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Evaluation of Applied Science Post 14 Education

Introduction
This research looks at the current post 14 education curriculum with a special focus on the applied science curriculum. As the student education level increases, the need to introduce the engagement and participative form of learning also increases (Johnson, 2007). Through this research concerns such as recruitment and training of expert in the profession to pass on effective knowledge to the post 14 students is contemplated. Understanding the advanced learning needs of these students and post education application of the knowledge by these students in their future and everyday life, the relevance of this study is recognized. Homer, (2014) observed that there is a lack of resources, administrative support and expertise associated with mathematics and science teachers at this level. With this in mind, the overview looks at findings from applicable literature and government reports to highlight that there is a need to improve the school science curriculum, and improve the teaching models of science in schools.
This research looks at the varied internal factors such as session plan, staffing and hiring, and administrative aids as well as external factors such as government and education quality are assessed. The research focuses on the quality of the science teaching workforce at this education level, and raises concerns about the role of the policy makers influencing the curriculum and educational framework. Recommendations to improve the scope of science based teaching in the classrooms are provided.
It is a good practice for teachers to use research and evidence to develop their teaching skills. Many educational researchers have worked very hard to improve the system of education. There are also people in the educational system who acts indirectly or directly towards the improvement of curriculum.
Curriculum makes up different parts of educational system, including, the planning, development and evaluation of educational programs. Curriculum also tends to mostly focus on the achievement of learning outcomes in learners such that the result is a guide of what the teacher will do – ‘the how to strategy’- to achieve those learning outcomes. The term curriculum has been widely defined in a variety of ways and each of the definition describes an aspect of teaching work or an influence on the same. Curriculum is a body of knowledge, content and subjects. Smith, (2000)
Curriculum can be referred to as a process (a particular course of action intended to achieve a result) or to define and describe praxis (ways of doing things). Smith, (2000). In all cases the term curriculum infers an aspect of teacher work and the key influences on same. Curriculum is a series of experience which children and youth should have in order to achieve objectives. Bobbitt (1975). Curriculum is a way of communicating essential educational concepts that is open for critical scrutiny. Stenhouse, (1975).
The two most used forms of curriculum are the product and the process model. The product model is more related to my own teaching with occasional uses of the process model. With this model, it deals with detailed of what learners should know in order to do what is expected of them, in other words, objectives are set, plans made, and then applied accordingly. This model was established by two American writers Frank Bobbitt (1918; 1928) and Ralph W. Tyler (1949). This product model is more aligned with behaviourism theory and is very much teacher centred. There are a number of criticisms with this model which include making learners passive, which restricts freedom on creativity.
Since the introduction of the national curriculum in schools, the UK education sector has provided many opportunities for the students through engaging, participation, theoretical and practical application of their content (Dobson, 2009). Through this research it’s highlighted that while there are no right models of learning, the involvement of associations such as the English Baccalaureate (EBacc) which further contributes towards the improvement of the education framework through introducing standardization concepts in the learning process. A study carried out by UK Parliament (2014) found that higher education in the country focuses on the efficiency and effectiveness of the curriculum, and inclusion and a standardized parameter such as EBacc ensures that a benchmark education is attained by the young adults with respect to specific study choices (Jin et al. 2016). The inclusion of these parameters has increased engagement, motivation of higher learning for the students, which further contribute towards study of specific aspects in the education sector.However, Jin et al. (2016) also mention that the inclusion of such a framework limits the involvement of the students in terms of subject preference based on their personality, and they only chose subjects that are made compulsory to them. In a study by Gill and Bell (2011), it was found that students in post 14 and 16 level tended to choose subjects based on the mix of the course and not on their personality, as a result it found that science based curriculums are often not studied in later years. Having in mind the need to provide sufficient scientists, science based researchers and engineers and technical professionals now and for the future, a need to overcome this challenge is recognized (NFER, 2011). It is for this reason a focus towards incorporating scientific literacy and introducing students towards social-scientific issues such as global warming and other geographical concerns is strongly required in present day English classrooms., despite these preparations the ‘how science works’ principles are not effectively enabled in the classrooms (Banner et al., 2010), and effectively encourages students towards science in the classrooms at a higher level continues to be a challenge. In their review Dobson (2018) notes that administration presumed that inclusion of science based learning in the classroom will increase once EBacc will be introduce with respect to these curriculum. The same has been noted with a recent 49% improvement in this context.
However, despite this the science based learning Wynarczyk

Impact of Policy in Irish Early Childhood Education and Care

Critically evaluate the impact of current policy in Irish ECEC with reference to at least three topics
Introduction
The Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) sector is relatively new in Ireland compared to other countries, the rise of ECEC sectors began in the 1980’s after the marriage bar was lifted for women in the public service in 1973. This allowed women who had children to enter the workforce and their obliged role was no longer to stay at home (Flood

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