The guidelines are usually referred to as public policies since they are expected to provide general direction to the members of the public and to ensure social order (May, 2001). The process of formulating, formalization and implementation has proved to be a daunting task since each sector in the society has its own unique policies (Cockrel, 2004). Different stakeholders in the society that may be affected by the policies must be engaged in one way or another in the public policy formulation process.
The essay seeks to discuss and rate the influence of the legislative bodies, leadership, the justice system, as well as the bureaucracy on the formulation and implementation of educational policies. It will briefly discuss the general pattern in the public policy-making process. The influence of other entities, for instance interest groups, political parties, and the media will also be considered.
Public policy-making process is a product of interactions as well as dynamics among different actors, interest groups, public and private institutions and other technical processes preceding the enactment and interpretation of any public policy. Numerous definitions of policy and policy-making process have been used depending on the context.
For the purposes of this essay, a policy shall be defined as either an explicit or implicit decision or decisions made by a group that lays out the instructions for guiding the subsequent decisions, regulate actions, or monitoring prior decisions reached (Ben-Peretz, 2008). The process of making policies, therefore, varies in complexity as well as scope and the dynamics involved must be acknowledged. A number of models have been designed to provide a general format followed in the process of formulating a given public policy.
The stages involved are well sequenced from the primary level to the ultimate enactment, implementation and interpretation of the policies (Schmidt, Shelly
Roman Civilization Exploratory Essay
Nursing Assignment Help The Roman republic which was characterized by Republican form of government is known to have lasted a period of more than 400 years after it started by overthrowing the Roman monarchy. The Roman Republic was controlled by a special group of people who emanated from high class families whose history could be traced back to ancient kingdoms.
It is this domination that led to the emergence of the constitution as other talented Romans not from famous families struggled with the aristocrats to have the ruling power. They pushed for laws that allowed individuals to rule not from their family popularity and dominance, but from the current structure of the society.
The Roman senate was a political institution that survived most chronological events in the Roman history. Founded in early days, it survived events such as the split of the Roman Empire, the fall of the Roman republic and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Though the senate was politically weak during the early regime as it was overruled by powerful executive magistrates, it had several roles in the Roman Republic (McManus). The senate was responsible for passing of decrees that were known as senatus consultum in ancient Roman Republic whose main composition was advices to the Roman magistrates from the senate. Though those advices from the senate did not hold any legal force they were followed in practice.
These decrees too served in interpretation of the law although in instances where there were clashes between the two, the law overrode the decrees. In cases of conflicts especially military conflicts, the senate was useful in provision of key advices to the chief magistrates known as Roman Consuls. The senate helped manage and run the civil government as it had massive power over it.
The senate was key in management of state finances and had the authority to disburse government funding to other projects. Administration of provinces in the Roman republic was done by consuls and praetors. The senate was also responsible for the supervision of the administration in all the provinces and was instrumental in determination and distribution of magistrates amongst the provinces (Brunt, 423-444).
Augustus Caesar is known for being the first ruler of the Roman Empire whose rule altered several aspects of the senate and governance. His governance was the Principate where he restored the republic and went to own the two most formidable republican powers, the consular imperium and tribunican veto.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through his rule, Augustus altered the balance of power in the Roman system. Augustus granted himself tribunician powers where he had the traditional tribune power to introduce legislations, force citizens to obey his orders among many other things. Senatorial provinces that were under the control of the senate still fell under the sole control of Augustus as they fell under imperial provinces controlled fully by him. He included many members of his own family in key administrative positions in the public domain.
Augustus regime saw him strip the senate most of its powers as he was keen to remain dominant and a sole decision maker in governance issues thereby outranking other senators in the state (Lacey, 176-184). For instance, the senate held the responsibility of running the civil government and had the power to authorize fund disbursement to government projects. It also supervised administration of all provinces. In Augustus rule, he altered all these by being the sole administrator of all aspects governance.
Works Cited Brunt, Peter. “The Role of the Senate in the Augustan Regime” The Classical Quarterly 34.2 (1984): 423-444.
Lacey, Kirkpatrick. “Octavian in the Senate, January 27 B. C.” Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974): 176-184.
McManus, Barbara. Augustus and Tiberius: Historical Background. 4 April 2010. http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/augustus2.html