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Gendered Issue of HIV/AIDS Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction

Social Cultural Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women

Biological Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women

Psychological Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women



Introduction More African women are suffering from the HIV epidemic today than men. According to the UNAIDS (n.d), the activists and international agencies’ research continue to show astonishing figures concerning the subject of HIV/AIDS infections in Africa with relation to the gender parity. It also placed forward the importance of campaign to help the women in the effort to counter the disease.

Social Cultural Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women The African woman encounters many challenges in her daily life. Even at the time of illness, she has to find the strength to get out of bed and cater for the children’s needs.

Every morning calls for the process to search for food, fetch water and maybe firewood. Most people in these developing countries live a day at a time, without any extra or future plans (Fuler, 2008). In most instances, the dependence fall on the well-wishers or the non-governmental charitable organization and this probably befalls occasionally.

Considering majority of the women who mainly hail from the poverty infested areas, if the child is not infected, the probability of that child suffering from malnutrition is very high. Most husbands do not have stable work to support the families and these forces the men to live the family to search for the same and such actions are mostly never counterproductive.

Most of the infected women also face discrimination from the family members especially the in-laws who point accusing fingers at them. They are treated as outcasts as a way of expelling the condition from the community.

The only available resources remain dedicated for the drugs of which the “Mother Nature” consciousness causes her to serve the infected children first or probably because her hope for life is long gone. The women’s only concern therefore remains to be that of the children.

The HIV AIDS epidemic has entered another calamitous decade in Africa especially for the woman. The common scenarios in the East and Southern Africa according to the recent concerns by the government, and other joint non-governmental organization programs, have become conscious of the plight the African woman has to face (DeCapua, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today the global predicament against AIDS does not only focus on the African face in general. “Scientist and researchers are scrambling to find the causes, fashions or new policies regarding AIDS in Africa” (UNAIDS n.d).

Biological Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women The need for agencies to educate women has become a critical issue. If people do not take the educational initiative to fight the epidemic, women may become an endangered species in Africa. The women ought to be educated regarding their biological nature. Female reproductive body structures cause high susceptibility to the HIV/AIDS infections than their male counterparts.

The infection rate has risen among the young women and this is attributable to their sexual active nature. Their bodies are still in the developmental stage and probably the reason behind the sexual activeness. Biologically, the infection of HIV the virus causing AIDS on women translates to infection of at least one of the children especially due to the illiteracy rates (Fuller, 2008).

There is probably ignorance, lack of enough resources or illiteracy that makes majority of the African women suffer from such conditions at the alarming rate.

As part of the procedures in finding out why the epidemic is a serious factor that need urgent consideration, there is need to educate women on the biological nature of their bodies and ways of avoiding infections especially the mother-child transmission. Arguably, the virus first spread at an alarming rate in Africa compared to other continents leaving very many people devastated, dreadful and venerable to many other deadly opportunistic infections for a long period.

According to (UNAIDS, n.d.) the probable reason behind this phenomenon is lack of proper and enough attention by the government and its people over the difficulty its populace faces especially the illiteracy levels in women. The responsibility is not women’s, but it is a social and economical for everyone connected to the infected.

Psychological Issues of HIV/AIDS on African Women The level of illiteracy in most African countries is very high especially among women and the girl child. The probable explanation behind this is the cultural practices. Today, there have been remarkable efforts especially by the non-governmental organizations concerning the empowerment of the girl-child.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gendered Issue of HIV/AIDS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cultural believes creates a psychological perception that the girl child ought to be the home person to cater for the husband and children thus education is not a requirement or a consideration. Most communities or ethnicities married off their teenage girls in exchange for the hefty dowry remunerations thus denying the girl child her right to education.

These are the most probable psychological perspectives that cause the current illiteracy levels among the African women today. This is arguably the biggest challenge today’s education system in Africa has to face and deal with. The liberation of the girl child does not come easily. Sexual education is almost a taboo in most African cultural settings, and it only finds a better elaboration during the rights of passage.

Conclusion The administration of sexual education occurs in most parts of the continent today without necessarily having to be concern over the education setting. With the help of well-wishers such as donors, there is a fight with the quest to liberate the girl child.

Current Illiteracy rates means the type of education on provision is evidently not in line with issues concerning prevalence but a guidance to the way of life as per traditions. One of the biggest challenges the sexual education system has to face concerns the practice of the cultural customs for passage from one social group to another, which are still in practice in most communities today.

The connection between the cultural rituals and believes have a close connection, for instance, the girl child circumcision and early marriages. Most people are still not ready to leave out those cultural believes that kill.

References DeCapua, J. (2010, March 8). New HIV/AIDS Research Agenda to Better Respond to Women and Children. Voice of America News (VOA) Retrieved from

Fuller, L.K. (2008). African women’s unique vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS: communication perspectives and promises Palgrave Macmillan Publishers.

UNAIDS. (n.d.) Global health: U.S. Agency for International Development fights AIDS in Africa, but better data needed to measure impact: report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on African Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate. New York, NY. DIANE Publishers.

