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Extracting DNA from Fruit in Various Stages of Ripeness

INTRODUCTION This life science based experiment will test strawberries in their various stages of ripeness, in order to see which stage will yield the most extractable DNA. An extraction kit will be designed from common household items, such as salt and detergent, in order to purify the DNA so that it is visible to the naked eye and can be weighed. Three degrees of strawberry will be tested: strawberries that have not fully ripened yet, identified by their firm bodies that are still a mixture of green and red; strawberries that have ripened fully, identified by their firm-but-not-hard bodies and bright red color; and strawberries that are overly ripe, which can be identified by their mushy and easily bruised bodies, as well as their dark red color.
PROBLEM STATEMENT Which degree of strawberry ripeness will yield the most extractable DNA: under ripe, ripe, or over ripe?
SUMMARY OF PROJECT PLAN First, the 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/3 cup of water, and 1 tablespoon of detergent needed for the DNA extraction liquid will be mixed and set aside. Three strawberries of the first stage of ripeness will be placed into a plastic bag and mashed into a pulp. Three tablespoons of the extraction liquid will be added to the bag and blended via the same mashing process. The strawberry mixture will then be poured into a nylon-covered funnel set over a small glass, until the liquid and pulp have been separated. One teaspoon of the strawberry mixture’s liquid will then be poured into a test tube. 5 ml of chilled rubbing alcohol will be poured into the test tube after, so that it forms a layer atop the strawberry liquid. A droplet of blue dye will be added to the mix, so that it settles on the DNA between the layers and dyes it blue, making it easier to identify the DNA. The blue DNA will then be measured using milliliter markings on the test tube, and recorded.
RELEVENCE Deoxyribonucleic Acid – better known as DNA – is a set of instructions that can be found in the cells of every living thing. The study of all DNA is very important. Without it, key medical discoveries that save countless lives every day would not be made. Using DNA, we are able to discover diseases a baby could inherit from its parents before birth, to detect whether a suspect is guilty or innocent, and to find chromosomal defects in patients with Downs Syndrome.
The study of strawberry DNA specifically is also important, and can be applied to several real world scenarios. For instance, scientists are able to isolate particular proteins and chemicals that have been rumored to slow the spread of cancer. They are also able to clone proteins known for turning strawberries red and creating the strawberries’ flavor.
The study of extractable strawberry DNA at various stages in maturation can also be applied to real world scenarios. Scientists are able to compare the growing process and maturation of strawberries to that of other fruits. It can also be used to advise consumers of when strawberries are at their peak, so that they are able to get the optimal amount of nutrients out of the fruit.
A1. Literature Review Two studies were found that related specifically to this one. The first is an experiment conducted in 2009 by William S. Boyd. The second is another experiment conducted in 2005 by Kaeleigh Thorp.
William S. Boyd – Extracting DNA from Fruit in Stages of Ripeness
SUMMARY The objective behind Boyd’s experiment was to find out whether ripe fruit would yield more extractable DNA than unripe or overripe. His experiment involved bananas, kiwis, and strawberries. The result was that, in the case of the kiwis and strawberries, ripe fruit did in fact yield more extractable DNA. However, he found that unripe bananas yield more extractable DNA than ripe and overripe. He concluded that, as fruit ripens, the nutrients break down and it begins to decompose, which destroys cells containing extractable DNA.
CONNECTION As is the case with this experiment, Boyd wanted to know which stage of ripeness would yield the most DNA.
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING Procedures – Many of the procedures in Boyd’s experiment were similar yet different. Instead of putting the fruit in a bag and mashing it with his fingers, the fruit was blended in a food processor. The extraction liquid was chilled instead of the alcohol. The strawberry mixture was drained through nylon, but it was filtered and before being poured into the test tube instead of being filtered directly into the test tube. A graduated eyedropper was used to distribute the alcohol instead of pouring the alcohol down the side of the tube (Boyd, 2009).
