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Effects of Ultrasound Therapy on MCL Injuries

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of the most frequently injured ligaments of the knee joint. Fortunately, most patients who sustain MCL injuries are able to achieve their previous level of activity without the need for surgical treatment. However, the most severe injuries, especially those involving multiple ligaments, may require operative repair. This study will explore the effectiveness of a conservative treatment, namely ultrasound therapy and exercise therapy, in the treatment of MCL injuries of the knee joint. In a review by Phisitkul, James, Wolf, and Amendola (2006), treatment with early range of motion (ROM) exercises and progressive strengthening has been shown to produce very good results.
Ultrasound therapy has been a widely used and well-accepted physical therapy modality for musculoskeletal conditions for many years. Wong, Schumann, Townsend, and Phelps (2007) performed a survey about the use of ultrasound by physical therapists who are orthopaedic specialists, and found that ultrasound therapy is a popular adjunct in orthopaedic physical therapy and that it is perceived as important. However, the lack of studies confirming its benefits has led many to question this traditional view. Indeed, many studied which explored the effectiveness of ultrasound therapy failed in establishing a definite conclusion. Nevertheless, it cannot be assumed that this lack of evidence implies that ultrasound therapy is ineffective, and thus further research is needed to establish the adequacy of its use.
This study aims at answering the following crucial questions: In patients with MCL injuries of the knee, can ultrasound improve pain, disability and general recovery? Is it more effective than exercise therapy in improving symptoms? An answer to these questions will help to better direct physiotherapy treatment for these patients, and thus optimize recovery.
Subsequent chapters will discuss the current literature available on the subject, followed by the methodology used in this study. The results are then presented and analysed. The interpretation of results in the context of previous research will be discussed in the discussion chapter, including the strengths and limitation of the study.
Literature Review Ultrasound therapy has become commonly used in soft tissue injuries (Speed, 2001). Research carried out in the past few decades regarding the effects of ultrasound on body tissues will be discussed below. My aim is to review the research available from the past years in attempt to find conclusive and consistent results regarding the effects of ultrasound, and thus to justify the use of ultrasound in the clinical setting, specifically to treatment of medial collateral ligament injuries.
As will be discussed in this chapter, when ultrasound enters the body, it is thought to exert an effect on it through thermal and non-thermal mechanisms (Robertson, Ward, Low,

Titration of Lytic Bacteriophage T2

A plaque essay demonstrating the lytic activity of bacteriophage T2 was performed to determine the titre (concentration) of bacteriophage T2. Serial dilutions (ten-fold) of the phage stock were plated onto an excess of sensitive bacteria on a nutrient agar plate.
One phage particle produces one plaque (zone of lysed cells) and the plaque count is directly correlated to the colony count for bacterial titration. The experiment was performed thrice and the data analysed for statistical variation and significance.
0.9 ml of pre-diluted (10⁻7) phage stock was dispensed into 3 microfuge tubes and tenfold dilutions of the phage (10⁻1 to 10⁻3) were made. A mixture of 100 ul E.coli and 100 ul of phage dilution 10⁻1 in a tube of layer agar was poured onto the labelled plates and repeated for a second plate. The same procedure was repeated for the 10⁻2 and 10⁻3 dilutions with two plates for each sample. All plates were incubated overnight. The plates with valid and countable numbers of plaque (i.e. between 30