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Depictions of the Reformation in Art

The corruption and immorality of the Church spurred the Christian Reform movement in Europe, eventually leading to the “hundred years of civil war between Protestants and Catholics” or the Protestant Reformation. The Counter- Reformation began with the Pope Paul III’s calling of the Council of Trent in response to Protestant uprising; this movement was initiated by the Church’s attempt to re-establish its power as the only true Church of Christ while pacifying the current disorder as well. The creation of these two rivaling movements jeopardized the Roman Catholic Church’s absolute authority in Europe, dividing it into the regions of the Protestant North and Catholic South. Influenced by these two opposing movements, the North and South branched out into different directions in terms of its culture and artistic style of painting. They developed unique style of painting, depicting differing themes, styles, and contents based on their dissimilar beliefs. What influence did the reform movements have on the paintings from the south of the Alps, the north of the Alps, and the Netherlands and were the artists from these regions inspired by each other despite the divergence in their styles? The paintings by the artists from the South of the Alps would most likely been influenced by the Counter- Reformation, while the works produced from the other two regions would reflect the influence of the Protestant – Reformation due to their geographical locations. Therefore, the content and purpose of the works from these regions should differ but some similarities may exist in the artists’ painting techniques because it was common for artists to travel to Rome during this time. It is interesting to analyze how the style in 16th and 17th Century Europe was shaped by the religious disparity and the development of new ideas which were reflected in the paintings. Since it is inaccurate to generalize the whole European continent into only two sections, I decided to narrow down my topic by focusing on the South of the Alps, the North of the Alps, and the Netherlands. I chose to study these regions because the South of the Alps was the center of Counter- Reformation strongly embraced by the Roman Catholic Church, while the North of the Alps was the birth place of the Protestantism. And the Netherlands was the hot bed for dispute between Calvinism and Catholicism. I referred the Protestant Reformers as one group, choosing not to deal with the Protestant sectarianism, a division within the Reformers due to the difference in their interpretation of the sacred texts, as part of my research.
The final spark of the Protestant Reformation was “The Ninety-Five Theses” written by Martin Luther in 1517. His work disclosed Church’s dishonesty, rousing doubts in people’s minds about the Catholicism and also the Church’s authority. His criticism of the sale of indulgences and the Roman Catholic clergy’s abuses quickly earned popularity among people, regardless of their social standings and wealth, ultimately giving birth to Protestantism. Martin Luther condemned the sale of indulgences as a violation of the original meaning of confession and penance. Indulgence is the forgiveness of the temporal punishment for sins that have already been confessed. Reformers like Zwingli and Calvin had also commented on the corruptions within Church, but Luther was the one who introduced the radical idea of purifying the Christianity by physically breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church. The Luther’s idea spread rapidly throughout the Europe, threatening the Roman Catholic Church’s established authority especially in the North.
In addition to being known as the center of the Counter-Reformation, the South of the Alps was known as the center of stylistic development as well. It was the place of passion and innovation with the overflow of new artistic styles eventually giving birth to the Italian Renaissance. The artists from all of the Europe visited Rome and were inspired by the unique Italian styles. Aside from the innovative styles of Italian Renaissance, its content was often strictly religious. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to re-establish the catholic faith among people by regulating the artworks produced. The southern painters were forced to bring back the medieval tradition of producing strictly religious art, branching off into the different direction from the Northern painters.
Scipione Pulzone was famous in Rome as the prototype of the Southern painters during this time period for his strictly religious paintings. The Lamentation, one of his most famous paintings, serves as the prime example of the art commissioned by the Church. Painted in 1592 for the chapel of the Passion of Christ in the Jesuit church of Gesù in Rome, this painting is clearly influenced by the Counter- Reformation in that it demonstrates the new artistic style advocated by the holy council. The Crucifixion of the Christ is the focus of this art piece, drawing viewer’s attention directly to the idealistic image of Christ in the center. Like other southern painters during this time period, the artist propagated faith by portraying the lives of saints and Christ in a realistic yet intensely dramatic manner. The careful details, facial expressions, along with the shadows cast on people enhance the lifelike characteristics. The depiction of the folds on people’s gowns is also note-worthy. The artist adds details such as “tears of Virgin, the crown of thorns held by John, and the pallor of the Christ’s body” to portray people in a more expressionistic manner. Moreover, the spotlight on the Christ in the center contributes an illusionistic and dramatic element to the painting which counter-balances the painting’s realistic image. The light cast on the Christ, in comparison to the dark background, creates almost a theatrical impression. These characteristics represent the style of art in the south of the Alps during this period, also called the Italian Renaissance. “Catholic Italy and Lutheran Germany shared in a lively commerce…and the art of the sixteenth century in the north manifests the benefit of the exchange.” Although the religious clash tormented the sixteenth century Europe, the exchange of artistic ideas continued to thrive.
