee feedback was treated anonymously to preserve privacy.

According to Performance Appraisal Skills (2009), statistical techniques were employed by the organization’s mangers to determine impact caused by the appraisal method and the level of success. The method was principally characterized with observations and questionnaires as a tool to collect feedback information.

According to the article on assessment tools and Their Use (1996), the management of Unichem had a wide variety of tools to select from in employee selection, recruitment and placement. Appraisal was done at various times, when recruiting and selecting, and when determining the performance standards of employees.

Tools that could be used included mental and physical ability tools. These tools included general ability test and specific ability test, achievement tests such as knowledge and work sample tests. This approach to employee appraisal has significantly positioned the company in its current position.

References Techniques of Performance Appraisal. (2007).Process of Performance Appraisal. Web.

11 Performance Appraisal Methods (2005-2010). Web.

Employment and Training Administration (1999) Issues and Concerns With Assessment. Web.

Performance Appraisal Skills (2009). Web.

One Hundred Years of Solitude Essay

Nursing Assignment Help One hundred years of solitude is a fictional work of art by former Spanish journalist and writer Gabriel Garcia. The work of art is about a village known as Macondo that starts as the author descriptively gives form and shape through the mixed chronological time movement an account of the human life conditions and situations of the characters in the novel.

This paper will focus on the Garcia’s presentation of the Latin-American society taking a critical outlook from his creative work of art One Hundred Years of Solitude.

In addition, this work will give examples and discuss the societal criticism of the Latin-American society arising from the mythical and magical realism presentation in the novel as in accordance to the given guidelines of this paper. Garcia’s novel is a clear work that starts and sees the rise of magical realism and myths in artists’ works.

This work, One Hundred Years of Solitude forms one of the early works to be taken seriously in the mythical and magical realism movement. While explaining the Latin-American life preconditions in symbol form of Macondo, the author lets us realize that he is speaking about the political, religious and banal issues of his society during his time.

Being a renowned fictional writer he received a Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 due to this work of art which though he believes that it is a representation of his childhood views we are limited to understand and get interpretation from the work.

This arises from the fact that an artist is the voice of the society thus what he codes in his work of art can be decoded by the reader in the process of reading this work. The author was brought up in Latin- American society in the 60 and 70s which corresponds to the pinnacle of communism.

. With his descriptions we get information that we are able to relate with history and that is evidenced in archives. However, the contents of Garcia’s work are shaped by the form and the structure of the novel in a kind of alternating relationship. The author presents issues from realistic point of concerns to unrealistic mythical factors with the characters not recognizing the occurring boundaries and even their predicaments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The numbers of events transpiring in the novel occur in a mixed time set up playing from past, present and future thus the reader is thrown into a confusion of what exactly is happening.

Woven in the fabric of this work of art, are elements which are in forms of dreamlike ideals and notions that border fantasies. In this sense, the representation of the Latin American society is symbolized as a society where the individuals do not understand the forces that are behind their daily lives (Bell-Villada 45).

In the first chapters, Macondo is an image of the pre-civilized Latin America where the patriarch Jose Arcadio Buendia is the founding father of this older society. The village interactions at this period of time are only limited to external gypsies who bring their small but magnificent technology and knowledge to Macondo.

At this time, the village has no contact with the outside world and probably it is surrounded by gigantic forests and wild animals. Ursula the founding mother discovers a way to the outside world during her journey in an attempt to mend her disintegrating family thus civilization is foreshadowed through her.

At this time the village access to water, food and other life necessities as per to the requirements of the time emanate from equal proposition from the village leader, Jose Arcadio Beundia.

This is a representation of communism in a communalistic society on which apparently the author wants the reader to connect that Latin- America has its history that can be referred to when looking for the explanation of what has happened in the recent history.

Besides, still Garcia with his writing magic may be implying to us that, the origin of the Latin American society is just like any other society starting from the most humble and lowest to the most complex and civilized society with difficulties and struggles of each era hence evolution.

We will write a custom Essay on One Hundred Years of Solitude specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The criticism thus arises that Latin America has been riddled by vicious elements of communism thus the political side of the society is a creation of different interests harbored by different members of the society. The rise of a repressive form of government led by magistrate Moscote is an indication of western society, modernity and colonialism effect to the poor nations.

Men like Colonel Aurelio Buendia are against such governments but the author in his work seems to suggest that colonialism is a strong combined force that attempts to fight against lead to years of civil war, unrest and deplorable conditions of life with the loss of life too.

Colonel’s final state of mind reveals the internal effects of modernity under the guise of colonialism. The most renowned soldier figure, Colonel Aurelio looses his insanity, a clear depiction of human degradation of the Latin society and the reeling effects of capitalism.

These forces bring in new technology which is foreign to Macondo but has the characteristics of exploitation and neo colonialism. This is well depicted by the fruit company with the large plantation which is an extension of capitalistic multinationals concerted efforts to own the largest means of production in the world (“Gabriel García Márquez” Para. 5).

Garcia therefore criticizes Latin America explicitly by failing to take charge in unified efforts to create and curve a niche in the world by insisting on autonomy and own government from the initial start. The string of dictatorial and corrupt governments later in Macondo by Arcadio and Moscote are the results of poor corrupted leadership and capitalistic intentions respectively.

These lead to civil war and mass uprising of the concerned few people who seem to understand and at the same time don’t seem to relinquish the purpose and benefits of good governance.

The author at this point directs us to labor union conflicts with the capitalistic forces and the strikes are the muffled efforts to redeem themselves from the entangling web of capitalism. However, the force of communism tries to keep the society binding in the failing war.

Keeping to themselves the Latin Americans will never liberate themselves from the daily struggles and chains of poverty. Solitude in Latin- America in terms of ideologies does not help the society, but only a creation of doom in the sense of economy, political death in world politics and international sidelining.

