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History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction

Citizenship to Illegal Immigrants

Nature and Scope of Illegal Immigration

Effects of Immigrants

What Needs To Be Done

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Illegal immigration into the U.S. has been on the rise in the last few years and this has sparked debate in the Congress and prompted many immigrant supporters to hold peaceful demonstrations in the streets.

This debate has led to many controversies which heated up when the former president of the United States (President Bush) addressed the nation through the television requesting for a wide-ranging approach to the immigration debate. According to his statement, he was going to send about six thousand National Guard troops to the Border States. These troops were going to provide intelligence and logistic support to the border patrol agents but were not to enforce law.

Apart from protecting the border, Bush noted that the House should pass legislation that allows all illegal immigrants who have lived and worked in the U.S. for a considerable period of time to be able to become citizens. The nature, scope, and effects of immigrants are addressed in this paper. It also proposes some policies to be implemented by the government in a bid to curtail the demerits of illegal immigrants

Citizenship to Illegal Immigrants When the house is granting citizenship to illegal immigrant, it should take note of the difference between an illegal immigrants who have moved into the U.S. in the recent past and an immigrant who has lived and worked for a long period of time, and has established himself, for instance, has a home, a family and a clean record.

The immigration debate puts at stake the lives of more than 12 million illegal immigrants who are working in the U.S., the companies where they are employed, rule of law, and job openings for low-skilled Americans citizens (Smith and Edmonston 66).

Questions raised in the debate include; do the illegal immigrants take away job openings from the Americans? Do they depress the wages paid to the American? Should the law compel illegal immigrants to go back to their country of origin? or should a legislation be passed that would allow illegal immigrants to continue working in the U.S. but pay some penalty?

Some of these questions have been addressed and others remain unsolved. If illegal immigrants are deported from the U.S., it is not only them who will suffer, but this may affect the economic position of the U.S. because these illegal immigrants are so many and they have taken up jobs in some of the high profile companies (Lynch and Woodyard 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nature and Scope of Illegal Immigration Pew Hispanic Center conducted a study in order to clearly understand the nature and scope of illegal immigration. In the study, the term “unauthorized migrant” was used to refer to a person residing in the United States, but not a citizen.

This is a person who has not been allowed to reside permanently in the U.S. and his temporary status does not allow him to work. According to the study, more than 12 million illegal immigrants resided in the U.S. as at March 2005 and this was a rapid increase from 8.4 million in 2000. Most of these unauthorized migrants are from Mexico and Latin America.

The study also revealed that illegal migrants account for about 5% of the total labor force which is equivalent to 7.2 million workers out of the total labor force of 148 million. They are employed in specific jobs, for instance, 19% work in construction jobs, 4% in farming and 15% in installation and repair (Jeffrey 2). Supporters of illegal workers point out that the economy of the United States require such laborers because they can work in certain types of jobs that can not be taken up by Americans.

However, Briggs refutes with this claim and calls it a complete myth. According to him, illegal workers are hired in large number to perform certain tasks, not because Americans are incapable of doing them or because they have refused to take up such jobs, but because the wages associated with these jobs are too low. Some of these jobs do not follow work rules and are in poor working conditions.

Most of the employers who employ illegal immigrants do so in order to cut on costs and to avoid investing in equipment or capital improvements. This has resulted in a decline in wages for low-skill American workers and it seems to be deteriorating daily. Briggs’ argument is that, illegal immigrants should be banned from working in these jobs so as the employers may improve the wages and working conditions for Americans.

Effects of Immigrants Some members of the house and the Senate are convinced that illegal workers suppress the wage rates and take up job opportunities that would otherwise be taken by the U.S. citizens. They create a negative impact on American citizens who are low-skilled making it almost impossible for them to secure jobs in their own country.

Vernon Briggs (a professor at Cornell University) believes that negative impact created by illegal workers on the American citizens and on the labor standards is so intense that the House should put tight measures on the companies that employ illegal workers as a way of discouraging illegal immigrants from taking up jobs in these companies. His conclusion is that illegal immigrants should not be tolerated in the U.S (Espenshade and Belanger 365).