In the North, “the intellectual shakeup of age-old faiths and opinions prepared the way for a new and nonreligious outlook on the world-the Enlightenment-when the rise of a scientific view of nature would challenge forever the dogmatisms of the past,” also called the Northern Renaissance. However, the art of northern Europe during this period is also characterized by “a sudden awareness of the advances made by the Italian Renaissance and by a desire to assimilate this new style.” In other words, while the content of the artworks produced in the North differ from those of the region south of the Alps, the style was similar. Many northern artists traveled to Rome to study the new art in firsthand and others were exposed to the Italian style of painting through the direct contact with the Italian artists who came to the north. The influence of the Italian art varied according to the artist, the time, and the place; the northern artists generally kept their local traditions while adopting “only single motifs or the general form of a composition”. The Northern painters in general moving away from depicting biblical scenes and turned to painting ordinary people in a commonplace setting can be inferred to have been influenced by the Protestant- Reformation. Especially in the north of the Alps, the artists quickly incorporated Italian style into their artworks while avoiding portrayal of religious themes.
The famous work, The Battle of Issus, by Albrecht Altdorfer in 1529 is a great example of a northern painting that diverges from the works produced in the regions south of the Alps. Albrecht Altdorfer represents the Donaustil (Danube Style), which depicts the landscape and stresses mood and passion. Although Altdorfer’s style is unique and personal, it still reflects the influence of Protestant- Reformation in that it eliminates depiction of religious themes. Moreover, his style clearly diverges from the style of painting prevalent in the regions of the south of the Alps. The painter gives a bird’s eye view of an Alpine landscape as the setting and depicts the battle scene in which the Alexander the Great overthrows the Persian King Darius. Instead of illustrating the strictly religious theme, the artist chooses to focus more on depicting the historical event. The crowd of people in comparison to the vast nature in the background suggests the moralizing theme of the insignificance of human life. He uses the vast nature in the background to symbolize the power of cosmos and the illuminating sky to represent the immense space. The slight trace of Italian Renaissance is shown by the meticulous details the painter uses for the image of Alexander the Great and the dramatic and illusionistic portrayal of the setting. Also the idealistic impression of the artwork as a whole resembles that of the Italian Renaissance paintings.
Another praise-worthy example of Northern painting is The Judgment of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder, who is the representative of German Protestant painting. This work is a great example of how his works shifted from religious to humanistic subject matter when he became a follower of Luther. His humanistic subject matters include mythology, history, and also portraits. The Judgment of Paris illustrates the scene from mythology in which the three goddesses boast off their beauties in front of Paris. The humanistic subject matter along with the background landscape reflects the typical characteristics of Northern paintings. The cupid in the painting serves as a symbol for love and affection while the German armor that Paris is wearing in the painting represents his social status as a knight and his honor. The artist does not dress the goddesses after the antique manner. Cranach’s composition featuring the nude was inspired in an attempt to learn from the style of Italian Renaissance.
The Four Apostles by Albrecht Durer in 1526 is a remarkable northern painting that is stylistically influenced by Italian Renaissance. This art piece is unique in that the painter expresses his own religious and political testament, sympathizing “the protestant cause and [warning] against the dangerous times, when religious, truth, justice, and the virtues all will be threatened.” Unlike other Northern paintings, this piece does contain religious meanings, but it distinguishes itself from Italian paintings by eliminating any glorification of the Church. This piece was hung in the city hall, the four apostles symbolically representing the guardians of the city; they are cautioning people against the sermons of false prophets who will misinterpret the word of God. The four apostles are symbolic representative of various ideas such as the four temperaments, of the human soul, and also the four ages of man. In this painting, Durer’s experience of traveling to Italy allows him to harmonize the two opposing styles of northern naturalism and southern monumentality. The realistic visualization of the four apostles reflects the northern naturalism while the monumentality of the figures along with the vivid use of color and sharp lighting mirror the Italian Renaissance. Durer, along with Cranach and Altdorfer, serves as an example of northern artist who illustrated contents related to Protestant-Reformation while incorporating styles of Italian Renaissance into his paintings.