Not sure if you can write a paper on One Hundred Years of Solitude by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In an implicit criticism pattern, Gabriel Garcia characteristically attacks the increased death rates from inhuman practices. With the civil war running for quite a span of time, many deaths occur in Macondo in the search of peace and stability. In addition, the tension and conflict between the unions and workers lead to a massacre that soon the Macondo people forget after the five year’s rainfall.

In this situation, the criticism lies in the Latin America long journey to freedom, self expression and pursuit of knowledge and happiness. Many people die due to this noble cause for the need of every democratic free society to experience growth and development.

The author seems to protest against this unnecessary waste of time, resources and energy by terminating human life. In accordance to the Holy Scriptures it is a commandment not to kill. This probably is the reason behind old Jose Arcadio Buendia crazy ending and his son Colonel Aurelio Buendia same insanity stance and later death. We cannot find excuse in terminating other human lives just by the mere proclamation of peace and freedom sentiments from a few with disguised interests (Smarr 81).

The right to pursue happiness, access to food, water and shelter, enjoy freedom of speech and do what one feels is good to all the public are some of the eternal pillars of well founded society. Garcia on this level focuses on the characters like Rebecca who is raised in Buendia’s family.

Rebecca is representation of failures of human nature and tendencies having to go through difficult situations so that she could survive. If the society had ensured access to water and shade on equal basis then why it is people like her have not to benefit from such claims.

In his life the author points out to the many human injustices that are present in Macondo as an image of Latin American society. Since the entry of human civilization in Macondo and modernity the question of human basic rights arises.

Why is that some person have what they need at the expense of the common man who is lost between the truth and fantasy in Macondo. Garcia’s bringing up in Aracataca is mirrored in this novel depicting the poverty and dilapidation that the town slipped in the face of capitalism.

In this sense, the author critics’ capitalism results in Latin America letting it known that it is the most dehumanizing form of ideology while on the other hand communist dictatorship tendencies like that portrayed by Arcadio have ruined Latin America’s pursuit of general progress and social order (Smith 268).

In the text open incest in the greatest family, the Buendia’s is largely found to espouse solitude characteristics with the tendencies of over family bonding resulting to family genetic aberrations. From the greatest ever lived Buendia, the search for wisdom in almost clandestine manner leaves him an insane man who transcends from ordinary human qualities to foreign exhibition.

This is clearly indicated by the priest’s announcement that Jose Arcadio Buendia speaks fluent Latin meaning that the pursuit of some ideals in human nature is sanity splintering and that life in its whole context is an institution full of social, historical and daily issues that improper comprehending by any individual would lead to insanity and genetic mutations.

At this juncture, Gabriel may be speaking focusing to Latin America and the human nature in whole like an actor in a play. This is very effective in the novel noting that most characters do not understand their positions in life and their purpose to their society as prophesied by Melquaides in the age old prophecies.

This is the author’s genius use of the riding theme of subjective reality that what is most true and of importance to the characters is only perceived by the reader alone thus inviting the reader to take part in the novel and correct the human race.

It is in the search of individual pursuits that the Village Macondo meets its end in the novel. Jose Arcadio Buendia starts the line by his quest for knowledge. He is followed by his son Colonel Aureliano who fights for equal rights as one of the major characters but in the end he becomes desperate and despaired.

The father ends being tied to a tree and his son locks himself in the laboratories with an attempted suicide legacy in his biography. From these incidences the author seems to comment on the vainness of human search and quest for worldly issues as only a waste of time and energy.

Ursula is depicted as the only character who connects with nature, people and who is probably the strongest by living for so long and exhibiting sound human qualities and nature that as a reader we connect with her thus we take her voice in the novel and learn to trust it.

The presentation of Latin American society in One Hundred Years of Solitude is major criticism of Latin American society and the whole human race at large. Gabriel from his experience as a journalist must have seen the human nature from different angles thus comparing them with his home region to bring out his artistic brilliance.

By alluding to the Holy Bible and the eventual destruction of Macondo we as the readers cannot help but identify probably with Marquez religious perspective and notions.

It is clear that the entry of civilization in Macondo foretells the disintegration and fall of the village. People like Jose Arcadio do not believe in religion so much observed from his sentiments about religion and the relationship with God (Pelayo 89).

It is possible that the law of nature which in Biblical language is the creation from God is the supreme force and that determines the destiny of men. The creation of ideologies, pursuit of knowledge, war and scientific inquiries are only men’s detour from their original destinations outlined in the law of nature.

If we have to believe Gabriel then this deviation from natural law only leads to destruction, despair and eventual death. Gabriel thus occurs to us as a modern day philosopher who is able to see the whole picture in the frame and live to tell fellow human beings what they sweat for in their lives endeavors.

In conclusion therefore, Latin America must therefore wake up and desist from destruction and despair. The celebrations of solitary politics are just voracious human sentiments meant for eventual decay and crumble.

The world at large must recognize such futile issues and steer clear if humanity will achieve true progress, democracy and freedom encapsulated in individual’s satisfaction and happiness. The search for unified solution starts from an individual’s completeness and sincere outlook towards the daily struggles for a better future as encapsulated by Garcia Gabriel.

Works Cited Bell-Villada, H. Gene. Gabriel García Márquez’s One hundred years of solitude: a casebook. Oxford, Oxford University Press US, 2002.Print.

“Gabriel García Márquez.” Web.

Pelayo, Ruben. Gabriel García Márquez: a critical companion: Critical companions to popular contemporary writers Greenwood Professional Guides in School Librarianship. Westport, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. Print

Smarr, L. Janet. Historical criticism and the challenge of theory. Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1993. Print.

Smith, Verity. Concise encyclopedia of Latin American Literature. London, Taylor