Materials – Many of the materials in Boyd’s experiment were also similar. He used salt, water, and detergent to make his extraction liquid, which are the same materials as the extraction liquid in this study. He used alcohol to bring the DNA fibers together, blue dye to enhance the visibility and measurability of the extracted DNA, and a graduated test tube for measurements. However, there were some notable differences. He added pineapple juice to his extraction liquid, and his experiment used bananas and kiwis as well as strawberries, instead of strawberries alone (Boyd, 2009).
Kaeleigh A. Thorp – Extracting DNA from strawberries
SUMMARY The objective behind Thorp’s experiment was to determine whether unripe, ripe, or overripe fruit would yield more extractable DNA. Her experiment used primarily strawberries. She hypothesized that ripe strawberries would yield the most extractable DNA, as under-ripe strawberries were not yet fully developed and overripe strawberries were too far into the decomposition process. Her findings supported her hypothesis, as the ripe strawberries did yield more extractable DNA (Thorp, 2007).
CONNECTION Thorp’s experiment had the same objective as this study – to find out what stage of ripeness would produce the most extractable DNA in Strawberries (Thorp, 2007).
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING Procedures – The procedures of Thorp’s experiment differed very little from this study. She chilled her extraction liquid by sitting it in a bowl of water and ice cubes, where this study did not require the extraction liquid be chilled. She used a blender to mash the fruit, instead of mashing it in a bag using fingers, and added water to it – also something this study did not require. Lastly, again instead of using a plastic bag and fingers, she used a glass extraction rod to mix the extraction liquid with the blended strawberries (Thorp, 2007).
Materials – Thorp used nylon to filer the strawberry mixture, added blue dye to increase visibility and measurability, and used a graduated test tube for measurements, which are all in congruence with this study. However, instead of using salt, water, and detergent to make her own extraction liquid, Thorp used a premade ‘Powdered Buffer’ made up of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and papain enzyme. She also used a premade ‘Cell Blaster’, containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (Thorp, 2007).
A2a. Experimental Design Steps Preparation:
Put the rubbing alcohol in a freezer or refrigerator, so that it will be cold enough to use later.
Step 1: Extraction Liquid
Combine a 1/2 teaspoon of salt, 1/3 cup of water, and 1 tablespoon of detergent in a jar to use as an extraction liquid. Mix it well and set it aside.
Step 2: Prepare DNA for Extraction
Take 3 strawberries and place it in a plastic bag.
Push out all excess air and seal tightly.
Mash the strawberry into a pulp by squeezing the bag with fingers. Do this for 2 minutes.
Pour 3 tablespoons of the extraction liquid into the plastic bag.
Push out all excess air and seal tightly.
Mix the strawberry and extraction liquid by squeezing the bag with fingers. Do this for 1 minute.
Step 3: Separate Liquid from Solid
Stretch the nylon over the funnel.
Place the tube of the funnel into a glass.
Pour the strawberry pulp and extraction liquid over the nylon-lined funnel.
Let the liquid drip into the glass for 30 seconds, or until the nylon stops dripping.
Throw away the nylon and pulp.
Step 4: Extract the DNA
Pour the liquid into the test tube, filling it 1/4th of the way.
Retrieve the rubbing alcohol from the freezer.
Carefully tilting the test tube, pour the rubbing alcohol so that it runs slowly down the side – instead of directly into the strawberry liquid – and forms a layer on top of the strawberry liquid.
Make sure the alcohol and the strawberry liquid do not mix, as the DNA collects between the layers.
Add one drop of blue dye to the mixture.
Take a moment to marvel at the blue gel-like substance (DNA made visible) that forms between the layers.
Step 5: Measure Extracted DNA
Using the graduated milliliter lines on the test tube, measure and record the amount of blue gel-like substance.
Step 6: Repeat Process
Thoroughly clean the cups, jar, test tube and funnel using water and paper towels.
