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Gaap Has Allowed Some Degree Of Managerial Judgment And Flexibility On Managers Accounting Essay

For accounting method, Generally Accepted Accounting Principle (GAAP) has allowed some degree of managerial judgment and flexibility on managers to choose their own accounting method, disclosures and estimates which can make their business underlying with the economics. By applying managerial judgement, it will give chance for the company to achieve on their own desired level of earning .This judgement is referred as to earning management (Wensheng and Jie; Belski and Brozovsky, 2002). According to Parfet (2000), with the flexibility and options given by GAAP it gives a good impact for economic development as others think that they really need the flexibility in accounting methods as diverse industries have different accounting requirements and changes which quickly happen than the FASB can respond. However, there is opportunity to the management to manage earning when many flexibility and options is given in accounting treatment such as too many depreciation methods, and inventory valuation methods whereby give a chance to managers to choose the method that can achieve a certain level of income. Moreover, the information provided will be overload and user can easily to get confused when there are many options given and accounting profession feels that it is too costly for the preparation and audit of financial statement.
As cited by Greenfield, Norman and Wier (2008) on study done by Rosenfield (2000) earning management has been allowed by GAAP in two ways. First way, GAAP permit the company to report all the income that has not been earned and second way, GAAP permit income smoothing whereby reporting the income with stability. There are examples given for these types of accounting practices such as recording revenues earlier than allowed, moving obligation to offshore holding companies to increase income and recording products sales as revenue preceding to definite shipment. For management perceptions, the purpose they operate the company is to have a continuous improvement in their operating business performance with progressively and consistently as to raise financial income and long term development in shareholders’ value. As for them, sometime they need to have smooth income earning for the value of company’s stable growth (Parfet, 2000).
Issues of earning management have been arising and take into consideration for a long decade in the accounting profession. These issues have been proven by the case of Enron and WorldCom whereby both the corporate giants collapsed due to practice of earning management. Thus, for company that involve with earning management will bring a lot of consequences and difficulties. It can be given example wherein earning management may let the management to achieve their earning based bonus which also may give impact on management’s reputation. Particularly, managers that involve with earning management activities like increase the share price; they also involve in earning management for their own personal purpose and gain (Healy and Wahlen, 1999). Besides, it may cause the problems in management ethics wherein it will be questioned and issued (Guidry, Leone and Rock, 1999).
In fact, Merchant and Rockness, 1994 has claimed that earning management may bring and give a potential to the ethical issue that are facing by accounting profession. It has been shown in their study wherein providing the evidence on the ethical assessment of earning management inside the organization which is between their various members only. General Managers, operating unit controller, internal auditor and corporate staff has been involved for this study. Futhermore, referring to Kaplan, 1999, he has extend Merchant and Rockness study by doing the ethical assessment that focusing on the external parties which is outside the organization where is called as users of financial statements. Managers, companies and policy makers will be aware and take a serious action when there is involvement by the external parties as they views earning management as unethical. Means that, if users of financial statement considered earning management as unethical, as a result it will affect managers’ and companies’ wherein they will suffer and credibility of companies in the financial markets will be damaged.
Referring to Elias (2002), in late1998 of a series of speeches by the former Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Arthur Levitt warned that for those who are misleading in managing earning in the financial report may finally give a bad impact to the US stock market:
“If a company fails to provide meaningful disclosure to investors about where it has been, a damaging pattern ensues. The bond between shareholders and the company is shaken; investors grow anxious; prices fluctuate for no discernible reasons; and the trust that is the bedrock of our capital markets is severely tested.”
Levitt (1998) claimed that earning management is a process on “game of nods and winks” between corporate managers, auditors and analysts. He put notice to the accounting profession wherein any of them is consider as poisoning the financial reporting process when they involve in grey area between legitimacy and outright fraud. Besides, he noted that management may threatening the integrity of financial reporting when they mistreatment of premature revenue recognition, “cookie jar” reserves, “big bath” restructuring charges, creative acquisition accounting and write off of purchased in process R

Depreciation And Provision For Depreciation Accounting Essay

Depreciation is the cost allocated as expense which has the effects of reducing the value of a fixed asset during the period it is used by a business. It is a non-cash expense and need to be charged to the Profit