We will write a custom Research Paper on History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, some members are in support of illegal workers continuing their stay in the U.S. Bernard Anderson (professor in Wharton’s management department), admits that illegal workers have some negative impact on wages and sometimes they take up job opportunities that should be taken by American workers (Espenshade and Belanger 367).

However, he notes that the impact is not as grave as asserted by Briggs. Moreover, Anderson notes that illegal immigrants are hard working and they receive only what they have earned. They are not interested in welfare and, therefore, they should be allowed to continue working in the United States after paying some type of penalty.

The effects of illegal workers (on salaries and job conditions) are not only felt in the U.S., but in also in other nations of the world (e.g. the Middle East). Employers all over the world have taken advantage of the fate of illegal workers and they are employing poor working conditions. Most of these people have run away from their country and would not mind working in such conditions as long as they are able to take care of themselves and their families.

Many people still wonder why and how illegal workers suppress wages. The answer to this lies on market forces of demand and supply. As the number of illegal workers increase, their demand goes down forcing down the wages. If these people are to be deported from the U.S. it does not mean that these companies would not get other people to work for them. The likely scenario is change of working environment by these firms. They would hire other people without interfering with their day to day operations.

It is not only illegal workers who suppress wages, but also low-skilled legal immigrants. In fact, there is no significant difference between the legal immigrants and the illegal ones. The immigration debate should not be focused on the illegal immigrants but low-skill workers who find their way into the U.S. whether illegally or through legal means. This is because if more unqualified workforce is allowed into the U.S., it will help in curtailing costs for employers. Wages will be pressed down making it hard for the Americans to do these jobs.

What Needs To Be Done If the government is to succeed in helping low-skill Americans, it has to reduce the immigration rates. It has to put strict measures on illegal workers before they end up harming the U.S. citizens. Illegitimate or undocumented recruits can dislodge low-skill Americans and other minorities seeking for job openings (or those with limited skills). In addition, even though these illegal workers earn minimum wages, they work in poor conditions which can be dangerous.

Nevertheless, they are not in a position to seek legal remedies because they are living and working illegally in the U.S. The best solution to this problem is to restrict illegal immigrants from entering into the U.S. Lack of illegal workers will force employers to improve the working conditions and also increase wages for the Americans (Edmonston and Smith 21). It will also result into increased job opportunities for the unskilled Americans and other minority groups.

Many of the illegal immigrants are working in horrendous conditions, some are exploited in terms of pay, and some are underage children working in jobs they are not supposed to be. Most of them are working in essence as slaves. Most of these immigrants are males aged between 18 and 30 years, very ambitious, and would take any job even if they are abused or exploited. Immigration is an issue that is discussed at length because of its crudeness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of the Illegal Immigration into the U.S. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More They are always up to the challenge and can take virtually any kind of jobs as along as they are able to take care of themselves. This does not mean that the U.S. citizens have any problem or that they are not willing to take certain jobs, it means that there is dissimilarity between the immigrants’ native country and the U.S. It does not matter how bad the conditions of working are in the U.S. because it is always a better alternative for the illegal immigrants as compared to their country of origin (Lynch and Woodyard 4).

They would not mind crowing into apartments or working during odd hours, they would not even complain when they are sexually or racially discriminated because they can not seek legal remedies. That is why many employers prefer to employ illegal immigrants compared to the U.S. citizens.

Illegal immigrants are the most vulnerable members and if the government does not do anything, they will continue to suffer. Immigrations laws have to be enforced in order to protect both the U.S. citizens and the immigrants (Smith and Edmonston 67). One of way of curtailing illicit immigrants is to impose employer sanctions principally at the worksites.

Heavy penalties need to be imposed on employers who employ immigrants as a way of discouraging them on hiring illegal immigrants. It should be made clear to these employers that illegal immigrants are not supposed to be hired because they are not even allowed to live in the country. They have to make sure that all their employees are allowed by law to work.

