There are five developmental stages in a growing child’s life. It all starts at birth, which is known as infancy, it lasts until age 2. Then there is early childhood which is from ages 2-6, and then comes middle childhood which is from 6-10 years old. Early adolescence is the next stage which spans from 10-14 years old and then late adolescence which is from 14-18 years old. The two stages that stand out most in development to me are middle childhood and late adolescence. From the earliest age in middle childhood to the oldest age in late adolescence, there is an eight year gap. There is so much growing done in between these two stages that the transition is truly remarkable.
Emergent Literacy begins in the very early stages of childhood, and is the beginning of Literacy development, involving such activities as ‘reading’ from pictures and ‘writing’ with scribbles. ‘Reading’ a book from memory while turning the pages of the book, develops a child’s understanding of books and stories, as well as giving them a sense of accomplishment and pride, and is an important step towards becoming an independent reader. From the day children are born they require a form of communication in order to function adequately in society. A pre-speech baby will use gestures and expressions and babblings to interact with others. A toddler will participate in turn taking to satisfy a need or want. The more pre-schoolers participate in the world, the more they discover that language is useful. The First six years of children’s lives play a crucial part in their development. During this time, children’s brains develop at a astonishing rate. Parents and other family members play a key role in early development, as their children’s first and most important teachers.
Early Literacy development is not considered as teaching a child to read in a formal way, it’s about helping children to make sense of their world by developing strong oral language skills. It’s about valuing home language and culture as building blocks, allowing children to explore the world of literacy. It’s about providing lots of positive interactions between children’s older peers and parents. In addition to an environment which is rich in Literacy resources and models language and Literacy for young children to copy.
The NWT Literacy council suggests it was generally considered that literacy development belonged mostly in schools, whilst children learnt to read and write. The formal teaching of writing and reading still happens at school, but Literacy doesn’t begin when children start to learn the letters of the alphabet, or write their name, or go to school. The foundation for Literacy development begins much earlier- some people say it starts in the womb. The development is acquired thorough children interacting with adults and older children. Also through a child’s play and experiences with Literacy resources such as stories, songs, rhymes, crayons, pens and paper.
Children with a hearing impairment range from those with a mild hearing impairment to those who are profoundly deaf. They cover the whole ability range. Hearing impairment may be due to conductive or sensory-neural problems. Four categories are generally used: mild, moderate, severe and profound.
In education, pupils are considered to have a hearing impairment if they need hearing aids, adaptations to the environment or particular teaching strategies in order to access the curriculum.
“Serious hearing lost occurs in about two per thousand of the population” pg 1 (D, Goldstein)
Briggle, S (2005, p.69) makes the point that literacy development for children who have hearing impairment is a multifaceted issue. Within Literacy development there any many parallels to hearing children, as well as some elements which are unique to children who are hearing impaired.
It is well recognized that hearing is critical to speech and language development, communication, and learning. Children with listening difficulties due to hearing impairment or auditory processing problems continue to be an underidentified and underserved population.
The earlier hearing impairment occurs in a child’s life, the more serious the effects on the child’s development. Similarly, the earlier the problem is identified and intervention begun, the less serious the ultimate impact.
There are four major ways in which hearing impairment affects Literacy development in children. Firstly causing a delay in the development of receptive and expressive communication skills. Language deficit causes learning problems that often result in reduced academic achievement. Communication difficulties can often lead to social isolation, poor self-concept and may impact the child’s ability to make choices.
Vocabulary also develops more slowly in children who have a hearing impairment. Children with hearing impairment are able to learn concrete words like cat, jump, five, and red more easily than abstract words like before, after, equal to, and jealous. They also have difficulty with function words like the, an, are, and a. The gap between the vocabulary of children with normal hearing and those with hearing impairment widens with age. Children with hearing impairment are not able to catch up without appropriate early intervention. Children with hearing impairment also have difficulty understanding words with multiple meanings.
It is common for children with hearing impairment to comprehend and produce shorter and simpler sentences than children with normal hearing. Children with hearing impairment often have difficulty understanding and writing complex sentences, such as those with relative clauses or passive voice. Children with hearing impairment often cannot hear word endings such as -s or -ed. This can lead to misunderstandings and misuse of verb tense, pluralisation and possessives.
Children with hearing impairment often cannot hear quiet speech sounds such as “s,” “sh,” “f,” “t,” and “k” and therefore do not include them in their speech. Therefore, speech may be difficult to understand. Children with hearing impairment may not hear their own voices when they speak. They may speak too loudly or not loud enough. They may have a speaking pitch that is too high. They may sound like they are mumbling because of poor stress, poor inflection, or poor rate of speaking.
Lastly, children with hearing impairment have difficulty with all areas of academic achievement, especially reading and mathematical concepts. Children with mild to moderate hearing impairments, on average, achieve one to four grade levels lower than their peers with normal hearing, unless appropriate management occurs. Children with severe to profound hearing impairment usually achieve skills no higher than Ks3/4, unless appropriate educational intervention occurs early. The gap in academic achievement between children with normal hearing and those with hearing impairment usually widens as they progress through school. The level of achievement is related to parental involvement and the quantity, quality, and timing of the support services children receive.
“By the age of three years the average normally hearing child has a vocabulary of approximately 1,000 words”
(Bond, D. 1981p.g 19)
Children learn this language from what they hear and by the age of three master many grammatical elements of language. The hearing impaired child may not have the advantage of comforting and reassuring sounds within their environment, unless directly directed towards them. Even with the assistance of hearing aids and recent technology advances many hearing impaired children report listening unpleasant.
Research into Children’s language acquisition in recent years has provided detailed information on the way in which sentence structures and grammatical systems develop within language.