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Supervisory Skills Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Having been assigned the role of the head of Quality control department with a couple of departmental directors, inspectors and managers to supervise, boosting the morale would be the initial step to solicit for better performance levels.

How many times do the employees wish to finish their tasks and depart? How many times do they wish for a break, have a day-off, wish for everyday to be a Friday? Worse still, how many times do the employees fake illness to be away from work? The answers are a reflection of the employees’ morale, either high or low.

Constant communication between the top management and the frontline employee boosts the employee’s morale. Expectation is the key word to the issue of low morale. “When morale decreases for whatever reason, productivity usually tumbles right along with it.” (Salerno and Brock, 2008) The signs of low morale are constant employee absenteeism, work related accidents and, increase in dissatisfaction especially among the customers.

As the Vice President, the supervisor ought to focus on the employees’ mood revived through motivation and safeguarding their activity levels to boost the low morale.

Performance means the company’s expectations from the employees. What are the job expectations? It is important for a newly appointed supervisor to understand what is required for the employees. For instance, the training materials have to cater for their physical expectations for example, the performance hours, the working environment or the schedules.

As the leader, the supervisor has to play a major role in practical production: a good leader does so by example. It is equally important for the supervisor to be clear and upfront on the requirements.

The accountability expectations are equally crucial. The employees have to know supervisor’s expectations and understand their responsibility and accountability. Accountability calls for testing procedures especially after training. There should be criteria for provision of feedback to them especially when it is required for behavioural change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good communication system ought to offer provisions for giving feedback on performance. Employees should be in a position to move to any managerial level to voice their concerns thus use the feedback as a learning tool. Giving the employees a chance to contribute to managerial thoughts enables them to feel appreciated and valued and implementing good employees’ ideas motivates them.

Training at the departmental levels and the company at large comes in handy during the implementation stage. A good supervisor explains the reasons for not implementing a suggested idea thus the employee still feels important. Achievement is a major source of motivation thus resulting to productivity. Work related stress is one of the key source of work related pressure and consequently poor performance. There is therefore urgent need for control of personal stress and circumstances.

The supervisor has to teach the directors some stress management skills such as taking time-out of an event as a training procedure. Appreciating the efforts is also a good way of encouraging the stress management. According to Burton (2000), a supervisor should inform the employees on what to expect when dealing with the specified business expectations.

To have an achievable goal, it is important to boast a well-defined set of direction. The short and long-term goals assist in service development, improvement of quality, error correction or reduction, training better customer-focused personnel and, ability to having better internal and public relations.

The supervisors need to define the goals and good reasons for setting them. According to Burton (2000), “A goal is a statement indicating the organization’s desired future achievements.” Long-term goals are strategic statements indicating where the organization ought to be at a specified time in future while short-term are tactical, with results having a basis on departmental levels.

Goals are set to serve as an “internal source of motivation and commitment as a guide to actions and means of measuring the business performance” (Burton, 2000).the employees are able to conceptualize and coherently agree on the organization’s future endeavours. The supervisor focuses on enhancing an understanding organizational strategies or culture that assures employees achieve the set goals.

If a goal provides a description of the achievement, then it is specific or focused. It states the organization’s exact aim and is ease in understanding for those involved. Good and clear communication calls for a well-written form of the specified goals to assist in formation of objectives and action plans. A measurable goal is quantifiable to establish baseline data and a target for measuring and benchmarking progress.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Supervisory Skills specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Attainable goals indicate chances of achieving or accomplishing targets. Although challenging, a goal should have a connection to the involved employees in the achievement. The supervisor and the directors from the various departments have to come to a mutual understanding with regard to the set goal, time and resources. Flexibility is equally a requirement for modifications until the achievement of the set goals (Salerno and Brock, 2008).

The mission and vision of an organization must be in terms with the appropriate achievements depending on the set goal. Each goal ought to moves towards achievements. Relevant goals support other organizational goals, thus enhancing consistency. The short-term goals are also consistent with the long-term. An achievable goal has a bound on time. It has a starting, intermediate and end. Limiting the goal on time assists in focusing towards achievement.

Conclusion Reorganization calls for change, which is inevitable in most upgrading scenarios. This however causes a main challenge, that most employees are afraid of sudden and massive changes, thus the need to brainstorming as an advance strategy to accepting the changes in the day-to-day normal activities. Change should “bring new opportunity for personal growth, accomplishment and organizational success“(Salerno and Brock, 2008). The supervisors need to consider realistic expectations during the changes.

One way to encourage this change is by enhancing departmental powers for creativity and interventions especially when dealing with challenges that require certain department’s innovative solutions. The directors need to expand their value to the organization by offering solutions to the existing challenges. The company faces challenges connected to changes but eventually these are temporary risks, which require bonus managerial considerations and willpower.

References Barton, R.B. (2000). Organizational Goal Setting and Planning. Murray State University, Murray, KY. Web.

Salerno, A. And Brock, L. (2008). The Change Cycle: How People Can Survive and Thrive in Organizational Change. Berrett-koehler Series. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.