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How Balance of payments affects GDP and growth rate

The main objective of this project is to study balance of payment, understand the various concepts in it, and analyze the various factors affecting it, the importance of it and relevance of it in world economy.
The project has helped me gain great understanding in the field of international finance and trade and which mainly revolves around the concept of balance of payments and various factors affecting. The major factors which have been taken into consideration for the analysis are inflation and exchange rate. Also we would also like to do a small analysis on how balances of payments affect the growth rate of GDP in the economy.
There has also been an analysis on who are the major trading partners of India and the major trading regions of the world and the export, import between the countries and the major commodities between the countries. It also involves a trend analysis of the balance of payments and also the export, import and how the inflation and the exchange rates of the nation over a period of time.
2. OBJECTIVES:
Objectives of the project: To study how exchange rate affects Balance of payments
To study how inflation rate affects Balance of payments
To Balance of payments affects GDP and its growth rate
To see a trend in the export and import between the various trading partners which dominate the bulk of its trade relations.
To also observe the major commodities, which forms a bulk of the trade between the countries.
3. METHODOLOGY:
Methodology used in the project: Initially the data for balance of payments (RBI), exchange rates (IMF), inflation rates (IMF), import, export and commodity details (department of trade and commerce), GDP values (CIA fact book) are all obtained.
From there the data is analyzed and is converted to a form where anything can be inferred and only the data required is obtained and rest of the data is removed
Then a trend analysis is performed on the import, export and commodity which form the bulk of the trade between the major trading partners of the country using the derived data.
Using this data the relationship between inflation, exchange rate and the balance of payments is found out using regression and similarly the relationship between balance of payments and the growth rate of the GDP.
Thus overall the balance of payment is regressed and analyzed.
4. INTRODUCTION:
4.1 BALANCE OF PAYMENTS:
A balance of payments (BOP) sheet is an accounting record of all monetary transactions between a country and the rest of the world. These transactions include payments for the country’s exports and imports of goods, services, and financial capital, as well as financial transfers. The BOP summarizes international transactions for a specific period, usually a year, and is prepared in a single currency, typically the domestic currency for the country concerned. Sources of funds for a nation, such as exports or the receipts of loans and investments, are recorded as positive or surplus items. Uses of funds, such as for imports or to invest in foreign countries, are recorded as a negative or deficit item.
When all components of the BOP sheet are included it must balance – that is, it must sum to zero – there can be no overall surplus or deficit. For example, if a country is importing more than it exports, its trade balance will be in deficit, but the shortfall will have to be counter balanced in other ways – such as by funds earned from its foreign investments, by running down reserves or by receiving loans from other countries.
While the overall BOP sheet will always balance when all types of payments are included, imbalances are possible on individual elements of the BOP, such as the current account. This can result in surplus countries accumulating hoards of wealth, while deficit nations become increasingly indebted.
There are 2 principal divisions of Balance of payments – current account and capital account.
The current account shows the net amount a country is earning if it is in surplus, or spending if it is in deficit. Current account is nothing but the difference between a nation’s total exports of goods, services and transfers, and its total imports of them. Current account balance calculations exclude transactions in financial assets and liabilities
The capital account records the net change in ownership of foreign assets. It includes the reserve account (the international operations of a nation’s central bank), along with loans and investments between the country and the rest of world (but not the future regular repayments / dividends that the loans and investments yield, those are earnings and will be recorded in the current account). The net results includes foreign direct investment, plus changes in holdings of stocks, bonds, loans, bank accounts, and currencies.
In the context of BOP and international monetary systems, the reserve asset is the currency or other store of value that is primarily used by nations for their foreign reserves. BOP imbalances tend to manifest as hoards of the reserve asset being amassed by surplus countries, with deficit countries building debts denominated in the reserve asset or at least depleting their supply. Under a gold standard, the reserve asset for all members of the standard is gold. In the Bretton Woods system , either gold or the US Dollar could serve as the reserve asset, though its smooth operation depended on countries apart from the US choosing to keep most of their holdings in dollars.
Following the ending of Bretton Woods, there has been no de jure reserve asset, but the US dollar has remained by far the principal de facto reserve. Global reserves rose sharply in the first decade of the 21st century, partly as a result of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, where several nations ran out of foreign currency needed for essential imports and thus had to accept deals on unfavourable terms.
