Environment and Economic Impacts on the Economy
Existing Provisions for Oil Spill Response
Actual Responses by BP
Conclusion and Recommendation
Introduction BP oil spill is an environment catastrophe that has affected the United States of America and the world at large (Wheat par 1). The oil spill affected the Gulf region’s environment and its inhabitants and consequently affected the overall US region and the impacts are likely to persist for a long time.
The United States has to deal with the catastrophic consequences of a disaster caused by a company that supplies a commodity of vital importance in the running of the country’s economy and the global economy at large (Szabo par 1). The oil spill’s detrimental consequences have extended further beyond the Gulf of Mexico into the heart of the Western part of Africa affecting countries like Ghana among others (Wheat par 2).
The oil explosion occurred on April 2010 on the deep water horizon oil drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico with 126 people on board. The oil explosion caused instant death to eleven people and fifteen were severely injured (Hailes 619). The oil spill further caused death to aquatic life. Bp was under contract with the owners of Deepwater Horizon to drill an exploratory well and during the period when the massive explosion occurred, the companies were contemplating on closing the well in order to redirect it to commercial production (Hailes 619).
A second explosion occurred few days after which caused the sinking of Deep water horizon into the Gulf of Mexico. When authorities inspected the capsized rig with remotely operated vehicles, they established that there were two oil leaks from the well pipe that were leaking at a rate of 1000 barrels per day (Hailes 619).
However, it was later established that 5000 barrels of oil had been leaking per day (Hailes 619). This led to declaration of the BP oil spill as an issue of national significance by the secretary of homeland defense leading to appointment of national incident commander to coordinate response resources at national level while President Obama stopped all drilling activities in the areas he had previously proposed pending the establishment of BP oil spill (Hailes 620).
In response to the catastrophe, the US set up a regional response team including; national oceanic and atmospheric administration, department of homeland security, the department of commerce as well as environmental agencies which set out to develop strategic plans, provide technical advice to the response team as well as overseeing the response by BP company (Hailes 619).
The oil spill cost the BP caused devastating losses that would amount to $ 1 billion. In addition, the cleaning up process will consume a considerable amount of time and resources which was approximated at about 5 years or more at a cost of $ 5 billion a year (Hailes 623).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, various bodies and entities directly affected by the oil spill moved to courts and filed legal action against the BP Company seeking compensation. The overall process may take 10 years or more further increasing the final cost of the bill inclusive of liabilities totaling up to approximately 20 billion. In addition, BP received numerous insurance claims totaling to 30000 claims and had already made 15000 payouts which totaled to $ 45 million (Hailes 623).
Environment and Economic Impacts on the Economy Oil spills often result to significant harm to aquatic life as well as severe costs to businesses and the entire public at large. Oil coating, ingestion and absorption of oil may cause detrimental effects to living organisms resulting to direct mortality and adverse sub lethal effects (Hagerty 28). Presence of oil in the water masses aversely affects aquatic life and prohibits the animal’s accessibility to the shoreline areas consequently suffocating them (Hagerty 28).
Further, uptake of dissolved components of oil may be toxic to aquatic life while birds and fur bearing animals lose protection and body heat maintained by their feathers and fur on exposure to oil (Hagerty 28).The Gulf region inhabitants may take a considerably long time to recover from the adverse negative implications of oil exposure that resulted from the BP oil spill.
Natural resources dependent sectors of the gulf coastal economy that have been affected by the oil spill include commercial and recreational fisheries as well as the tourist industry (Hagerty 30).
The environmental effects of the BP oil spill adversely affected the gulf region and the efforts to remedy the situation are likely to impact on the overall US economy (Szabo par 3) Tons of species of creatures were adversely affected by the gulf oil spill. Some of the species that were mostly affected included the North Atlantic Blue fin tuna and whales, among other aquatic creatures which heavily rely on water surfaces for survival (Szabo par 4).
Marine animals, which are fully dependent on water for survival, were also adversely affected as the spill posed danger to their lives (Szabo par 5). Further, the brown pelican whose breeding season was in spring and during the time of the spill the eggs were incubating further posed danger to the species which had recently been plucked off from the endangered species list (Szabo par 6).
The Oil spill heavily impacted on the sea food industry. Oil and toxic hydro carbons which were present in the water were toxic to oysters and remain a persistent problem as hydro carbon can be retained in the coastal sediment for a considerably long time (Szabo par 6).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of BP Oil Spill specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A significant part of the overall American GDP can be attributed to the revenue derived from fishing along the gulf region, oil industry as well as the tourism industry (Szabo par 7). In addition the gulf region significantly contributes to the sea food industry. The occurrence of the oil spill significantly reduced the output of these industries hence affecting the overall GDP.
Cleaning up the spill is a time and resource consuming endeavor and some of the environmental and economic impacts of the spill remains irreversible despite the clean up efforts. The BP spill led to closure of a considerably large area of the Gulf of Mexico fishery. Consequently, fishermen filed economic injury against the BP Company and the claims are being paid to individuals on daily basis.
The oil has also reached the Gulf of Mexico beaches significantly decreasing tourists turn out in the area. The report of the oil spill negatively impacted on tourism perception in the region leading to decline in tourists turn affecting the areas where the spill had not affected (Hagerty 32). To counter these perceptions, BP funded tourism promotion programs in various affected regions.
Existing Provisions for Oil Spill Response The United States oil pollution act of 1990 as well as the clean water act is the primary federal statutes designed to regulate the federal response to oil spills (Hagerty 7). The clean water act as amended by OPA creates a provision authorizing the president to establish the national oil and hazardous substances pollution contingency plan to specify the federal response actions and the authorities related to the oil spill (Hagerty 7).
