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Effects of Global Warming on the Environment Report (Assessment)

Introduction The universe is composed of an exceptional community of life, humanity being part of it and other ecological systems. Existence in this source of life to many creatures, plants and other organisms is vital, demanding and uncertain, probably due to the forces of nature.

In the process of acquiring survival techniques and well-being, depletion of the earth’s ecological system becomes increasingly irrepressible. This depletion is detrimental to life and is ever more becoming dangerous to the environment, thereby reducing survival chances on earth.

This is mainly due to flexibility of the society of life and welfare of humanity, which lies upon preservation of a healthy biosphere as well as its ecological systems, such as clean air, fertile soils, affluent mixture of animals and plants, and pure waters, among others. This paper will try to define environment and describe the effects of global warming on it.

Environment and Global warming Our environment encompasses all that provides the fundamental conditions of life, without which, survival ceases. The natural environment is therefore critical in ensuring survival for humanity and other ecological systems.

It entails all the aspects of the world that is found outside artificial constructs of man and is essential to our continued existence. These include ecosystems, biodiversity, the atmosphere, plant life, water and animal life.

Humanity therefore, relies on the ability of earth to support it, yet it concerns to see how much humanity has eroded other living creatures by altering the balances of the atmosphere. This, combined with other natural causes, has led to climatic change, which have in-turn resulted in global warming.

Global warming refers to the increase in the mean temperature of the air near the surface of the earth and oceans, which started in mid-20th century as well as its anticipated prolongation. During the 20th century, assessments have shown that global temperatures of the surface increased by 0.74 degrees Celsius.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is believed to have been caused by human activities like deforestation and burning of fossils, as well as the ever-increasing concentration of green house gases such as carbon dioxide, among others.

Effects of Global warming Global warming has had a great impact on the environment with the future survival of the earth’s habitat put in jeopardy as a clean environment signifies better life and vice versa. The environment has undergone various transformations due to increasing temperatures. These effects include:

Rise in Sea Level

Since global warming raises the average global surface temperatures, this causes polar ice caps and glaciers to melt, thereby leading to expansion of water bodies. In essence, sea levels continue to rise and predictions point to the fact that it could rise as much as 88 centimeters.

Reduction Sea Ice

With the expected melting f ice caps and glaciers, it is expected that about 60% of glaciers and Ice caps will melt. This is likely to be of great concern in Greenland and Antarctica.

Ocean Acidification

Due to the continuing rise in sea level because of global warming, and the corresponding increase in amount of green house gas emissions such as carbon dioxide, precipitation is increased. This is of great concern as carbon dioxide easily mixes with seawater, acidifying the ocean water, and the result is a bleak future for ocean life.

Forest fires

Forest fires have been devastating as they destroy the ecosystem; pollute the environment, ultimately causing drought and uncontrollable repercussions in form of famine, malnutrition, and even death. As global warming continues, it is predicted that rainfall will gradually decrease in mid attitude areas. This would lead to drought in such areas, and drought is known to cause and spread more forest fires than other causes.

Severe weather

As has been stated earlier, while global warming continues, there is rise in sea level and corresponding increase in precipitation. This will change the climatic weather pattern of the earth; thereby leading to weather that is more adverse.

We will write a custom Assessment on Effects of Global Warming on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Massive storms have been experienced in the past, and it is predicted that with increasing global warming, even much worse situations will be experienced in the future. Tropical storms are the most likely and hurricanes, with tsunamis making headways in destroying coastal regions, especially in earthquake active areas.

Such extreme weather is already taking place, since rainfall associated with cyclones is already observed in areas such as USA. Low-lying coasts are at a greater risk as was witnessed in hurricane Katrina. Higher rates of evaporation due to occurrence of frequent droughts in sub-Saharan Africa are likely to enlarge areas experiencing desertification.

Moreover, more rainfalls that are uneven will cause flooding and soil erosion, with inadequate resources to combat such situation surfacing.

Effect on Ecosystems Global warming has affected all ecosystems and the United Nations predict that if this continues, then by 2075 only some locally endemic species are anticipated to survive. Furthermore, it is also expected that within the next 30 years, about 20% of mammals that exist on earth will be extinct, as well as 12% of bird species. This has caused many species to move towards higher latitudes.

Conclusion Global warming has had a great impact on the environment, which sustains all that is in it. This is detrimental to its balancing, causing its depletion and climatic change. Of great concerns are the environmental impacts on ecosystems that survive on earth.

Concisely, Effects of global warming on the environment include, rising sea levels, increasing forest fires, extinction of vast species of the ecosystems, ocean acidification, reduction in ice and glaciers as well as severe weather conditions.

Madness and Art: Is The Artist a Holy Madman? Analytical Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Societies, wherever they are, need someone to articulate the unspoken feelings of the community, and help to resolve conflict and confusion. In the Old Testament, for example, priests offered sacrifice to reconcile the community with each other and with their deity. Artists have to some extent taken on this role in the 20th century. Especially in the shocked and appalled aftermath of World War II, people had many terrifying feelings to deal with.

The members of the movement known as l’Art Brut, and others, drew a connection between art and madness, art and mysticism, and art and outsider status for whatever reason. Jean Dubuffet draws a parallel between artistic and feverish frenzy. Tapie saw artists as some sort of modern-day mystics. Artaud saw the artist as compelled to appear mad In order to preserve productivity.

Every community must find ways to get along with each other and deal with the inevitable disagreements and frictions that arise. Communities also find ways of dealing with toxic fears, hostilities, and betrayal. This can take the form of, for example, religious observances, or accusations of witchcraft, or shamanistic activity.