4.2 EXCHANGE RATES:
In finance, the exchange rates (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specify how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. It is the value of a foreign nation’s currency in terms of the home nation’s currency. For example an exchange rate of 44 Indian rupees (INR, Rs) to the United States dollar (USD, $) means that Rs 44 is worth the same as USD 1. The foreign exchange market is one of the largest markets in the world. By some estimates, about 3.2 trillion USD worth of currency changes hands every day.
A market based exchange rate will change whenever the values of either of the two component currencies change. A currency will tend to become more valuable whenever demand for it is greater than the available supply. It will become less valuable whenever demand is less than available supply.
Increased demand for a currency is due to either an increased transaction demand for money, or an increased speculative demand for money. The transaction demand for money is highly correlated to the country’s level of business activity, gross domestic product (GDP), and employment levels. The more people there are unemployed, the less the public as a whole will spend on goods and services. Central banks typically have little difficulty adjusting the available money supply to accommodate changes in the demand for money due to business transactions.
The speculative demand for money is much harder for a central bank to accommodate but they try to do this by adjusting interest rates. An investor may choose to buy a currency if the return (that is the interest rate) is high enough. The higher a countries interest rates, the greater the demand for that currency. It has been argued that currency speculation can undermine real economic growth, in particular since large currency speculators may deliberately create downward pressure on a currency by shorting in order to force that central bank to sell their currency to keep it stable (once this happens, the speculator can buy the currency back from the bank at a lower price, close out their position, and thereby take a profit).
4.3 INFLATION RATES:
In economics, the inflation rate is a measure of inflation, the rate of increase of a price index (for example, a consumer price index). It is the percentage rate of change in price level over time. The rate of decrease in the purchasing power of money is approximately equal.
As inflation increases, prices increase also in other countries from which we buy, because their inflation increases their prices and thus the cost of our imports. At the same time prices are likely to increase also because our government may be printing more money to cover its own deficit, to cover the amount by which its spending exceeds its income.
As prices increase so do percentage markups such as profits and dividends which in this way increase automatically in line with increasing prices.
The higher prices are felt by wage and salary earners who demand increases in line with increasing prices, in line with the increasing cost of living. Prices increase as a result, the increase depending both on the extent to which wage and salary demands are satisfied and on how much of the price consists of labour costs.
Our prices have increased, our exports have become more expensive, we sell less abroad, our payments deficit gets even worse. When this condition persists and gets worse then we can devalue our currency, the extent of the devaluation depending on whether we are devaluing: (1) to stay competitive or (2) to become more competitive.
As a result of the devaluation our exports become cheaper abroad but we have to pay more for imports. The increased cost of imports in turn increases our own prices but only to the extent to which imports figure in the price. However, this has already been allowed for when deciding the extent to which we devalue.
The devaluation reduces our standard of living relative to others abroad as they find our produce cheaper while we find theirs more expensive. We now have to produce and sell a greater volume of exports so as to earn as much foreign currency as we did before and have to sell even more if we are to improve our position, if we are to benefit from the devaluation.
4.4 GDP:
The gross domestic product (GDP) or gross domestic income (GDI) is the amount of goods and services produced in a year, in a country. It is the market value of all final goods and services made within the borders of a country in a year. It is often positively correlated with the standard of living, alternative measures to GDP for that purpose.
mathrm{GDP} = C mathrm{Inv} G left ( mathrm{eX} – i right )
C – Consumption,
Inv – investment,
G – Government expenditure
eX – exports
I – imports
From the formula it is evident that balance of payments forms a part and chunk of our GDP and when it increases the GDP and growth rate increases and vice versa is also true.
5. ANALYSIS AND PROCEDURE:
The balance of payment data is initially collected from Reserve bank of India. The crucial parameters of current account balance, capital account balance and overall balance of payment is taken from the overall balance sheet. This is the crucial data required for our analysis. This data will then be regressed with inflation, exchange rate (which is obtained from IMF financial statistics) and their effect is observed on the balance of payments. This shall be part of final results. The GDP values are obtained and regressed with the balance of payments and the effect of balance of payments on the GDP and its growth rate is observed and is tabulated as a part of the result.
