Siti Shawati binti Wasli
With the accomplishment of the Human Genome Project, the prominence is escalating to the protein compliment of the human organism. This has given upsurge to the science of proteomics, the study of all the proteins produced by cell and organism and their interactions in a cell (Cho, 2007). Proteomics is the protein counterpart of genomics and has seized the imagination of bio-molecular researchers globally. It comprises a wide range of technologies targeted at determining the quantity and identity of expressed proteins in cells, their three-dimensional structure as well as interaction partners (Cho, 2007). Hence, the branches of proteomics includes sequence and structural proteomics, expression proteomics, interaction proteomics and functional proteomics. As protein-protein interactions are fundamental to signal transduction to numerous regulatory processes, a systematic organisation of protein-protein interfaces is a valuable source for modelling protein complexes and for comprehending the principles of molecular recognition (Cho, 2007). An integration of functional, structural, and dynamic information is required in order to find out how one protein regulates the action of another by binding to it.
Sequence and Structural Proteomics
Structural proteomics is the large-scale establishment of the three-dimensional structures of proteins (Rastogi, Mendiratta,
Lymphatic Filariasis Disease: Causes and Treatments
Lymphatic Filariasis is a disease that is on the World Health Organization’s (WHO) top ten list of diseases to eliminate by 2020. Left untreated and undetected, it can lead to a condition called Elephantiasis. The name comes from the severe swelling of the limbs that occurs during the chronic state of the disease. It is transmitted via mosquitoes to humans in tropical and sub-tropical climates and it is endemic in a large number of countries around the world. Prevention is possible via some very basic methods and early detection and treatment can prevent long-term consequences associated with the disease.
Lymphatic Filariasis is a little known disease in the United States but it is on the World Health Organization’s top ten list of diseases to eliminate along with Malaria and leprosy (Narain, J.P., Dash, A.P., Parnell, B., Bhattacharya, S.K., Barua, S., Bhatia, R. et al., 2010). A large portion of the population of the planet is at risk of contracting this often debilitating disease.
Lymphatic Filariasis is also referred to as Bancroft’s Filariasis and Elephantiasis when the disease it has progressed to its chronic state. (Elephantiasis, 2010).
The main causative organism is a microscopic parasitic roundworm. There are three different types of this worm: Wuchereria bancrofti (most common and makes up 90% of all cases), Brugia malay and Brugia timori (Longe, 2006). Wuchereria bancrofit lives in warm regions on every continent except North America (Callahan, 2002). Brugia malayi is primarily found in India, Southeast Asia and Indonesia (Callahan, 2002). Brugia timori is found to a very limited extent in Timor.
The disease has two stages, acute and chronic. When the disease is in the acute phase, the symptoms usually include a recurring fever and infections of the lymph vessels or nodes in the arms, legs or genitals which can lead to severe and permanent swelling of the lymph vessels and secondary infections (Elephantiasis, 2010). In the chronic stage, the worms block the lymphatic areas of the limbs which cause overgrowth of the limb or body part because the lymphatic system is not able to perform its function of draining fluid out of the area (Callahan, 2002). Males may also have swelling in the scrotum. This is how the disease gets the name of Elephantiasis because the limbs enlarge to the point where they resemble elephant limbs and the skin takes on a rough texture like elephant skin (Ferrara, 2010).
The precise mechanism that causes the pathology of the disease is not known and some people who are infected may not show any signs or symptoms for many months and sometimes even years (Rajan, 2003). The parasite apparently only infects humans and has never been found to affect animals. The parasite migrates to the lymphatic vessels and takes up residence. It then matures into the worm over the course of a few months to one year and begin producing the microfilariae which is suspected of causing the initial fevers and chills that are the first symptoms of the disease (Rajan, 2003). Also, if a person is infected once, they may never actually develop any symptoms even though the worm is living in their lymphatic system and the microfilarasia are circulating in their blood. It is repeated exposure with multiple worms along with the worms excretions and blockage of the lymphatic system that seems to cause the disease to progress to its most severe form especially since the worm will normally die sometime after seven year (Rajan, 2003).
Duration of Disease
The duration of Lymphatic Filariasis varies depending on the number of re-infections suffered by a host. A person with Elephantiasis can live with the disease and usually dies from complications and secondary infections from the worms both living and dead (Wallace