Repeat all of the steps with other strawberries, making sure to record the amount of DNA so a comparison can be made.
A2b. Reasoning
This method of experimental design was chosen because it called for fewer and more readily accessible supplies, and also because it had fewer and uncomplicated steps.
The reasoning behind the method of testing this question was that overly complicated steps allow a higher margin for error. A simpler method provides fewer chances for mistakes to be made.
There were several other studies consulted that had methods of testing similar to what is used in this experiment, but there were no other studies that had methods of testing that were the same. The method of testing in this experiment was developed using bits and pieces of other studies.
The way this question is being tested is a better way than others because it was developed from bits and pieces of other more complicated studies, making it simpler.
A2c. Sequence of Events
The first step in collecting the data is adding one drop of blue dye to the layers of strawberry mixture and alcohol. The dye will collect between the layers and highlight the extracted DNA sitting in the middle, forming a blue gel-like substance. This gel-like substance will be measured and recorded using the millimeter markings on the graduated test tube.
A2d. Tools
Measuring cups
Measuring spoons
Small jar
Graduated test tube
Funnel
Nylon
Drinking Glass
9 Unripe strawberries
9 Ripe strawberries
9 Overripe strawberries
1/2 teaspoon of salt
1/3 cup of water
1 tablespoon of detergent
9 Resealing plastic bags
1 drop of blue dye
A3. Variables A dependant variable is what the scientist measures, and is the part of the experiment that relies on changes made by the independent variable.
An independent variable is what the scientist varies, and is the part of the experiment that decides the outcome of the dependant variable.
A controlled variable is what the scientist keeps the same, and the part of the experiment that must not change in order to ensure that the results are measurable.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Extracted DNA
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Strawberries in three stages of development: under-ripe, ripe, and overripe
CONTROLLED VARIABLE: The amount of strawberries, the amount of extraction liquid, the amount of alcohol, the amount of blue dye, the test tube and all other equipment.
A4. Threat Reduction to Internal Validity Threats to the internal validity of this study have been reduced by the simple testable question, the properly identified variables, the control for outside influences, and the solid experimental procedure.
MATURATION The experiment will be started and completed in a single day, and will take a maximum of two hours. That will allow sufficient time for each trial to be conducted carefully and for the utensils to be cleansed – while assuring that there will be no time for the subjects to change before measurements.
REPEATED MEASUREMENTS The experiment will be repeated three times for each type of strawberry, with a new set of materials each time, equating in exactly nine trial runs. Each sample will be disposed of after results are recorded, before the next trial was done – none of the samples will be reused, nor will they come into contact with each other.
INCONSISTENCE IN INSTRUMENTATION In every trial run, the measurements will be taken using the same graduated test tube, glass, jar, and measuring spoons. Every measurement made will be taken in a way identical to the one before it, so that the outcome of the experiment is not compromised.
EXPERIMENTAL MORTALITY The experiment is designed so that it cannot be completed without all of the subjects, meaning none of the subjects can drop out or be eliminated without completely derailing the study. This way, the trials will remain the same, and the results will not be compromised.
EXPERIMENTER BIAS The experiment did not involve and could not come to any result that the experimenter would benefit directly from. The experimenter remained objective throughout the study.
CONTROLLED VARIABLES There are several controlled variables that limit the factors that could skew the results. The tools for measurement remain the same throughout the trials so that there is no chance of new tools not providing the same results. The amount of strawberries stays the same – three per trial – so that the amount of extractable DNA is not distorted by one trial having more strawberries than the others. The amount of blue dye remains the same throughout the trials so that a larger amount of dye won’t make the results seem bigger than they are.
A5. Hypothesis: I predict that the ripe strawberries will produce more extractable DNA than both the under-ripe strawberries and the overripe strawberries.
