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How does cognitive function influence spatial perception during pregnancy of the human species? Research Paper

The recent researches have detailed the multifaceted alterations in maternal brains affecting the female cognitive function in general and spatial perception in particular. Showing the structural changes during the first few months of pregnancy, these studies make attempts to explain the underlying reasons of these modifications and major influential factors having impact upon these processes.

The results of most studies have demonstrated the direct relationship between the female reproductive status, hormonal changes and improvement of spatial perception in mothers regarding both offspring-directed and non-offspring directed components of the maternal behavior.

There is a link between hormonal fluctuations and alterations in structure of hippocampal neurons and corresponding improvement of cognitive function (Kinsley et al., 2006; Lemaire et al., 2006; Kinsley and Lambert, 2008).

However, evaluating the results of their research, Christensen and Leach (2010) concluded that there is no relationship between pregnancy and changes in women’s spatial perception, explaining the results of other studies supporting the opposite hypothesis with the limitations of research design and biased sampling.

After investigation of the alterations in maternal brains and corresponding improvement of spatial perception, it has been concluded that these neural changes are preserved long after the last pregnancy (Macbeth and Luine, 2006; Pawluskiet al. 2009). It means that motherhood experience has a positive impact upon women’s cognitive function in general.

Taking into account the fact that the neuronal alterations affect both offspring-directed and non-offspring directed activities and are preserved throughout the woman’s lifespan, it can be concluded that the improvement of spatial perception is important for ensuring offspring survival but is predetermined with the motherhood-induced processes in the female organism as opposed to theories linking these shifts with instinctual state (Kim et al., 2010).

Pawluski, Walker and Galea (2008) concluded that the maternal behavior which is necessary for achieving reproductive success and taking care of offspring is a significant influential factor affecting the female cognition function and spatial perception. Bodensteiner et al. (2006) in their turn have proven that reproductive status has more impact upon working spatial memory. In general, the neural changes, improvement of spatial perception and the behavior necessary for successful fulfillment of maternal functions are interrelated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing the mechanisms of neuronal alterations in major sectors of pregnant women’s brains, the researcher determined major influential factors affecting the intensity of changes. Thus, in the first place, the reproductive status and age have been identified as the main parameters having impact upon the changes in mothers’ spatial perception (Pawluski et al., 2009).

The diet peculiarities in general and the zinc substance in particular are recognized as another significant factor having effect upon the mechanisms of neuronal changes. Stoecker et al. (2009) concluded that zinc deficiency is an important parameter which needs to be taken into consideration for investigating the cognition in pregnant women.

The foetal sex is recognized as one more influential factor affecting the spatial perception in pregnant women. Vanston and Watson (2005) concluded that women pregnant with boys demonstrated better results in spatial perception tests that those pregnant with girls, explaining these findings with the level of foetal testosterone affecting the mother’s cognition.

Taking into account the human sex differences in spatial perception, it can be hypothesized that testosterone can be regarded as an important influential factor having impact upon the choice of cues for spatial orientation (Herman and Wallen 2007).

Reference List Bodensteiner, K., Cain, P., Ray, A., and Hamula, L. (2006). Effects of pregnancy on spatial cognition in female Hooded Long-Evans rats. Hormones and Behavior, 49(3): 303-314.

Christensen, H. and Leach, L. (2010). Cognition in pregnancy and motherhood: prospective cohort study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196: 126-132.

Herman, R. and Wallen, K. (2007). Cognitive performance in rhesus monkeys varies by sex and prenatal androgen exposure. Hormones and Behaviour, 51 (4): 496-507.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How does cognitive function influence spatial perception during pregnancy of the human species? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kim, P., Leckman, J. F., Mayes, L. C., Feldman, R., Wang, X.,

Ecological Integrity and Impact of Human Activities on Nature Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Ecological Integrity

Human System

Environmental Degradation

Social Issues

Sustainability Goals

The Timeline

Ecological Integrity The ecological integrity is one of the concepts currently discussed. In fact, the term ‘ecological integrity’ means biodiversity typical of the location and ability of nature to sustain this diversity.

In other words, human activity can damage the health of ecological system by destroying the diversity which includes different species of fauna and flora that contribute to the development of the ecosystem and its maintenance in the way it was done for a long period of time. Health of nature is the main concept that should be protected in order to sustain natural biodiversity and preserve biological balance on the planet.

Human System The diversity of natural resources varies depending on the location and resources typical for this or that region. In this respect, natural resources are developed and distributed to different countries all over the world to make sure that needs of all people in natural resources are met.

Natural gas and oil are the most important and widely applied resources used in different fields such as manufacturing, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, and other areas. Wood is used for making paper, furniture, building houses, and a great variety of other fields. So, I use water, air, gas, oil, wood, and other resources in my everyday life.

Environmental Degradation The impact of human activity on the environment is mostly negative whereas many people and corporations try to reduce the gas emissions and pollution of water, soil, and air. In other words, the degradation of natural environment is the expected outcome of the use of natural resources without thinking about the results of it and its impact on ecosystems that become less and less sustainable.

Social Issues The use of resources should be discussed on the local, regional, national, and international levels instead of criticizing every individual separately. However, the changes that can be introduced to reduce the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem and biodiversity should start with a personal donation of every individual. In this respect, I can say that buying devices that can be easily recycled and reducing the use of energy inefficient technologies would be my first steps in changing my impact on society from using resources. Moreover, encouraging others to reduce the negative impact on ecosystem could be a good contribution as well.

Sustainability Goals The difference can be made with the help of environmentally safe products, resources, and technologies. Moreover, it is important to remember that people can improve the ecological sustainability by stopping destruction of forests and impact on ocean floor. In other words, every part of the ecosystem consists of the species that are native to the location and the resources such as water sources or forests that are natural setting for these species. So, the main sustainability goal concerns maintaining the ecosystem so that it was not damaged and could remain biologically diverse during a long period of time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Timeline The timeline necessary to sustain the biodiversity includes more than a decade because the impact of human activity should be neutralized and certain improvement should be made in the economic and industrial fields to ensure that people would not pollute the ecosystem over and over. However, some changes such as distribution of energy efficient devices that can be recycled is one of the effective steps to sustainable ecological health.

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