Here is the balance of payment data obtained for the period of 14 years from 1997 to 2010:
YEAR
CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE
CAPITAL ACCOUNT BALANCE
ERRORS AND OMISSIONS
OVERALL BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
FOREX RESERVES
1997
-20883
36605
931
16,653
-16653
1998
-16789
35882
-848
18,245
-18245
1999
-20331
45328
2773
27,770
-27770
2000
-11431
41599
-2506
27,662
-27662
2001
3734
50589
2269
56,592
-56592
2002
19987
58506
3523
82,016
-82016
2003
1,904
5,561
59
7,524
-7524
2004
-12174
125367
2714
115,907
-115907
2005
-46856
108521
4231
65,896
-65896
2006
-20,765
48,035
1,736
29,006
-29,006
2007
-6,301
17,346
155
11,200
-11,200
2008
-9,019
11,135
119
2,235
-2235
2009
4,747
-5,288
841
300
-300
2010
-12,998
16,091
-952
2,141
-2,141
5.1 EXCHANGE RATES
As said before the exchange rates for the 14 years from 1997 to 2010 have been obtained from IMF financial statistics. This data is regressed with the balance of payment data to observe the effect of exchange rates on it. The results are tabulated. This is the data of exchange rates for 14 years:
Year
Annual exchange Rates (Rs/$)
1997
36.2812
1998
41.3294
1999
43.1212
2000
45.0009
2001
47.2255
2002
48.6220
2003
46.5947
2004
45.2766
2005
44.0086
2006
45.1778
2007
41.1977
2008
43.3887
2009
48.3744
2010
45.7300
5.2 INFLATION RATES
As said before the inflation rates for the 14 years from 1997 to 2010 have been obtained from IMF financial statistics. This data is regressed with the balance of payment data to observe the effect of inflation rates on it. The results are tabulated. This is the data of inflation rates for 14 years:
Year
Inflation rates (%)
1997
7.164
1998
13.231
1999
4.67
2000
4.009
2001
3.779
2002
4.297
2003
3.806
2004
3.767
2005
4.246
2006
6.177
2007
6.372
2008
8.349
2009
8.664
2010
9.4
5.3 GDP VALUES:
As said before the GDP values for the 14 years from 1997 to 2010 have been obtained from CIA fact book. This data is regressed with the balance of payment data to observe the effect of GDP values on it. The results are tabulated. This is the data of GDP values for 14 years:
YEAR
GDP (million dollars)
GDP growth rate (%)
1997
1401934
12 %
1998
1616082
15%
1999
1786525
11%
2000
1925017
8%
2001
2097726
9%
2002
2261415
8%
2003
2538171
12%
2004
2877706
13%
2005
3275670
14%
2006
3790063
16%
2007
4138749
9%
2008
4511236
9%
2009
4845068
7%
2010
5276279
9%
5.4 MAJOR EXPORT AND IMPORT BETWEEN THE TRADING PARTNERS:
As per the objectives the export and import between the major trading partners is obtained from the department of trade and commerce. Also a trend analysis is performed to see who is the leading the trade relations over a period of time. Also we can see the major commodities dominating the trade relations between the trading partners and which commodity is being exported more and which is imported more between the trading partners.
5.4.1 EXPORT BETWEEN THE MAJOR COUNTRIES:
The trend analysis of the export of India with its 15 major trading countries in 14 years of data from 1997 to 2010 as displayed by the bar chart is shown as follows:
5.4.2 IMPORT BETWEEN THE MAJOR COUNTRIES:
The trend analysis of the import of India with its 15 major trading countries in 14 years of data from 1997 to 2010 as displayed by the bar chart is shown as follows:
5.4.3 EXPORT BETWEEN THE MAJOR TRADING REGIONS:
The trend analysis of the export of India with the major trading regions of the world in 14 years of data from 1997 to 2010 as displayed by the bar chart is shown as follows:
5.4.4 IMPORT BETWEEN THE MAJOR TRADING REGIONS:
The trend analysis of the import of India with the major trading regions of the world in 14 years of data from 1997 to 2010 as displayed by the bar chart is shown as follows:
5.4.5 MAJOR COMMODITIES EXPORTED:
The major commodities exported over the last 2 years i.e. from 2009 to 2010 are shown as follows and the percentage of the commodities exported is observed over this period:
Commodity 2009 2010(P) A) PLANTATION 324.22 375.04 B) AGRI

Drug Trafficking A Global Issue Economics Essay

A corrupt institution has materialized through the world, affecting everyone’s daily life. Drug trafficking is defined as the possession of an illegal drug in a fixed quantity that constitutes that the drug is going to be sold (Merriam-Webster). Currently, the toll of drug trafficking can be seen in the drug war the U.S. and Mexican governments are waging against drug cartels in their respective territories. The illicit industry of drug trafficking has become so prevalent in the world that it carries a huge impact on the world. Drug trafficking has become such a widespread issue that it now inflicts various countries from a political, economic, and socio-cultural viewpoint.
