India’s higher education is the third largest one after the U.S.A. and China. For years India has made an impact in the world economy by providing intellectuals to the world. But that alone will not serve the purpose. The expectation from higher education is more than that. University Grants Commission proclaims the objectives of Indian higher education in its 12th five year plan
“ Higher education is about promoting excellence in more ways than one: at individual level, it is an instrument of upward mobility through cultivation of excellence; for national economy, excellence of work force is a pre-requisite of sustained growth; and for humankind, excellence is a must for extending the frontiers of knowledge and cultivation of values”
Higher education should bring intelligence, workforce and Values. While analyzing the above objectives India has brought intelligence and workforce for the country but the question is whether the higher education system brings values or social concern among the students. Education should not stop with just acquiring the intelligence to earn more income and leading a sophisticated life. It should create social awareness and self-awareness. Today the social life is eroding in India. The educated persons are ignorant of not only the long accepted social values but also the modern values of secularism, socialism, democracy and professional ethics.
A recent news paper reveals that a husband and wife, both who are in Indian Administration Service have amazed lot of wealth through corruption. This brings us the question that why these highly placed people engage in corruption. Also another recent report on newspaper shows that most of the criminals today are the educated people. Now we have to think that what is wrong in the education which they acquired. It is the lack of social concern in the education. In this regard it is important to analyse whether higher education is providing the right platform for social thinking.
AUTONOMY IN HIGHER EDUCATION
One of the radical changes in higher education is the introduction of autonomy. Autonomy and accountability goes hand in hand. This provides the college freedom to design their curriculum. Unfortunately most of the colleges use this status as a means for fund raising. Also while designing the curriculum they give prime importance to employability and least importance to ethical and social values. This will pave way for a self-centered attitude among the educated elite. Transparency of curriculum to the common man is crucial in making autonomy by bringing social values in it. The government should monitor the autonomous colleges through universities so that autonomy is not misused by the colleges. But the sad aspects of the universities are that their focus and objectives are far away from developing the higher education.
CHOICE-BASED CREDIT SYSTEM
Today most of the colleges are following the CBCS system in providing education. This system, which was imposed by the government, also provides only a minimum scope for imparting social values. The important feature of CBCS is that it concentrates more on skill based electives and non-major electives. Even the system adopted by the government is not providing a platform for socially relevant higher education in India.
PRIVATISATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Today the government allows the private parties to compete in higher education. The role of private parties in higher education is inevitable. But private education mostly concentrates on technical education rather than Arts and Science. Social values are not a part in the technical education. Also an extension activity was not a part in its curriculum. Again these private institutions compete each other to admit students. So they spent crores of rupees for advertisement and campus interview but they do not concentrate on the wholistic development of the students. Finally the students become intellectuals without social awareness. A strict control on private higher education institutions are the requisite for creating social ethics among the students.
Today the much debated topic on higher education is allowing the foreign universities to provide higher education in India. The argument kept by the current UPA II government is that it creates a healthy competition which in turn will increase efficiency and efficiency will bring quality in higher education. This argument is correct partly. But the main question unanswered is whether these institutions can provide a platform for our students to learn our traditional values and customs. The qualities of such universities are doubtful because only the third ranked foreign universities are coming to India and their motive is to make profit only. So they do not provide the socially relevant higher education. Again even if they provide the social values in education that will be the westernized values which does not suit our country. The social values will erode and finally a chaos will prevail in our country.
Another danger of allowing foreign universities in India is that the Indian institutions, mostly private has to compete with foreign universities in admitting the students. So in order to encounter the competitions of these foreign universities, our universities also have to engage in concentrating on providing only employable skills and not the social values. So this move is also going to endanger the minimum social values provided in India today. So the government has to be cautious in bringing foreign universities to India.
GOVERNMENT AND HIGHER EDUCATION
The role of government is crucial in bringing higher education with social concern. The government of India in its action plan report of 12th plan has emphasised that higher education should be taken out from the non-profit zone and a nominal profit should be implemented. Thus the main stake holder of higher education is trying to bring higher education towards profit earning sector. So social values will take the second seat. The government considers higher education as a liability. There is also lack of co-ordination among the institution like HRD, UGC, AIT etc. which monitors the higher education in India.
MARKET ECONOMY AND HIGHER EDUCATION
Today all aspects are determined by the market economy. It has also touched the higher education. The market economy always imparts a pressure on the students from the school education. It wants people to acquire employable skills to work in the private concern. On the one hand the employment in organized sector is diminishing and on the other hand the job opportunities are only available in private concerns. So survival of the fittest is the order of the day and this makes the students to concentrate more on acquiring knowledge rather than participating in social agitation or discussions in social aspects. The education providers are also not providing the room for the students to discuss the social evils. The joy of learning is missing today. Thus the market economy provides the students with lop sided development. A capitalistic attitude is prevailing among the educated students.