This will dishearten illegal immigrants and won’t have an alternative than to go back to their country of origin. To ensure that this process is effective, every employer should ask for a job identification card before hiring an immigrant worker. Moreover, physical barriers such as electronic fences can be put in strategic positions to detect when people are crossing borders (Edmonston and Smith 21).

Conclusion It is clear that illegal immigration has resulted in depression of wages and displacement of some U.S. citizens from their jobs. However, it has not affected employment opportunities or earnings as many people tend to believe. Opponents of immigration hold that, illegal immigrants should be deported back to their countries because they have negatively impacted the working conditions and suppressed wages.

However, supporters claim the decline in wages or deterioration of the working conditions is caused by market forces. If the government wants to succeed in improving employment opportunities, it will first have to analyze the market before deciding what cause of action to take.

It is true that, illegal immigrants have had a downward pressure on the wages but this does not mean they are entirely to be blamed for it. It is the employers who hire these people who are answerable to the current problems experienced in employment. These employers take advantage of the plight of illegal workers and hire them to work in poor conditions where they only get the minimum wages.

The illegal workers would not mind working in such conditions because they do not have an alternative and no matter how bad things are in the U.S., they are better off than in their country of origin. The most effective way to deal with illegal immigrants is to enforce sanctions on workers who hire immigrants and discourage them from hiring illegal immigrants by putting penalties.

Works Cited Edmonston, Barry and Smith, James. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington: National Academy Press, 2007.

Espenshade, Thomas J. and Belanger, Maryann. “Immigration and Public Opinion.” In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mexican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press, 1998 pages 365-403.

Jeffrey S. Passel. “The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey,” Research Report .Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center, 2006.

Lynch, J. David and Woodyard, Chris (April 11, 2006). “Immigrants claim key role”. USA Today, April 11, 2006. Web.

Smith, James Patrick and Edmonston, Barry. The Immigration Debate: Studies On The Economic, Demographic, And Fiscal Effects Of Immigration. Washington: National Academics Press, 1998.

Death Penalty and Ethics Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

Death penalty and Ethics

Arguments In Support Of Death Penalty

Arguments against Death Penalty

My Own Opinion

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Philosophy is a very wide discipline with numerous branches and sub disciplines. Some of the sub disciplines include epistemology, which is the study of knowledge for instance its nature, sources and limitation, ethics on the other hand studies morality for instance what is right or wrong or good or evil. Religion is also an essential aspect of philosophy and entails the beliefs that involve the cause, nature and purpose of the universe.

It relates humanity to truths and values. Death penalty can fall well under the ethics and religion branches of philosophy. It is a practice that has been present in many countries around the world although most of them only retain it but do not exercise it. This paper discusses death penalty in relation to ethics emphasizing on what is considered right or wrong based on the arguments supporting and those against it. My own point of view will also be highlighted.

Death penalty and Ethics Death penalty is also referred to as capital punishment. It is usually the sternest form of corporal punishment since it entails taking away the lives of the convicted offenders by the law enforcement officers.

It entails the compulsory execution of a criminal offender as a form of punishment for committing crimes that are considered to be serious by the law for instance murder and treason although in some instances, it could include adultery, rape and some form of fraud. It is an act that can only be ordered by the state. There are numerous arguments put forth both for and against the aspect of death penalty.

The issue of whether or not it is right to undertake capital punishment and the circumstances that should necessitate death penalty has brought about a lot of controversy and debates among various people, the ethical aspect being realized in deciding the moral behind capital punishment especially considering the right to deprive a human being of his or her life.

This is the basic dispute over death penalty. The morality behind death penalty is undermined by different views that are brought forward by different theories or schools of thought in the ethical disciplines.

