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Developing Economy in Russian Federation after World War II Essay

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic Situation during the War

Economic Situation after the War

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Following World War II, many of the countries that took part in the war had to rebuild their countryside and public spirit. Unlike other countries who had already established economies, Russia had to rebuild their financial system and carry out reforms as well. Whereas majority of the countries involved in the war were already industrialized, Russia was still in the process of setting up its economic foundations when the war started.

The industrialization process that had been began by Stalin a decade before the war broke out moved at full speed after the war ended. While most countries that had taken part in the war were struggling to recover from its effects, the Russian industry flourished and attained new levels. This growth was however short-lived.

By the time of Stalin’s demise, the Russian economy was heavily strained by industry investments, huge military formation, and reduced agricultural output. For this reason, Russia like most other countries within the Soviet Union was unable to attain a balance between manufacturing and agriculture (Blackwell 16). This essay traces the development of the Russian economy after World War II to its current state.

Economic Situation during the War The story of Russia’s post war years is just as significant as the account of the war itself. Russia came to victory in 1945 only after first coming close to defeat. During the war, close to 25 million people had lost their lives and this left the war survivors extremely weary.

Despite this fact, the Russian economy and political alignment quickly returned to its previous form. Just like before the war, there was increased political and economic mobilization. Economic resilience was revealed in quick Russian postwar economic recovery. Although a large section of Russia was adversely affected by the war, the destruction did not match that which was witnessed in other countries that were participating in the war.

It was in these countries that the countryside became battlegrounds for the entire period of the war. While the western and northern parts of Russia were adversely affected by the war, the eastern and southern parts continued to experience exponential economic growth (Murphy et al 563).

Indeed, the German invasion led to the conversion and relocation of Russian industries. As German troops kept on advancing, the Russians dismantled and relocated entire sections of industries to areas that were not affected by the war. Railroad cargo vehicles carried tools and laborers to the Urals, Siberia, and other parts of Central Asia. By the time the war was ending in 1945, the areas where the industries had been relocated to had become leaders in production in the whole region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Blackwell (20), the industrial centers in the eastern part of Russia helped in the growth of Russian industry while the invasion shattered other sections of the country. Despite the presence of the war, Russia was able to sustain production in parts that were not affected by the war and this trend continued even after the war (Murphy et al 564).

In a large part, Russia has greatly suffered numerous hardships and has one of the most dramatic histories. In the last one century, the country has witnessed several local conflicts, participated in two world wars and gone through the cold war. This has led to the fall of several well-established dynasties and brought about significant economic change.

In order to get the real picture of economic development in Russia, it would be prudent to first examine what the region lost during the period of the war. During the four years of the war (1941-1945), the entire Soviet Union lost close to 27 million people with 14 million of these being Russians and even more were immobilized (Harrison 361). In Russia, more than 1,700 towns were destroyed and close to 71,000 burnt down. By the time the war had ended, the country had virtually to begin rebuilding everything afresh.

This was worsened by the fact that the entire economy had been restructured to accommodate the rising demands of the military. Due to the significant loss in production and transportation, the regions freed from Nazi oppression witnessed a sharp decline in GDP. However, the bravery of soldiers and laborers on the home front saw the GDP in the entire Soviet Union drop by only 14% on average (Jánossy 68).

Economic Situation after the War The losses occasioned by the crumbling of the Soviet Union were no less important and even far more acute in some respects. The change in population during this period was inconsequential contrasted with other pointers since it consisted of a meager 4.3% difference while the GDP at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was quite bleak.

In 1991, the Russian PPP was more than $1.9 billion while the Soviet Union GDP amounted to $ 3 billion by the time of its disintegration whereas years before it amounted close to $3.5 billion (Murphy et al 564). In 1995, the Russian federation PPP dropped by 34% to nearly $ 1 billion.

Without considering the demographics, there is no doubt that the Soviet Union possessed a somewhat stable position financially, politically and militarily after World War II. To the keen observer, this is not particularly out of the ordinary since the Russian federation was the biggest loser after the Soviet Union collapsed (Jánossy 78).

We will write a custom Essay on Developing Economy in Russian Federation after World War II specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the World War II, the Russian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew 9 percent per annum for the five years after the war while the GDP of the entire Soviet Union region grew by close to 15% within that period. The high economic growth was because of the strong positive inclination following the triumph in the war.