This prediction is based on observation. The under-ripe strawberry is still underdeveloped and very firm, meaning that it will likely produce less juice when mashed up – less juice, less DNA. On the flipside, the overripe strawberry is overdeveloped and in a state of degradation, meaning that the DNA will likely be broken down and harder to extract. The ripe strawberry will produce more juice than the overripe, and will not be as susceptible to bruising and damage as the under-ripe, meaning it will likely produce more extractible DNA.
B. Process of Data Collection
The data was collected by first adding one drop of blue dye to the layers of strawberry mixture and alcohol in the graduated test tube. The dye gathered between the layers and around the extracted DNA that sat in the middle, so that it appeared to be a blue gel-like substance. This made the extracted DNA easier to see, which in turn made it easier to measure. The DNA was then measured and recorded using the millimeter markings on the graduated test tube.
PROCESS OF RECORDING DATA:
TOOLS USED FOR COLLECTION:
1 drop of blue dye
Graduated test tube
UNIT OF MEASUREMENT USED:
Millimeter
METHOD OF RECORDING:
Unripe Ripe Over-Ripe Trial #1 3/4 ml
3 1/4 ml
1/2 ml
Trial #2 1/2 ml
2 3/4 ml
1/4 ml
Trial #3 1 ml
3 1/2 ml
1/2 ml
B1. Appropriate Methods
The methods described above were the best to conduct the experiment on this testable question because they relied less on scales. In many other studies, the ulterior way of measuring was to take a wooden rod, spool the DNA, and weigh it on a milligram scale. The wooden rod would be previously weighed and subtracted from the weight of the DNA spooled rod (science buddies). With the method used here, the rod is cut out of the picture – only the DNA itself is measured. By doing this, we ensure that differently-weighted rods cannot skew the weight of the DNA.
The drop of blue dye made it easier to see the extracted DNA. It was important that the DNA be clear so that the measurements were at their utmost accuracy. The graduated test tube made it so the DNA did not have to be spooled or moved before measuring, which kept the specimens together and limited the chances of losing or damaging the specimens. Millimeters were the practical unit of measurement, as the amount of extracted DNA is very small.
C. Results The unripe strawberries were very firm and still mostly green. They were harder to mash up. The first trial including the unripe strawberries yielded 3/4 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded less with 1/2 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial was the most successful, yielding 1 ml of extractable DNA.
The ripe strawberries were softer and bright red all over. They were easier to mash. The first trial including the ripe strawberries yielded 3 1/4 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded less with 2 3/4 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial once again was the most fruitful, yielding 3 1/2 ml.
The over-ripe strawberries were very soft, a darker red, and covered in bruises. They were the easiest to mash up. The first trial including the over-ripe strawberries yielded 1/2 ml of extractable DNA. The second trial yielded a mere 1/4 ml of extractable DNA. The third trial produced the same results as the first, with 1/2 ml of extractable DNA.
As the graph above shows, the ripe strawberries yielded a much larger amount than unripe and over-ripe strawberries. A single parallel is drawn between the unripe and over-ripe strawberries as they both yielded 1/2 ml of extractable DNA in separate trials – unripe reaching 1/2 ml in Trial 2, over-ripe reaching 1/2 ml in trial 1.
D. Conclusion The graph above displays how great the leap in extracted DNA was between the strawberry types. Although the unripe yielded higher results than the over-ripe strawberries in two of the trials (Trials #1 and #3), they both produced a minimal amount of extractable DNA when compared to the ripe strawberries.
The unripe strawberries did not do as well because they are not yet mature. They provided less juice when mashed up for the extraction process, which provided fewer strands of DNA.
The over-ripe strawberries did the worst because they are on the downgrade of maturation. While they provided plentiful juice for extraction, the DNA strands were destroyed in the process of decay.
The ripe strawberries yielded the highest amounts of extractable DNA because they are at the hit the highest point of maturation. They provided the right amount of juice for the extraction process, and because they were at their peak, the DNA strands were intact.
