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Hobbes vs. Locke Essay

In studying the influence of the social contract theory on the American nation historians and philosophers always mention the names of two philosophers, John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. The two philosophers had divergent viewpoints about people, freedom and politics.

Whereas John Locke held the view that all individuals were born free with the capacity to make independent decisions either as individuals or collectively as a group in pursuit of liberty and preservation of life in peaceful coexistence with each other, Thomas Hobbes held the views that human beings were selfish, in constant war with each other and incapable of surviving without the input of a strong and absolute ruler who would protect there collective right to life (Hume 452-73).

The founding fathers of the American nation decision to reject the social contract theory as advocated by Hobbes was valid then as it is today, an examination of nations that have adopted Hobbes theory such as North Korea and Burma reveals that absolute leadership can have negative consequences on peoples civil liberties and rights.

The idea that an absolute leader will always make the best decisions for the good of the nation is not always right. The founding fathers faith in Locke’s values on the social contract is evident in the American government success in promoting peaceful co-existence of different cultures and people (Gaus 84-119).

The main concern of Locke when he advocated his social contract theory was the protection of civil liberties which were always going to be under threat if Hobbes theory was to be adopted by any republic. Locke viewed the “sovereignty” or monarch as a threat to civil societies and consequently could not be trusted with the task of protecting the interests of its citizens.

The governance system that was adopted by the framers of the American constitution that gave each arm of the government sufficient authority and powers to function as well as strong checks and balances between them was a sign of support of Locke’s ideas on politics, freedom and people, and would surely get widespread support today as it did in the 18th century.

I hold the opinion that the first statement holds some truth in it even though Locke’s ideals seemed to have been accepted during the formation of the American state, in today’s world the government is increasingly taking control of our daily lives from smoking in public places, to increased government involvement in our diet, health, trade, leisure among others it seems the Orwellian world is fast becoming a reality with increased government surveillance in whatever we do, in private or public.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hobbes acknowledged certain essential attributes of the ‘sovereign’, in any social contract; one of which entailed people having no right to criticize the government for any decisions they make for the ‘good of the nation’, censorship and political correctness is now generally accepted as part of modern day reality (Mack 45-73). In ending, Hobbes held he view that the sovereign was steadfast and could be trusted to use his vast powers for the good of society.

Individual rights were subordinate or subservient to state power and could be removed at any time by the state for the overall good. It seems man is ready to endure appalling laws such as the Patriot Act or oppressive rule purely for the sake of avoiding living in a state of war.

John Locke’s social contract theory influence on America is unquestionable and the second statement clearly demonstrates that reality; the countries constitution and criminal justice system borrows heavily from Locke’s social contract theory.

Locke held the view that in the ‘state of nature’ man had the capacity to own land and property and therefore the government could not grant that right to man this meant that property rights existed before the formation of the ‘sovereignty’, Locke postulated that in the natural state man had the inalienable right to life and resources and man could translate shared resources into private property (Gaus 84-119).

These rights are independent of government and are not dependant on the existence of the same; Locke’s idea was that the government’s role on the issue of property rights both physical and abstract was that of a facilitator and not a competitor. It is thus encouraging to note that our founding fathers choose Locke’s ideas over Hobbes.

The Fifth Amendment is an embodiment of Lockean ideals which protect individual property rights, and the right for fair compensation should the state requires private property for public use. This right has also been protected by the federal courts which have recognized the importance of due process and property rights as enshrined in the American constitution.

Works Cited Gaus, Gerald F. “On Justifying the Liberties of the Moderns.” Social Philosophy

Sedimentary Rocks Definition Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Sedimentary rocks are from sediments collected from the streams and buried beneath in a process commonly referred to as geologic. This is due to geographical effects such as the tectonic forces controlling the progression of weathering. The process leaves a complicated record thus the different kind of sediments form the deposits. (Strahler, 13) The categories include Clastic, Chemical and Biogenic. Water and wind sorts some sediment to be almost of the same size thus commonly referred to as “well-sorted”.

Conversely, there are particles of different sizes especially those sorted by the ice and huge mass wasting with a reference of “even unsorted” or “poorly sorted”. Sediments take a variety of individual shapes from rounded, sphericity or angular. Well-sorted sediments are caused by prolonged erosion or weathering.

Sedimentary rocks can also form from the biogenic deposits such as the foraminifer formed from planktons cells that covers wide area of the ocean floor or the chemical deposits such as the salts formed from magnesium, potassium or sodium chloride found near salt lakes like Lake Bonneville in Utah. The volcanic sediments form clasts, which are originally volcanic. (National Atlas of United States)

Formation of sedimentary rocks Deposits and burring of these types of sediments in a process known as “lithification” causes the formation of new rock known as the sediment rock. (U.S. Department of Interior Survey, 2010)

The rock depends on the material or type of sediments and the process. Formation of rock beds occurs from sedimentary particles, which lay in distinct strata. The composition of the sedimentary rocks overtime changes depending in the deposition process and mineral composition. This aspect is what makes the adjacent strata different from the preceding one.

The boundary between the layers referred to as the “bedding surface” thus the origin of the term “Rock Bed”. (Strahler, 13) The presence of the bedding surface enables the geologists to be in a position of telling the ages and is the indication that the rock was once sediments thus the term “Sedimentary Rock”. Various processes are involved in the formation process: “lithification”.

They include compaction a process that reduces the pore space in the sediments because of the weight of the superimposing layer. Secondly is the cementation process where substances dissolves in pores through which water precipitates to form matter that joins the layers strongly together. Lastly is the crystallization process where new crystalline minerals bond the old ones.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The classification of sedimentary rocks falls into the following categories. Siliciclastic rocks or clastic made of sand quatz commonly referred to as resistant minerals like Lithics and fledspar mixed with clay minerals, which form from withering of iron oxides such as feldspar: orthoclase or kaolinite. Chemical and Biogenic or biochemical rocks form from liquid solutions such as calcite that reacts with hydrochloric acid to exist as either micrite; muddy line or limestone. (U.S. Department of Interior Survey, 2010)

The clastic rocks is a composition of visible grains of quartz sand and clay grains mixed together while the chemical and biochemical forms from splitting of minerals that are in solution state. Silica is made of materials that do not dissolve in water and have silica as the main component transported either as sediments at the bottom of the water or suspension. This aspect makes the clay grains and visible sand grains to mix and deposit together.

On the other hand, the minerals that are in solution state easily dissolve in water. They deposit together without traces of silica. The geologists tend to specialize on the siliciclastic rocks because of the various groupings that others have hypothetically made discovery. (Strahler, 13) The mineral deposits that are in solution form separates from the solutions through precipitation from the water thus concentrating the salts.

This helps to classify them as chemical rocks while the biochemical rocks are as a result of plants and animals remains especially those involved with marine life, which draws them from the solutions for formation of the skeletons, which eventually die to form the sediments.

Other biochemical rocks include the coal and peat but forms in the presence of clastic rocks such as sandstones or shales. The integration of minerals to form sediments makes the classification difficult due to inconsistency involved. This means that researchers have an uphill task to come up with a straightforward way of classifying them.

Works Cited National Atlas of the United States. “Distribution of Sedimentary Rocks.” 2010. Web.

Strahler, Alan. H. “Introduction to physical geography” (Fifth Ed). 2009

We will write a custom Essay on Sedimentary Rocks specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More U.S Department of the Interior survey. “U.S Geography Survey.” 2010. Retrieved from