The market also fixes the wage for the teachers in private higher education institution. As the supply exceeds the demand, the market wage is low. So these teachers do not have the urge to provide a socially relevant education. They are not ready to discuss things which are outside the curriculum (i.e) social issues and the management also does not permit them. Only good salary and job security can motivate the teachers to discuss social issues.
It is also disheartening to note that 80 percent of the graduates of Metropolitan cities prefer to work in foreign countries. This shows that our education was not able to inspire the young generation to a moral commitment of working in India for the well being of common man.
The above analysis highlights that the present higher education provides a lop-sided development. It provides only intelligence, but not the emotional intelligence and social concern. This is a dangerous sign as most of these students may be intelligent criminals. There is difference between education with social concern and education without social concern. A best example is the terrorists who demolished the twin buildings of U.S.A. He is very intelligent in hijacking a flight and entering into the territory of U.S.A. But he does not have the social concern and compassion to the persons in towers and their relatives. So there is an urgent need for a radical change in the higher education through which we have to include social concern, which will in turn will bring peaceful co-existence of the people of India.
Bhattacharya,J. (2012), ‘Higher Education in India: Issues, Concern and Remedies, University News, Vol.50, No.17.
Government of India (2013) Twelfth Five Year Plan 2012-2017,New Delhi: Planning Commission.
Jitendra Gandhi (2013), ‘Life Skill Education: An Urgent Need in Higher Education’, University News, December 09-15, Vol. 51., No. 49.
Research Methods Chapter: Filipino Work Values in Education
METHOD OF THE STUDY
The descriptive-correlation method is utilized to describe the general characteristics of the respondents in this study and to examine the existing relationship or differences between work values, job satisfaction and work performance. This method enables the researcher to make a thorough analysis of the relationship between the indicators of FWVS, JSS and the results of the Teachers’ Efficiency Rating of the respondents.
Specifically, descriptive method was used to define the respondents’ dominant work values, level of job satisfaction and the level of work performance according to the different indicators given in the utilized tools. Moreover, this method is also used to describe the capacity of work values to determine the future outcomes of job satisfaction and work performance. While, correlation method was utilized to delve on the relationship between the different aspects of work values and job satisfaction, and work values and work performance.
To obtain the pertinent data for this study, standardized tests and evaluation tool were utilized as the main instruments.
This study utilized the Filipino Work Values Scale – Employee Edition (FWVS – EE) The Filipino Work Values Scale (FWVS) is a standardized instrument designed to determine a person’s work values. The scale consists of 80 items, distributed into 10 subscales. It takes approximately 15 to 20 minutes to accomplish it (Manual, 1987). The 10 subscales are the: Environmental, Familial, Intellectual – Achievement, Interpersonal, Management, Material, Occupation, Organization, Religious and Variety. This tool was rated using the Likert Scale Rating (1 – Very Unimportant, 2 – Unimportant, 3 – Neutral, 4 – Important and 5 – Very Important). This test consists of a test booklet where the general and specific directions were indicated, and a separate answer sheet to indicate the respondents’ answers. This test can be self – administered. The author sought for the permission of the owner of this tool which is attached in Appendix B.
To obtain the level of the job satisfaction of the participants, Job Satisfaction Survey by Paul E. Spector was used. The Job Satisfaction Survey, JSS is a 36 item, nine-facet scale to assess employee attitudes about the job and aspects of the job. The nine facets are Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Rewards, Co-workers, Nature of Work, and Communication which are rated from 1 or “Disagree very much” to 6 or “Agree very much.” Although the JSS was originally developed for use in human service organizations, it is also applicable in the education setting (Spector, 2001). The survey has an existing norm for teachers in Asian countries. This tool has been widely used and has existing local norm in the Philippines such as in the study conducted by Bansil (2010) in the study entitled “The relationship of job satisfaction and job performance of call center agents in outbound program” and Rosales and her colleagues (2013), “Nurses’ Job Satisfaction and Burnout: Is there a connection?”.The author obtained permission from the local authors who utilized JSS in their local researches for reliability and validity purposes. The copy of the letter of permission was attached in Appendix C.
The researcher obtained and analyzes the respondents’ work performance from the institution’s previous school year’s work evaluation, Teachers’ Efficiency Rating. Efficiency Rating tool is a key component of employee development. It is intended to be a fair and balanced assessment of an employee’s performance (Claret Employee Manual, 1999).