Seeing as many futile efforts to control this institution have taken place, drug trafficking has spread like wildfire to nearly every corner of the world. In fact, new routes of trade are developing in places that lack the enforcement, and the infrastructure that is needed to detect the possibility of trafficking. Given the new state of the world economy, a dramatic increase in trafficking is seen and is proven to have occurred. For example, in Afghanistan the opium production has increased a remarkable 15 times since 1979 (Global Illicit Drug Trends). More than seventy-five percent of the heroin being sold and sent to Europe (and one hundred percent of the heroin sold in Russia) originates from Afghanistan (Global Illicit Drug Trends). Across the globe it is countries like Columbia, Peru, and Bolivia that produce about one thousand tons of cocaine annually (World Drug Report). The mass production of this drug begins to send a negative impulse through South America’s entirety (World Drug Report). This Latin American cocaine is shipped to an estimated ten million users in the United States, as well as Europe, via other Latin American countries (Global Illicit Drug Trends). These few, yet dominant, drug producing countries have a negative backlash that affect the world as a whole.
As drug trafficking is allowed to ferment and further grow in a select country, it begins to leave it’s mar on the country’s political system. The corruption preset in most drug trafficking areas threatens fragile political stability. This is an eminent threat mainly because narcotic producing countries are (more often than not) undeveloped nations, or ones in the process of development. Being undeveloped and unprepared for the obstacles presented before them by the illicit activities, these young governments crumble to the ground. On another note, the high-level of corruption evident in government seriously undermines public confidence in democracy. Soon following a dramatic loss of morale, violent rebellions and revolts occur that inevitably lead to more strict corrupt forms of government; for example, communism, fascism, anarchism, authoritarianism, etc… Political office holders, well known for taking part in drug trafficking activities, accept payments in form of bribes in order to turn the other cheek. When illicit operations, such as drug trafficking, have powerful connections holding high governmental positions, they tend to break out and further spread -not leaving any warrants, any accusations, or any form of stopping them to be successful.
Aside from a negative political impact, heavy trafficking cause drastic changes from an economic stand point. Most traffickers, having coming from impoverished areas, are enticed into the industry by its large (potential) profit. Large organizations in the industry of drug trafficking collectively make hundreds – even millions – of dollars per year (World Drug Report). Economies are rapidly undermining as money laundering begins to become prominent in the area. Money laundering causes errors in economic policy as a result from artificially inflated and stimulated financial sectors, this in turn creates a false demand in a certain area of the economy; when this process reaches a breaking point the finances will suddenly disappear causing the sector to fall apart (The Effects of Money Laundering). On a local scale, money-laundering causes issues for legitimate private business owners who will have to make up the loss in tax revenue, laundered money being tax free (World Drug Report). Not only are governments losing income through a lack of tax revenue but also they have to focus high percentages of money to combating its further spread. Many countries focus anywhere from five to twenty percent of their GDP to fighting drugs; for example, El Salvador uses 11.5% of its GDP while Guatemala uses 7.3% (World Drug Report). When viewed as a whole the economy of such countries is visible in their current, horrible condition.
From a socio-cultural end of the spectrum, drug trafficking further destabilizes civil society. Many countries that have felt the effects of drug trafficking have also experienced the eroding of their social capital and community cohesion. Social capital is defined as a communities the approach and eagerness to take a part in collective, civic activities (A Pragmatic Definition of Social Capital). These aspects of society are important for growing and strengthening an area over a period. However, when drug trafficking is present street gangs begin to flourish and ultimately create a divide amongst the members of a community. Along with this divide, gang violence (as well as gun related crime) skyrockets to all new highs, placing a tremendous amount of pressure on society causing it to further dismantle. A compromised rule of law, or a lack of enforcement and respect of the law, also adds to the socio-cultural backlash of trafficking. Until recently, many international drug traffickers were seldom sentenced a punishment despite attainment. Losing faith in their justice system as a means of protecting a community under trafficker’s hands further splits apart. In the end, it is difficult for local police officers and other authorities to compete with organizations gaining power and local support through foot soldiers and dealers. An ever so eroding social infrastructure, the trust and will to interact amongst other members of a community, is all that remains as drug trafficking is allowed to work with no restrictions.
The United States has officially waged a “War against Drugs” and, in fact, endorses aggressive tactics to deter drug trafficking around the globe (Drug Trafficking

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