For example, the aspect of killing is considered either right or wrong depending on the circumstances although in the overall view, killing is evil and unethical. Killing for defense purposes and for the overall good of the society for instance to avoid more harm to the innocent citizens is in most cases justified but malicious killing considered wrong (Cohen and Wellman, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguments In Support Of Death Penalty There are various factors attributed to general punishment for offenders for example deterrent and defense where the punishment is aimed at preventing the offenders from engaging in crime in the future, retribution where the punishment is considered as what the criminal offenders deserve and restoration where the punishment is aimed at restoring a good relationship between the offenders, the victims and the society at large.

The individuals and groups who support capital punishment mainly base their argument on retribution and deterrent and defense at the expense of ignoring restoration since it is not practical once execution is carried out. There are arguments that have been put forth in support for capital punishment. The issue, however, varies from country to country depending on the political grounds or foundation.

In the United States for example, a majority of people, adults, seem to support capital punishment although most of the youths and non governmental institutions are strongly not for it. The law is retained in most of the American states. However, the issue has gained a lot of support in some countries for example Taiwan and there seems to be very little campaign against its perpetration (White, 2011).

Some of the general arguments that are common among the supporters of death penalty include the following. The criminal offenders who have perpetrated criminal activities especially murder have violated the victim’s right to life and, therefore, they should also not be left to enjoy life but rather they should also be killed. This falls under the retribution principle.

This is, however, not ethical as two wrongs do not make a right and killing the criminal offender also entails depriving them of their life which is morally wrong. Another argument that supports capital punishment is that death penalty is a way of showing respect to the victims and the rest of the society.

This is because it is deemed to enhance the healing process of the victim and also it is viewed as a source of peace of mind for the victims and their relations. The belief and perception that there should be justice is also a basis for the support of capital punishment as people believe that equal justice should be maintained hence life should cost another life thus death for death.

The practice of death penalty is also taken as a step towards preventing other innocent individuals that could fall victims in future if other alternative punishments are given to the offenders since they would at one time be integrated with the society.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Death Penalty and Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is viewed as the most effective and appropriate way of ensuring the society is safe from further criminal acts of the particular offender. The supporters also argue that death penalty is also somehow advantageous to the criminal offenders as it is not as cruel as other sentences that are usually prolonged hence making them suffer for long periods of time.

The fact that it is present in law is also a strong view point for the supporters. Housing a prisoner for his entire life is also considered uneconomical as compared to an execution of the criminal offenders. The supporters also argue that some killing is justified in some instances for example when it is conducted for self defense. This is because some difference is usually attached in the circumstances that led to the killing.

When the killing is in defense, the person killed is not innocent as is the case when the murder is perpetrated by a criminal on an innocent individual. The supporters also argue that the killing of criminal offenders is like killing in self defense since the murderer is not innocent hence justifying capital punishment (Banks, 2004).

Arguments against Death Penalty There are various factors that the people and groups that oppose the issue of capital punishment base their arguments on. Most nations are against the practice of death penalty, for instance, in western Europe, capital punishment is viewed as old fashioned and an act of the past and hence it receives very little public support in regard to its reinstatement. The general arguments against the perpetration of death penalty include the following.

The major argument is that capital punishment entails depriving an individual’s right to life as it involves killing which has never been right as it entails violation of the human right to live. The suffering and pain the criminal offenders face in the event of being sentenced to capital punishment is also too much and considered wrong and unethical as it constitutes a lot of physical and more so emotional anguish which is not right irrespective of what the offenders have committed.

The irregularities and discrimination in the sentencing to death penalty is also a contributing factor towards the campaign against death penalty as the circumstances that lead to its perpetration differ. For instance, if the criminal offence was committed between people of different races or complete strangers, it is more likely to attract capital punishment as opposed to when the crime is committed to people of the same race or with some form of affiliations with the criminal offender.

This aspect brings in some aspects of injustice and unfairness which is wrong and unethical. The issue of death penalty also enhances the chances of police and other law enforcers’ misconduct as they are likely to use some innocent individuals as scapegoats hence face the execution instead of the responsible criminals just because they have some powers and influence in a way.