This was also occasioned by free labor derived from millions of prisoners-of-war as well as the payoffs of the perceived triumph and all its derivatives. Within the Soviet Union, the expansion rate rose due to the exhaustive rebuilding programs in affected areas. The economic growth slowed in 1995-2000 where the country’s GDP grew by less than 2% due to the 1998 economic meltdown and failure by the government to act decisively on economic matters.

From 1951-1960, the economic growth in Russia was 5.8% while the growth rate from 2001-2010 was 5.1%. In 2009, the GDP dropped by 7.9% points due to the global economic meltdown, the outpouring of foreign capital, a drop in business activity, and the constantly dropping confidence among investors and the Russian population as a whole.

Another factor that occasioned this drop was the drop in spending which consequently led to overflow of goods in stores. However, experts predict that this situation will correct itself once consumer confidence is restored (Gregory 241).

In Soviet Russia, the GDP increased by 270 percent in 1960-1975 as compared to 175 percent growth from 1995 to 2010 (Gregory 240). From these results, it is obvious that soviet Russia and modern Russia have been developing along similar lines as seen in the results of the per capita GDP.

Additionally, this indicator grew at a faster rate in the last ten years amounting to 5.3% on standard, while from 1950-1960 it totaled 4.4%. Financial experts predict that Russia’s per capita GDP will have risen to close to 6 percent by the end of this year.

By looking at these results, what comes out in the open is the fact that the rate of development in Soviet Russia was the same as that of the modern day Russia. The only noticeable alteration between the two periods is that unlike in the present day, the GDP growth rate was higher in the years after the war ended (Nove 30).

The current economic structure in Russia was formed in the 1950’s and has been in operation ever since. Ideally, this was the period when the soviet region began focusing on raw materials as a potential growth stimulator before finally turning its focus into attaining the status of a superpower.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Developing Economy in Russian Federation after World War II by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, this quest was strongly opposed by Western countries and it took the concerted efforts of modern day Russian leaders to achieve the objective. In trying to compare the structure of the 1960 and the 2010 economies, one should bear in mind that the size has changed in a significant way.

In 2010, the Russian GDP was at par with the one experience two decades before but it was significantly higher that the one experienced four decades earlier.

At the present, raw materials form the bulk of the Russian foreign currency. So far, the economic modernization program orchestrated by the government has borne little fruits. Financial experts warn that the effects of this modernization program will only begin being felt in 2015 while the real modernization process itself will not take place until 2020 at the earliest (Gregory 243).

By that time, electronic production, which compared to its contemporaries is currently very low is expected to rise sharply. Experts also predict that civil and naval shipbuilding and specifically aircraft production will become more established within that period. It is also predicted that the coming years will see Russia making significant strides in the production of aircraft spare parts. Although the forecast for car manufacture is not guaranteed, experts predict that the production of overseas cars in Russia will soar (Gregory 245).

After the II World War, the development of industry was the key pointer for economic development in Russia. It is therefore not surprising to note that the industrial production before the war surpassed that of the period before the war. Within three years after the war, Russia surpassed the expectations of critics by building close to 15,000 large factories.

From 1945-1960, manufacture in the chemical and petrochemical industries rose by more than 600%, oil production rose by 650% while the production of gas rose to unprecedented levels surpassing the 1000% mark. Five years after the war, the labor productivity increased by 50% due to automation in industrial production. Overall, labor productivity had increased by almost 200 from the time the war ended to 1960 (Crafts

How the Constitution applies to being a Military Leader/Officer Analytical Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction

Sworn Oath of Defending the Constitution

Military Justice and the Constitution

Limitation of Powers

Reference List

Introduction It is the duty of the U.S. Armed Forces to protect the country from both internal and external threats yet few people seem to realize that the basis for such responsibilities is not due to orders from the president or that of Congress but rather it is a result of a sworn oath to protect the Constitution.

The Constitution itself is greater than any single branch of government however it is still vulnerable to corruption from within and as such it is the duty of each and every military officer to ensure that such corruption is stamped out.

On the other hand, it must be mentioned that though it is the duty of the military to protect the Constitution it is only through the Constitution itself and its various amendments that the military was even brought into being in the first place For example, it is only through the powers given to it by the constitution that Congress is able to authorize the creation of the military as well as control its budget and it is only through Congressional action that war can be declared (McCarthy, 2011).