The artist, as an individual, set apart by his gift and craft, can also express ideas that are too difficult for the community to put into words, or that need to be preserved. Consider the caves at Lascaux, where the fears of the community about the dangers and the success of the hunt are displayed on the walls. Thus, the role of the artist as a lightning rod for inexpressible feelings is well established.

In many communities over time, those with mental illness (or physical deformity) have given form to difficult ideas. Conversely, those who gave voice to unwelcome ideas or just very different ideas have been have also been labeled as mentally ill. From the Romantic era in the 1800s onward, the link between art and a diagnosis of mental illness was made explicit[1].

World War II was horrifying in many ways, from the treatment of Jews and others by the Nazis, to the destruction of the atomic bomb. It is reasonable to infer that that, after all these horrors, people in Europe must have been filled with painful and difficult feelings.

However, how might they express them? How might they heal? There were no shamans anymore in Europe, and organized religion had done little to prevent the awful actions of the war. Art was one way that painful thoughts could perhaps be safely expressed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Artaud makes this quite explicit. He was an actor and playwright who promoted a type of drama he called Theatre of Cruelty. He himself had issues that caused him to be treated for mental illness[2]. He was also somewhat obsessed with Vincent Van Gogh[3].

He used Van Gogh’s experience as a metaphor for the artist’s relationship to the larger society. In discussing the experience of Van Gogh, he asserts that society labels people as mad who utter “intolerable truths” [4]. These are the difficult ideas noted previously. He also suggests that society makes the artist mad. He asserts that going mad is an artist’s adaptive response to the pressures of society, by preserving his, “superior idea of human honor”[5]. Artaud lays out his idea as follows:

And what is an authentic madman?

It is a man who preferred to become mad in the socially accepted sense of the word, rather than forfeit a certain superior idea of human honor.

SO society has strangled in its asylums all those it wanted to get rid of or protect itself from, because they refuse to become its accomplices in certain great nastinesses.

For a madman is also a man whom society did not want to hear and whom it wanted to prevent from uttering certain intolerable truths. …

There are great sessions of worldwide spell-casting in which all alerted consciousnesses participated…Thus, on the occasion of a war, a revolution, or a social upheaval still in the bud, the collective unconsciousness is questioned and questions itself[6].

We will write a custom Essay on Madness and Art: Is The Artist a Holy Madman? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This statement by Artaud reflects his knowledge of Jungian psychology and his sense of drama.

Jean Dubuffet, a founder of a movement that he called l’Art Brut, seems to have agreed that the reasons that some people were labeled mad were hardly well defined. L’Art Brut has impact even today[7]. This movement focused attention on the art of residents in mental institutions, self-taught artists, and others not from the ‘academy’[8]. Today we call such art ‘outsider art’.

Dubuffet also asserts that there is not much difference between the supposedly mad and the supposedly sane, especially for artists. He draws on the tradition of linkage of art and altered states. Dubuffet makes a rather confused connection between the feverish state of artistic creation and the feverish state of mental disorder[9]. He says,

“This distinction between normal and abnormal seems to us to be quite far-fetched: Who is normal? Where is he, your normal man? Show him to us! The artistic act, with the extreme tension that it implies, the high fever that accompanies it, can it ever be considered normal?

Finally, mental illnesses are very diverse – there are almost as many of them as there are sick people, and it seems quite arbitrary to label them all in the same way. Our point of view is that art is the same in all cases, and there is not more an art of the mad than there is an art of the dyspeptic, an art for those with bad knees. [10]

He seems to be trying to say that art should be viewed as art, without reference to the mental stability of the artist. Nonetheless, he encouraged the display of the art of people whose credibility was questionable. He thereby may have strengthened the connection in people’s minds, including, perhaps, in the minds of artists themselves, between being ‘different’ and being creative.

Michel Tapie, in his essay entitled An Other Art[11], refers to the 16th century mysticism of St. John of the Cross[12]. He seems to be suggesting that the artist is the modern equivalent of a religious mystic, or can be, or should be. He speaks of vast issues that the artist should confront[13]. He describes his ambition for the artistic individual as follows:

The individual only remains himself in collective experience in so far as he takes these experiences in hand, by using them to develop his personal potential. This supposes a total confidence, as well as faith, in something incommensurable and undiscussable.”[14]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Madness and Art: Is The Artist a Holy Madman? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Here, Tapie is referring back to the notion of the artist as one who can articulate those things that no one else can.

All these ideas fit together with the mood of the time in post-war Europe. The artist is the victim of the ills of society. The artist is also the ‘canary in the mine’ of society’s ills. The artist faces and deals with concerns that are beyond fashion in art. These ideas set the artist apart and in some sense above the rest of the population. These ideas also make art a barometer of the state of the world, and a mystical interpreter of truth.

Footnotes Beveridge, Allan. “A Disquieting Feeling of Strangeness?: the Art of the Mentally Ill”. J R Soc Med. 94(11): pages 595–599. Web.

New World Encyclopedia. “Antonin Artaud”. 2011. Web.

(Newworldencyclopedia 2011)

Artaud, Antonin. “The Artist Suicided by Society” In Harrison C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 608.

(Artaud 2002, 608)

ibid

Abcd gallerie. “l”Art Brut”. 2011. Abcd Gallerie.com. 2011. Web.

(abcd gallerie 2011)

(Beveridge 2001)

Dubuffet, Jean. “Crude Art Preferred to Cultural Art”, in Harrison C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory:1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Pages 605-608.

Tapie, Michel. “An Other Art”. In Harrison C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 630.

Merton, Thomas. “St. John of the Cross”. Biographicon. 2011. Web.

Tapie, Michel. “An Other Art”. In Harrison C. and Wood, P. Art in Theory: 1900-2000. (Oxford, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002). Page 630.

Ibid.

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