OPA addresses natural resources damages and the restoration of resources that are injured and the services that are lost resulting from an oil spill. There exist other designated agencies that are charged with the responsibility of representing the interests of the public on such occurrences. OPA directs these trustees to act on behalf and return injured resources to their original condition and recover compensation for interim losses (Hagerty 29).
The NCP was the major responsive framework for oil response; other authorities played a major role in the gulf spill response. The department of home land security through the secretary was involved in the oil spill response through his lead role in the department in which the coast guard operates or as the principal federal official for domestic incidence management (Hagerty 9). The secretary of homeland security played a significant role in coordination of the federal responses activities.
The secretary spearheaded the activities of national response team and further classified the event as a spill of national significance hence facilitating the appointment of the national incident commander who coordinated strategic communication, national policy and resource support as well as facilitating collaboration with key parts of the federal state ad local governments (Hagerty 10). OPA further established a compensation and claims process covering the removal costs as well as the costs of damages. (Hagerty 12).
Claims for removal were presented to BP which agreed to take responsibility for the unfortunate occurrence and set aside
Disrupted Functional Connectivity with Dopaminergic Midbrain in Cocaine Abusers Essay
Nursing Assignment Help The cocaine usage affects the brain activity and neurotransmission. The purpose of the given research was to define how these reactions influence overall function of the brain and its particular segments. The cocaine use (especially repeated) leads to certain reactions in the midbrain (neuroadaptations).
The neuroadaptation in dopaminergic function leads to the decrease of sensitivity, affects the psychological state causing stress conditions and influences on the cognitive function. Such reaction is caused by the neuroadaptations that influences on the functional connectivity of different part of brain that are regulated by dopamine. Thus, we can observe different brain dysfunctions in cocaine abusers.
The importance of the research lies in the fact that it helps in deeper understanding of the overall brain activity and functional connectivity of the midbrain. The research also shows the influence of cocaine on the brain zones that are responsible for reaction, cognitive function and attention.
The results of this research can contribute to the studies of the brain activity and treatment of the diseases related to the functional connectivity. The basics for the given research were findings that established the role of dopamine in the brain reactions under the influence of drugs with addicted individuals.
The previous researches show that the desire for the drugs is related to the increase of dopamine. Thus, the drug-related words can cause the reaction in the mesencephalon in drug users. The research hypothesized that cocaine addicted individuals have decreased sustained attention and cognitive function. The reason of these processes is the influence of drugs on the brain activity that shows the decrease of the functional connectivity of the midbrain.
In order to provide a research, two groups of people were involved. The first group consisted of twenty healthy cocaine abusers and twenty healthy control subjects. The control subjects were matched to the main group according to age, gender and education. Each person was examined by physicians and neurologists.
The research was based on the comparative analysis of the results of the experiments. Among the methods used was the stimulation paradigm (a drug-word paradigm). Each person from each group was shown a number of neutral and drug-related words.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The results of the experiment were examined through the BOLD-fMRI analyses and RIO analyses. The result of the experiment was the next: the usage of drugs influences on the brain activity, in other words, the intensity of reaction in drug-abused people is lower than in healthy people who do not use drugs.
The results of the research confirmed the previous findings. Both groups performed a number of tests with neutral and drug-related words. The results show that there were no great significances in performance between groups. During the task, the same brain sections were activated at the same degree.
However, the CM and BOLD analysis show that the reaction in the thalamus is higher in control group and it correlates negatively in cocaine subjects in compliance with the number of years of drug usage. Moreover, the experiments show that the reaction of the cocaine abuse subjects on the drug-related words were higher than in control groups.
Thus, the results of the research show that the drug-related words activated the midbrain in cocaine subjects but not in the control, and the midbrain was not activated in cocaine subjects during tests with neutral words (Dardo, et al). However, the overall reaction in control group was better. Consequently, the research confirmed the results of previous studies. It proved that the MDTHA had lower CM and lower BOLD signals for people who take drugs than for healthy people.
The study also showed the connection between hypo-activation and decrees of CM in cerebellum for cocaine abusers. So, we can affirm that the emotional response to the drug-related words caused the reaction in brain that led to the reaction in midbrain of cocaine abusers, that is why the results of the BOLD analysis show the same ability to react and the same brain activity. The rACC activated during the emotional tasks and there were no reaction during the tasks that involved cognitive activity in cocaine abusers.
The results of the research have a great significance for the study of brain activity and the processes that occur in different sections of brain under the influence of external (words, signals, emotions) and internal (drugs) stimulus. The results of the research rejects at some extend the hypothesis.
It goes without saying that the results of definite tasks support the suggestion that drug abusers have lower reaction and brain activity. However, the research shows that the drug usage leads to the abnormal functional connectivity of catecholamine. Thus, the functional connectivity can be more sensitive than standard activation technique (Dardo, et al) with years of drug usage as it is associated with drug addiction.
We will write a custom Essay on Disrupted Functional Connectivity with Dopaminergic Midbrain in Cocaine Abusers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The research provided the deeper insight into the brain functioning and the impact of drugs on the psychological and physical reactions in the human body. The further research in this direction can be devoted to the question how to prevent such reactions on drugs and how it can contribute to the treatment of the drug addiction.
Works Cited Dardo, Tomasi et al. “Disrupted Functional Connectivity with Dopaminergic Midbrain in Cocaine Abusers.” PLoS One: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. 5.5. e10815 (2010): n. pag. Web.