Statistics have also shown that death penalty is not a solution as the states that advocate and execute it have not shown any significant signs of reduction of violent criminal activities and hence it is more ethical to apply other forms of sentencing other than execution or death penalty as it will eliminate killing which is morally wrong.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Death Penalty and Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The practice of death penalty also shows some negative attributes of the society as it emphasizes on killing as a right act in some situations for instance when offended as is the case for the criminal offenders. The aspect of carrying out the execution is also not morally right or ethical to the executors or the individuals involved in carrying out the act as it affects them psychologically and in some instances, it may affect their perception on life issues as they may not value life as they should.

Death penalty is not only considered unethical by those opposing it but also uneconomical as the cost incurred in it usually exceeds that of trial and life imprisonment. Other forms of preventing criminal activities other than death penalty are also advocated for example education campaigns as they are more effective in preventing other people from indulging in the same as opposed to where the offenders are killed (Oderberg, 2000).

Some of the unique reasons for opposing death penalty include the absolutist view that states capital punishment violates the right to life. The life of a human being should always be preserved unless there is a very good and justifiable reason that dictates otherwise,

The risk of killing the innocent is also so high and the problem comes in since the act is not reversible and once a life is lost it is lost forever making capital punishment even more wrong and unethical.

The side of the death penalty better defended is that opposing the idea of capital punishment. However, there are more arguments that have been put forth in the support of death penalty although I consider them weak as compared to those put forward against death penalty.

For instance the argument that killing the criminal offenders as a way of ensuring justice and respect to the victims does not really work because two wrongs will never make a right. The fact that people consider murder an offence should always stand even in case of execution of the criminal offenders as in both cases, killing and taking of human life is unethical and immoral (Thomson, 1999).

My Own Opinion My own view in regard to death penalty is that it is unethical since no matter the circumstances or the factors that facilitates the offenders to be involved in the serious crimes especially murder, the fact remains that killing is wrong as it entails violation of the victim’s human right to live whether the person has committed crime or not.

The arguments for the capital punishment as explained earlier are also extremely weak and the practice of death penalty is morally wrong. Human life is valuable and even the criminal murderers deserve to live and their lives should not be deprived since their criminal acts do not make them less valuable.

The possibility and high chances of execution of innocent individuals also makes the issues seem very wrong as most people who have undergone execution after some investigations been found innocent. Killing is also negative as we cannot teach that the criminal offenders did some wrongs whereas we also kill them in the name of ensuring justice. Undertaking revenge by killing because the person was also involved in killing is also not justifiable.

There should, therefore, be formulation and implementation of laws and sentencing that should replace death penalty as it is not an absolute solution in the minimization of criminal offences especially those that entail murder.

This is evident since research shows that those states that use capital punishment as a way for dealing with murder cases have not shown any signs of reduction of the violent crimes as compared to the states that have abolished it since it does not play a significant part in educating or preventing others from indulging in the same offences.

Conclusion It is evident the issue of death penalty is associated with a lot of controversy as people differ in regard to whether it is right or wrong. The ethical and religious aspects usually differ with it in most cases as no matter the circumstances, depriving an individual’s right to life is considered evil or wrong. Although most nations retain the death penalty as a punishment for offences deemed to be serious, they do not practice it and there is increasing campaign for the abolition of capital punishment.

The issue of death penalty is, however, very controversial as the fundamental values that are used as the basis for the arguments for and against it are the same which entail the search for justice and respect for human life. Those supporting it argue there should be justice and respect for the victims while those that oppose it argue justice and respect should be shown to the offenders through provision of other sentences other than being involved in depriving the offenders their lives through death penalty.

Reference List Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. United Kingdom: SAGE.

Cohen, I. A. and Wellman, H.C. (2005). Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. USA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Oderberg, S. D. (2000). Applied Ethics: A Non-Consequentialist Approach. Oxford: WWiley-Blackwell.

Thomson, A. (1999).Critical reasoning In Ethics: A Practical Introduction. New York: Routledge.

White, D. (2011). Pros

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