Administration. After securing permit from the school administrators, the researcher prepared the materials which are: Filipino Work Values Scale (Employee Edition) which was obtained from the author, Dr. Vicentita Cervera, and the Job Satisfaction Survey by Paul E. Spector, which was obtained from the website and was utilized upon the approval of the author. The tests were self-administered and there was no time allotment. The instructions were indicated in the booklets and answer sheets, where the respondents can readily read the instructions and understood easily. The materials were distributed during the in-service training seminar in the Audio-Visual Room (AVR) of CSQC where all the old and newly hired teachers were required to attend. The researcher was able to obtain the target respondents.
The researcher was given 1 hour to conduct the administration of the tests. Other Guidance Counselors facilitated the distribution of the materials while the researcher explained the instructions where ten minutes was consumed. Fifteen to twenty minutes was allotted in answering the FWVS and another ten to fifteen minutes was given in answering the JSS. After each test, the Guidance Counselors collected the materials and proceeded to the inspection of answer sheets. Those answer sheets with incomplete responses and answer sheets of newly hired teachers were eliminated. A total of 109 qualified answer sheets were collected.
The checking and scoring of the accomplished FWVS and JSS answer sheets started immediately after the data gathering and this was done for one month. The encoding of responses followed by the end of July, 2014 using the SPSS version 11.5 package.
The researcher utilized the non – probability purposive sampling technique (Rosales, 2013). This method was used based on the given criteria and specifications identified by the researcher. In this technique, the researcher based on his personal judgment in selecting the participants who best meet the purposes of his study. Ariola (2006) explains that whoever qualifies and is available is taken until the desired number of sample is attained. Specifically, stakeholder sampling (Palys, 2014) is utilized, one of the kinds of purposive sampling which is useful in the context of evaluation research and analysis of the teachers’ work values, job satisfaction and work performance, who are also involved in receiving and affected by the program that is designed according to the results.
TREATMENT OF DATA
Data were computed and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5). Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics included weighted mean to describe the teachers’ dominant work values difference work values, extent of job satisfaction and work performance and linear regression analysis to identify the future outcome of job satisfaction and work performance based on the dominant work values. Pearson – r coefficient of correlation was utilized to determine the correlation of variables and its significance.
Weighted Mean. The researcher utilized this computation to get the weighted mean scores of each work values to identify the extent of importance on each work values, criteria of job satisfaction and work performance, with a formula of:
∑x = N/ n
To determine the verbal interpretation of work values, this scale was used:
4.50 to 5.00Very Important
3.50 to 4.49Important
2.50 to 3.49Neutral
1.50 to 2.49Unimportant
1.00 to 1.49Very Unimportant
To determine the verbal interpretation of the job satisfaction, this scale was used:
Mean RangeVerbal Description
5.50 to 6.00Agree very much
4.50 to 5.49Agree moderately
3.50 to 3.49Agree slightly
2.50 to 3.49Disagree slightly
1.50 to 2.49Disagree moderately
1.00 to 1.49Disagree very much
To determine the verbal interpretation of the respondents’ work performance, this scale was utilized:
4.5 to 5.0Very Evident
3.5 to 4.4Evident
2.5 to 3.4Fairly Evident
1.5 to 2.4Hardly Evident
1.0 to 1.4Not Evident
Pearson – r. The Pearson – r or Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) is used in determining strength of correlation or association between two or more interval or ratio data (Ariola, 2006). This treatment was used to determine the degree and the nature of correlation between work values, job satisfaction and work performance.
To determine the degree of relationship that exists between the variables, the following scale was used:
If r = .70 or higherVery strong positive relationship
.40 to .69Strong positive relationship
.30 to .39Moderate positive relationship
.20 to .29weak positive relationship
.01 to .19No or negligible relationship
-.01 to -.19No or negligible relationship
-.20 to -.29weak negative relationship
-.30 to -.39Moderate negative relationship
-.40 to -.69Strong negative relationship
-.70 or higherVery strong negative relationship
To determine the interpretation of the computed generated p – value in comparison with the level of significance, SPSS as used as shown on the scale below:
P-value < 0.05Reject Ho Significant
level of significance
p-value > 0.05Accept HoNot Significant
level of significance
Correlation of coefficient reveals the positive ( ) or negative (-) relationship between work values (x variable) and job satisfaction or work performance criteria (y variable). Positive significant relationship explains that as the x variable increases, y variable also increases, and vice – versa. Additionally, the significance of relationship of work values was based on the ρ – value, where the computed ρ – value<0.05 level of significance to be significant.
Regression Analysis. The Regression Analysis is important in measuring the effectiveness of work value as determinant of job satisfaction and work performance. It is actually the equation of a straight line in a form of:
y = a bx
Consequently, correlation of determination (R – square, R2) is the outcome of regression. In the study, R-square determines the future outcome of the respondents’ job satisfaction (y – intercept) and work performance (y – intercept) based on their work values (x – slope). R – square is expressed in percentage, where the highest possible variance of a variable is .1 or 100%.