It must be noted though that the constitution also happens to give the President significant powers in terms of being the commander and chief of the Armed Forces in times of war and as such all military leaders/officers are de facto obliged to obey the president. Based on such factors, this paper will explore how the Constitution applies to being a military leader/officer and what are the various contributions the Constitution has had in the creation of the modern day system seen in the U.S. Armed Forces today.

Sworn Oath of Defending the Constitution First and foremost among the oaths sworn by a military officer/leader is a pledge to defend and support the Constitution of the United States, do note that this isn’t a pledge to obey the President or support Congress in its decisions rather it is an obligation to defend the tenets of the Constitution from both foreign and domestic threats.

What you have to understand is that while the Constitution itself is responsible for the creation of the U.S. armed forces (seen in Section 8 Article 1) the fact is that it also entails a distinct separation of powers in order to create a checks and balances system of which each and every U.S. military leader/officer is a part of.

The pledge to defend the Constitution is in part an aspect of this check and balances system wherein despite the fact that the military is under the control of a civilian government, military officers/ leaders also acts as a means of ensuring that such a system isn’t abused (Kuehn, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, in cases where an obviously corrupt elected government is in control, military officers/leaders have the solemn duty to ensure the continued protection of the tenets of the Constitution by intervening in civilian affairs whether through arms or through protest in order to ensure that the Constitution is protected at all costs. This is one of the main reasons why the oath every single military officer takes is not to the President, to Congress, the Judiciary, or the Senate but rather to the Constitution itself.

This is to ensure that should all else fail and the government of the country is corrupt beyond measure and is pursuing a path that is in direct conflict with the ideals put into practice by the founding fathers, there would still be some form of resistance in the form of the Armed Forces of the country in order to ensure that such actions can be prevented and to ensure the reassertion of the proper form of government that is necessary to put the country back on track.

Military Justice and the Constitution Under the 5th Amendment of the Constitution the creation of a separate justice system for the U.S. military was enacted in order to create a system that specifically deals with cases involving military personnel. What you have to understand is that the creation of such a unique justice system was due to the fact that civilian law lacked the necessary “severity” and “strictness” needed for the Armed Forces (Underhill, 1924).

For example, neglecting ones duty, gross disrespect for a superior, abuse of power in the work place or arriving late for an assignment is normally seen as adverse actions however perfectly allowable under civilian law. Under the military justice system, though such actions have a corresponding criminal punishment due to their violation of military codes of conduct and ethics.

The reason behind this is quite simple, all militaries whether they are based in the U.S., the Philippines, the U.K. or other such countries all function through a process of strict discipline, unquestioning observance of orders and the rules of military codes of conduct, as well as loyalty to ones country.

Without such systems in place the end result would be an undisciplined organization that would be unable to work as a cohesive whole should a period of war occur this resulting in the potential deaths of thousands of soldiers as a direct result.

It is based on this that once a civilian has entered into military service he/she understands that under the 5th amendment to the Constitution they will henceforth be subject to the military justice system until such a time that they released from active duty within the military.

We will write a custom Essay on How the Constitution applies to being a Military Leader/Officer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Limitation of Powers As mentioned earlier, there is an inherent separation of powers within the U.S. Constitution which ensures that no single branch of government has too much power in order to ensure that the there is a certain degree of “control” in order to limit potentially unconstitutional policies from being implemented. The same though can be said in the case of the military wherein based on the constitution the power of the military is limited and controlled by the civilian government of the U.S (Agency group, N.D.).

This is in line with the aforementioned checks and balances system mentioned earlier which all military officers need to take into consideration since despite the potential power at their hands they need to realize that such powers are there only to defend the constitution, protect the people of this nation and ensure its continued existence and as such should not be utilized for personal gain.

Reference List Agency group. (n.d). Civilian control of military based on constitution. FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database,

Kuehn, J. T. (2010). Talking Grand Strategy. Military Review, 90(5), 74.

McCarthy, A. C. (2011). The law: servant or master?. New Criterion, 29(6), 26.

Underhill, L. K. (1924). Jurisdiction of Military Tribunals in the United States Over Civilians. California Law Review, 12(2), 75.

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