D1. Confirmation of Hypothesis
I predicted that the ripe strawberries would produce more extractable DNA than both the under-ripe strawberries and the over-ripe strawberries. Based on my findings, with the ripe strawberries producing high amounts of extractable DNA where the unripe and over-ripe strawberries produced low amounts, it is evident that the ripe strawberries did yield the most extractable DNA. Therefore, I accept my initial hypothesis.
D2. Experimental Design as Key Factor
Experimental design is a key factor in science inquiry because it is the part in which groups are given their set treatments. In other words, experimental design is what decides if Group A will get Treatment B and Group C will get Treatment D, or if Group A will get Treatment D and Group C will get Treatment B. Without experimental design, the groups won’t be assigned their proper treatments, and a statistical analysis cannot be made.
If an experimental design is poorly constructed, it might miss some key components that affect the outcome altogether. For instance, if an experimental design lacks a control, nothing remains constant and some variables may not be counted for. Results of the experiment can be inconclusive, and when that happens, the study is rendered invalid.
D3. Replication
Replication is the process of repeating the steps of a procedure, so that an experiment can be duplicated again and again with the same results.
Replication is important because there is always the possibility that results in a study have been skewed, or an experiment has been conducted wrong. Repeating the process and including several trials provides a way to prove that results are correct and to procure an average when averages are called for.
This study is replicable because the instructions are clear and precise so that replication of the experiment as a whole is made easy, and the supplies needed are easy to find and easy to use.
D3a. Evaluation of Validity
Validity is important in science experiments because it proves the experiment was done correctly and the results were recorded accurately. Having a strong sense of validity means that the variables were measured reliably and strong causal links between the variables were found.
REPLICATION This study is replicable in that there were three trials to each study. To confirm which one yielded more DNA than the rest, each type of strawberry was tested in three separate trials – that way there were nine collective results each to consider instead of three.
This study uses that replication to prove its analysis of the data.
RELIABILITY This study is reliable thanks to that use of replication. Each type of strawberry was tested in three separate trials – three for unripe, three for ripe, three for over-ripe – to make sure the results were constant instead of a onetime occurrence. The results remained the in the same vicinity throughout the trials, proving that they are reliable.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN The experimental design remains valid thanks to its simplicity. There was very little margin for error, and so repeating each trial using the same methods and measurements was quite simple.
FUTURE QUESTIONS AND STUDIES Future studies might be expanded to use more than just strawberries. For example, one such study could compare ripe bananas to ripe strawberries, or ripe strawberries to ripe kiwis. Other studies might not involve strawberries at all, but replicate this study with a different fruit. For instance, would the results be the same with other fruits? Would ripe bananas yield more extracted DNA than unripe or overripe bananas?

Alzheimer’s Disease Stages and Symptoms

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurological disease majorly characterized by “decline in the brain function” and “memory loss”. The disease involves mainly three stages. Different chemical factors and possibly genetic factors are responsible for causing the disease. Symptoms can be treated by provision of the sufficient supplements to reduce the risk of the disease. Techniques are also available for the treatment and detection which are being expected to be more advance in future.
INTRODUCTION Alzheimer’s disease is severly deliberating condition that affects thinking, learning and memory beginning with declines in the (1)episodic memory.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Many scientists believe that Alzheimer’s disease results from an increase in the production or accumulation of a specific protein(2)(beta-amyloid protein) in the brain that leads to nerve cell death.
The likelihood of having Alzheimer’s disease increases substantially after the age of 70 around 50% of persons over the age of 85 may be affected by it. Nonetheless, Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of aging and is not something that happens inevitably in later life. For example, many people live to over 100 years of age and never develop Alzheimer’s disease.
Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: Usually, the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is gradual and it is slowly progressive. Most often, family members initially think memory problems as “a normal part of aging” but these problems noted by the family can be the first stages of Alzheimer’s disease. When other problems along with memory problems also occur start to consistently affect the usual level of functioning;families begin to suspect that something more than “normal aging” is going on.
