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Hindu Creation Myth Compare and Contrast Essay

According to Hindu Creation Myth, Brahma is the divine creator of the world, as well as other things in the universe. However, different views on how actually the creation process occurred. The most famous one is recounted in the Vedas. The sacred book runs, “all living creatures were made from the ghee (purified buter) that came from Purusha” (Gibson and Wootten 48).

Thus, parts of Purusha’s body were used to create different objects of the universe. Navel was used to create the earth’s atmosphere, the head was used to create the havens, the earth was made up of his feet and the sky was made up of his ears. Purusha was also responsible for creating the four varnas of Indivian society – the Brahmis, which came from Purusha’s mouth, the Kshatriyas coming from his arms, the Vaishyas that came from his thighs, and, finally, Shudras coming from Purusha’s feet.

The story of Hindu creation myths differs from Ancient Greek creation myths in a number of facts, including the beginning of the world, and some elements of the creation of the living creatures. The divinity creation also has certain tangible discrepancies.

As per the beginning of the world, the Hindu world creation starts with the God Brahma who initiated the beginning of the universe: “Hindus believe that God, in the form of Brahma, is the creator of the universe and everything in it” (Gibson and Wootten 48). Unlike the Indian version, the Greek world begins with “an emptiness called Chaos – the yawning gap” (Martin 23).

With regard to these creation myths, significant difference lies in using nothingness as the beginning in Greek myths, which is absent in the Indian legends. In contrast, Indians focus on the divine origins of the world which produced all creatures whereas Greeks refer to emptiness which created divinity.

In Hinduism, there was one creature that gave life to all living beings on earth. It has been torn apart to form water, earth, atmosphere, and various social layers of people.

In such a way, Hindu myths prove the divine origin of all people, including all varnas. Unlike Hindu, Greek mythology provides an account of creating divine and mythological creations where there is no place for human beings: “Earth brought forth Ouranos, the Sky, to be her cover and protector and a place for the blessed gods” (Martin 23).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Greek mythology, however, includes humans at the end of creation, which underlines the emergent hierarchy with gods at the top and humans in the bottom. However, both myths prove the divine origin of all human beings on the planet.

There are different concepts of evil origins on Earth with regard to Greek and Hindu mythology. In particulars, Greek myths show “…there is not principle of evil … but Greek tales acknowledge that there are all sorts of bad influences and misfortunes in the world, including the shortness of human life” (Martin 21). In Hinduism, evil is presented as an opposition to good: “Hindus believe that Vishni is the preserver of the universe and protects the world from evil” (Gibson and Wootten 16).

In conclusion, despite the divergence in creation mythology represented by Greeks and Hindus, there are certain similar points which provide a solid basis to explore the origins of the world. This is of particular concern to the analysis of divinity creation, human beings creation, and conception of evil in ancient world.

Works Cited Gibson, Lynne, and Pat Wootten. Hinduism. US: Heinenmann, 2002, Print.

Martin, Richard. Myths of Ancient Greeks. US: New American Library, 2003. Print.

Sociology of Consumption Classification Essay

Nursing Assignment Help In these chapters, John Crammer examines the consumption patterns existing in Japan. His main argument is that by studying them, researchers can better understand the social life of a country, the formation of people’s identities and values, or micro-economics of households (Clammer, 2008, p. 1).

In the author’s opinion, the discussion of consumption patterns is particularly important for the study of the Japanese culture that differs in many ways from Western cultures. He focuses on such aspects as social stratification, teenager’s behavior, values of Japanese customers, and the relations between consumption and urbanization.

John Crammer believes that the mass consumption in Japan began to grow in the sixties. At that time, the country began to transform itself from an industrialist society into a consumerist one (Clammer, 2008, p. 2). The scholar points out that the consumption in this country is not a mere transfer of good and commodities; more likely it is status competition (Clammer, 2008, p. 6). In other words, buyers want to show that they have achieved success.

Thus, consumption is closely linked to the construction of self-identify. Nevertheless, the Japanese society is also very stratified and people try to adhere to their social roles. For instance, a person, who looks for a job, is more likely to be dressed in a certain way (Clammer, 2008, p. 11).

As a rule, such a person does not want to emphasize his/her wealth because such behavior is not usually approved by the society. Thus, people’s buying habits are affected not only by his/her desire to acquire status in the eyes of ones peers or friends.

Secondly, according to this author, consumption is important for establishing or maintaining relations between people. For instance, Japanese teenagers view shopping as a way of reinforcing friendship; it is a part of their peer culture (Clammer, 2008, p. 14). This issue should be overlooked by people who study the culture of Japan.

It should be taken into account that Japanese people are less individualistic, and collective values or interests may be of greater importance for them. This is why peers usually go to department stores together.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, John Crammer points out consumption patterns can tell much about gift-giving in Japan. As a rule, Japanese people regard gift-giving as one of their obligations which are required by the etiquette (Clammer, 2008, p. 18). For instance, people who occupy a lower position in the workplace hierarchy, often give presents to people who are their superiors (Clammer, 2008, p. 17). They are signs of recognition.

On the whole, gifts are not used to create bonds between people; one of their roles is to highlight the distance existing between people. For instance, female employees give their make co-workers chocolates (Clammer, 2008, p. 17). Such a gift indicates that there are only formal relations between two people. Such behavior may exist in other cultures, but in Japan it is more widespread.

Apart from that, the author does not agree with the opinion that the Japanese middle-class is homogeneous and prosperous. Many of these people do not feel that their employment is secured; therefore, the consumption patterns of Japanese middle-income people differ significantly.

Their goals and priorities may not coincide. However, one should note that Japanese customers attach more importance the quality of the product, rather than its price (Clammer, 2008, p. 24). Cheapness is not one of the qualities that appeals to Japanese buyers.

Furthermore, they believe that companies should not offer only goods or services. These organizations have to act as corporate citizens that pay attention to the interests of the community. So, Japanese society sets higher performance standards for businesses. Thus, consumption patterns can throw light on the cultural values of Japanese people and their behavior.

Furthermore, in his book, John Clammer (2008) examines the connection between consumer culture and urbanization. According to the author, consumption is important for avoiding the economic downfall of many urban regions. For instance, in Japan the inner-cities do not turn into ghettos; they are more likely to become the concentration of very large stores, offices, or cinemas (Clammer, 2008, p. 28).

Additionally, one should take into consideration that Japanese people give more preference to collectivity, rather than individualism. Therefore, the residents of urban areas are more inclined to form groups or associations. Thus, their leisure and consumption are affected by this collectivity. They are not as isolated from one another as many American or European consumers are. This is one of the distinctions that people should be aware of.

We will write a custom Essay on Sociology of Consumption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Overall, these examples suggest consumption pattern in Japan can be viewed as indicators as social and cultural life. They can give the reaches insights into the values and goals of a certain nation. First of all, one can mention that Japanese people see consumption as a way of attaining status in the community. They normally place emphasis on the quality of the products and the corporate social responsibility of companies. Secondly, buying is an organized and collective activity.

Reference List Clammer, J. (2008). Contemporary Urban Japan: A Sociology of Consumption. New York: John Wiley

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