“Language acquisition is essentially creative; that is, children deduce for themselves the rules which govern the production and comprehension of language”
Davison, M. Pg25
The second important factor is that all children learning English seem to follow a very similar pattern of development. In every child there are differences in the rate of acquisition and the precise order in which new structures are required, although there is a clear developmental trend in the way children develop and this can be used when assessing an individual child’s language
In order to support the development of literacy the government have implemented both initiatives and frameworks. The department for education have introduced and implemented the National Strategy; within this is the Primary Framework for Literacy. The framework is the guideline for all aspects of teaching and literacy development in schools. The National Strategy, which is now part of the Primary National Strategy, has been in place since 1998. In March 2006, Jim Rose released the ‘Independent review of teaching of early reading’. This report outlined the principles of high quality work within a language rich curriculum that gives rise to high standards of reading and writing. The Rose report outlined two obvious but linked procedures involved in teaching children to read, the ability to recognise words and the comprehension of language. The Rose review had a huge impact on the teaching of literacy, influencing positively both planning and teaching significantly.
Transferable Personal Skills Development
Introduction: A better definition of transferable skills would include a wide range of different skills that are not only useful for a wide range of jobs, but will also equip students for a productive career as a research scientist. Critically evaluating data; being able to write clearly and effectively in a range of styles; communicating via formal presentations or the media; networking and managing your time effectively are skills that are useful in many different jobs. Building a core competency in these areas will also certainly make you a better scientist.
It is also important to recognise that your role as a researcher will change dramatically as you progress from student, to research assistant and beyond. In this respect learning about the process of getting published; how to write grants that will get funded and how to manage finances and lead teams of scientist are all indispensable in smoothing the transition to become a Principal Investigator or PI. Although these might not seem to be the most ‘transferable’ of skills, the everyday activities of a PI are so radically different from a student who works at the lab bench that it is effectively a completely different job.
Application of Number
Working with Others
Improving Own Learning and Performance
Literature view: ‘The Government is content for the Authority to mount a small scale pilot of different means of independently assessing these Key Skills. However, I remain sceptical about the feasibility of such independent assessment, and would see such work as having a lower order of priority than either the work on the first three Key Skills or on developing the wider Skills through Progress File.’
‘The transferable skills that employers identify tend to be those that support organisational performance. They may be identified as follows:
It is easy to identify occupationally relevant skills acquired through training and education but much more difficult to pinpoint transferable skills.’
‘We are social animals and need the input from and interaction with others to function effectively as individuals.’
‘One of the most significant ways in which communication can influence individual behaviour is through its ability to change individual perceptions and perceptual bias.’
Transferable skills are important skills which individuals should possess, not only for the purpose of academic programmes of study, but also for that of operating effectively within one’s job role in the workplace. Transferable skills can be seen to be that which are somewhat fundamental skills which benefit individuals with the task at hand. A good example of this is the ability to work well in a team- this is something which is important both when studying and having a job.
Case study: PDP is a process of reflecting and recording my experiences to help me to make the most of my time at Guildhall. It provides a range of specific, targeted techniques that I can use to:
gain new perspectives on my studies, career and life in general
monitor and record my talents and achievements
identify goals and plan my term-time study workload and/or my future career
help me present my skills and accomplishments to prospective employers.
The outcomes of PDP should be:
greater understanding of how much progress I’ve made in all areas of my course
better understanding of my strengths and weaknesses by both me and my Tutor
clearer understanding of what I need to do next
agreement on setting goals and targets
an action plan that summarizes all this.
My academic studies, whilst being the primary part of my experience at Guildhall, are not the ‘whole package’. Some of the most significant changes I’ll encounter will be in the area of personal development. My horizons – geographical, cultural and intellectual – will be broadened by the experience of studying in Guildhall’s international environment, and by the extra-curricular activities and opportunities you choose to pursue.
If this is my first time away from home, living and studying in Guildhall will encourage me to be more independent, self-confident, and resourceful, better at managing my time and your money, and better at working with others. In a word, more mature.
If I are a mature student, I am already likely to have some experience of skills mapping, reflective practice, learning styles, career planning, CV and interview technique. The decision to return to education may have been step one of my career plan. It is still of benefit to reassess your goals from time to time.
Very simply, acquiring basic competency across a range of transferable skills will make me better equipped for any career you chose to follow. Unless you are naturally gifted at everything you do, everyone can benefit from some well structured and focussed training courses. It’s also clear that gaining a range of transferable skills is important in finding your next job. Several surveys of employers have found that although PhD graduates were technically proficient, highly motivated, and resourceful, they needed additional training on “soft skills” such as working in a team, communication, and career planning.
Learning Outcome: If I say something about myself two years before I have come to London for studying with the different people in a different environment. At the begging time I had less able to communicate with the other countries people and another thing is that education system is different. Day by day I am trying to develop my communication skill.
Besides, I am working a part time job in the Burger king which is most popular fast food shop in the Europe. I started there as a sales assistant. I have to communicate with the various kinds of customers. I have to manage so many situations. After few months later I become a Supervisor. I have to manage all my staff, ordering the delivery, receiving the delivery, managing the worst situation.
So I can say communication skill and time managing those are the two most affect full transferable skill I have achieved to get the success. Always I try to attend in my class in time and my work place. That is why I can get the entire lesson in the class and I got the reputation in my work place because of time maintaining. I never be defocus depending on time management. Another thing is that for my well communication skill I can discuss about my study with teachers and my class mates as well as I can manage my all the staffs and the customers in the shop.
Conclusion: In addition to these good reasons for spending some time acquiring transferable skills, I will also find that they are an important topic at the Institute. Indeed, I will hear your supervisor and the Education Support team mention transferable skills regularly. This is because there is now a requirement for students to spend ten days per year on transferable skills training and without doing this we can’t complete our PhD.