Commonly early memory problems in Alzheimer’s disease are particularly characterized by “short-term memory”. For example, the individual may, on repeated occasions, forget to turn off an iron or fail to recall which of the morning’s medicines were taken. Early illness may show mild changes in personality such as less spontaneity, apathy and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions may occur. Problems in abstract thinking and in other intellectual functions also develop as the disease is progressed. The person may begin to face problems such as trouble with figures when working on bills, with understanding what is being read, or with organizing the day’s work. This point of the disease may also show further disturbances in behavior and appearance, such as agitation, irritability, quarrelsomeness and a diminishing ability to dress appropriately.
Later in the course of the disorder, affected individuals may become confused or disoriented about what month or year it is, be unable to describe accurately where they live, or be unable to name a place being visited. Eventually, patients may wander, be unable to engage in conversation, erratic in mood, uncooperative and bladder and bowel control is lost. In late stages of the disease, persons may become totally incapable of caring for themselves. Cosequently, (3)pneumonia can occur which can lead to death or some other problem can occur due to severely deteriorated states of health.
Stages: There are three main stages of Alzheimer’s disease. These stages are as follows:
Stage 1 (Mild)
This stage can last from 2 to 4 years. Early in the illness, Alzheimer’s patients tend to be less energetic and spontaneous. Minor memory loss and mood swings, slow learning and reaction are exhibited by them. They may become withdrawn, avoid people and new places and prefer the familiar. Confusion, difficulty in organizing and planning, getting lost easily and exercising poor judgment may also appear in affected individuals. They may have difficulty performing routine tasks, and have trouble communicating and understanding written material. If the person is employed, memory loss may begin to affect job performance. They can become angry and frustrated.
Some specific examples of behaviors that people exhibit in this mild stage include:
Getting lost
Difficulty managing money and paying bills
Repetitive questions and conversations
Taking longer than usual to finish routine daily tasks
Poor judgment
Losing things or misplacing them in odd places
Noticeable changes in personality or mood
Stage 2 (Moderate)
This is the longest stage and can last 2 to 10 years. In this stage, clear disability begins to appear in person with Alzheimer. Simple tasks can still be performed independently by the individuals, but assistance may be needed with more complicated activities. The patients forget recent events and their personal history, and more disoriention and disconnection from reality occurs in them. Memories of the distant past may be confused with the present, and cause difficulty for the affected person’s to comprehend the current situation, date and time. There may be trouble in recognizing familiar people. Speech problems arise and understanding, reading and writing are more difficult, and the individual may invent words. They may no longer be safe alone and can wander. As Alzheimer’s patients become aware of this loss of control, they may become depressed, irritable and restless or apathetic and withdrawn. They may experience sleep disturbances and have more trouble eating, grooming and dressing.
Stage 3 (Severe)
This stage may last 1 to 3 years. During this final stage, lose of the ability to feed themselves, speak, recognize people and control bodily functions, such as swallowing or bowel and bladder control occur. The memory becomes worst and may become almost non-existent. More sleep and grunting or moaning can be common. Constant care is typically necessary. Other illnesses such as skin infections, and respiratory problems can also attack the patient in physically weakened state.
Causes of Alzheimer’s disease: The cause(s) of Alzheimer’s disease is (are) unknown. The most widely discussed and researched hypothes is about the cause of Alzheimer’s disease is”amyloid cascade hypothesis. Early-onset inherited (genetic) Alzheimer’s disease the strongest data supporting the (4)amyloid cascade hypothesis. Mutations associated with Alzheimer’s disease have been found in about half of the patients with early-onset disease. In all of these patients, the mutation lead to excess production of a specific form of a small protein fragment called ABeta (A²)in brain. It is the believe of many scientists that there is too little removal of this (5)A² protein rather than too much production in majority of sporadic (for example, non-inherited) cases of Alzheimer’s disease (these make up the vast majority of all cases of Alzheimer’s disease). In any case, much of the research in finding ways to prevent or slow down. Alzheimer’s disease has focused on ways to decrease the amount of A² in the brain.
Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease Increased age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. The frequency of Alzheimer’s disease continues to increase with the aging of the population. Ten percent of people over 65 years of age and 50% of those over 85 years of age have Alzheimer’s disease. The number of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease in the United States is expected to be 14 million by the year 2050 unless new treatments are developed to decrease the likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
There are also genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. A relatively common form of a gene located on chromosome 19 is associated with late onset Alzheimer’s disease. In the majority of Alzheimer’s disease cases, however, no specific genetic risks have yet been identified.
Risks of developing Alzheimer’s disease are increased by these common forms of certain genes, but these genes do not invariably cause Alzheimer’s disease. Gene that encodes(6)apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the best-studied “risk”. The apoE gene has three different forms (alleles) — apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4. In most (but not all) populations studied, apoE4 form of gene is considered to be the significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. The frequency of the apoE4 version of the gene in the general population varies, but is always less than 30% and frequently 8%-15%. The risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease is increased two to three fold in Persons with one copy of the E4 gene. Persons with two copies of the E4 gene (usually around 1% of the population) have about a nine-fold increase in risk. Nonetheless, even persons with two copies of the E4 gene don’t always get Alzheimer’s disease. 40% of patients with sporadic or late-onset Alzheimer’s disease were found to have at least one copy of the E4 gene.
This means that in majority of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, no genetic risk factor has yet been found. since there is no treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, most experts do not recommend that adult children of patients with Alzheimer’s disease should have genetic testing for the apoE4 gene. Genetic testing may be recommended for adult children of patients with Alzheimer’s disease when medical treatments that prevent or decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease become available. Other risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include:
Hypertension,
Coronary artery disease,
Diabetes,
Elevated blood cholesterol.
There can also be increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease in individuals who have completed less than eight years of education, but by no means do they mean that Alzheimer’s disease is inevitable in persons with these factors.
Prevention and Treatment: (1) Effect of 0mega-3 fatty acids: FISH is rich in (8)omega-3 fatty acids, so eating of fish can protect against “Alzheimer’s Disease”. Omega-3 Fatty acids slow down the process of aging but the results are not positive at the advanced stage of the disease. It is also found that when diatery source of Omega-3 Fatty acids (Fish) is consumed, there is only “reduction” in the risk of cognitive decline or dementia.
Related Treatment: DHA-Fish oil preparations are generally recommended by physicians and they are more effective when given initially to the patients who do not have over (9)dementia.
(2) Effect of vitamin B12: (10)VitaminB12 acts as a “marker” for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. Low levels of vitaminB12 are responsible to cause aging so, the risks of the “memory loss” are likely to reduce by sufficient supplements of vitaminB12. It is found that increased amounts of (11)homocystein increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease by 16% whearas the risk is “decreased”(by2%) when there is picomolar increase in the concentration of (12)holotranscobalamin which is the active form of vitaminB12.
Related Treatment: Usually, vitaminB12 shots are practised. There is only 1% absorption of vitaminB12 if it is given in tablet form and currently, there is oral solid formulation which brings absorption of about 7-30%.
Advances in the treatment in future: It is also being expected that in the future the researchers will be able to monitor the process of aging by using(13)MRI techniques and the measurement of the levels of “lactic acid” will also become possible lactate levels can act as an indicator of the aging process as these levels increase with the age. Gene that governs the normal and pathological aging of (14)neurons have also been discovered. In the future, clinical studies may be free from the organisms who don’t possess(15)risk markers. Patients who are really at the risk zone of Alzheimer’s disease should be studied and these studies are simple and correct.
It is not safe to use the individuals for experimentation who are not at the risk. These patients may have no effect of medication but they may undergo some harm due to the drug side-effects.

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