The Netherlands was the exceptional region in North in which Calvinism and Catholicism co-existed. In the late 16th Century, the Northern Netherlands was able to break away from Spain’s influence, while the Southern Netherlands remained under the rule of Spain. Therefore, the Northern Netherlands eventually embraced Calvinism while the Southern Netherlands remained as supporters of Catholicism. It is important to realize that Dutch and Flemings were not predestined to become Calvinists and Catholics; it was solely caused by the geographical and military circumstances. No curtain existed between the North and the South that forbid the exchange of ideas. In fact, Constantin Huygens, a diplomat and an art critic, referred to great painters of Amsterdam, Utrecht, and The Hague collectively as the painters of Netherlands. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that the Northern Netherlands was only influenced by Calvinist ideas, which also applies to the Southern Netherlands.
In the early 17th Century Catholicism was suppressed and catholic churches were demolished due to the iconoclast movement, but the protestantizing of the Northern Netherlands was still a slow process. Most artists chose to remain as Catholics, although exact number is hard to determine. However, the attempt to repair damage caused by the iconoclast movement was not as extensive and as systematic in the North as in the South. The Northern Renaissance in the Netherlands took on a completely different form from the Italian Renaissance because the Church no longer was the major patron in the North. Instead, the wealthy merchant middle class were the primary patrons of the art and thus, the Dutch masters painted small pictures for their small houses, not for the Cathedral altars. Since large church commissions were no longer available, artists changed their styles in accordance to the taste of their new customers. The artists from the Netherlands specialized in intense realism, depicting lifelike features with an unflattering honesty, unlike the Italian Renaissance painters who specialized in idealism and simplicity. Therefore, the basis of art for the Northern Renaissance was observation while for the Italian Renaissance, it was theory. The Northern Renaissance in the Netherlands indirectly reflects the influence of Protestantism in that religious themes no longer prevailed in art, although more direct causes were the changing structure of the Netherlands economy and culture. The artworks produced in the 17th Century Netherlands were more conservative compared to those of Germany, concentrating on the nature and the past times of the prosperous Dutch merchants. The “direct portraits, realistic still-lifes, landscapes, marine-scapes, and genre paintings showing scenes of everyday life” were popular subjects of the Dutch artists.
A Scene on the Ice by Hendrick Avercamp in 1625 is an accurate representation of a typical Dutch style, illustrating the commonplace scene of people enjoying winter sports in the quiet village of Kampen northeast of Amsterdam. His style clearly reflects the Northern Renaissance’s realism and its use of details, faithfully depicting the winter. He enhances his realistic rendering by using a frosty day to convey a sense of depth; “the pearly gray tonality here becomes ever paler and the forms less distinct as they move into the distance.” His work is unique in that it successfully portrays all classes of Dutch society through by using meticulous details, “from the poor fisherman surveying the skater to the well-dressed ladies riding in an elegant sleigh driven by a groom.” This is the typical genre painting of Northern Renaissance departing itself from the religious influence of Roman Catholic Church of Italy.
A seascape, along with landscape, also became very popular in Holland due to the rise of merchant class; view of Dordrecht from the Dordtse Kil by Jan Van Goyen painted in 1644 serves is an impressive seascape painting. The artist uses monochromatic phase, which is a technique in which a single color dominates the painting, to “unify each view of nature;” the golden brown aura dictates the scene, from the hazy clouds to the city skyline. He reached the summit of Northern realism by lowering the horizon to focus more on the atmospheric conditions overhead and by creating an illusion of standing on the opposite shore of the port. Unlike the Northern Netherlands, the Southern Netherlands was more influenced by the Counter Reformation than the Protestant Reformation. The Reborn Catholicism in Spain had an undeniable impact on the Southern Netherlands provinces. Moreover, France sent numerous religious orders and congregations to Spanish Netherlands in order to secure the Catholics’ authority.
The disparity in the contents of the paintings resulted from the disagreement in Protestants’ and Catholics’ perspectives of the human relationship with god. Unlike the Protestants who claimed that humans are capable of having a direct communication with god, the Catholics argued that intermediaries, such as saints and the Virgin Mary, are essential for humans to connect with god. Therefore, Catholics created artworks of saints, the Virgin Mary, and Jesus and gave reverence to them, as a way of getting closer to god. Although the Catholics asserted that they are not worshipping the intermediaries, the Protestants criticized this practice and led the iconoclastic movements. Iconoclasm is a deliberate destruction of religious icons and symbols within one’s own culture for religious changes. The Protestants and Catholics’ conflict was caused by the difference in their perspectives of the “sacred” and “secular”;while the Catholics maintained the clear separation of the two, the reformers recognized the connection between the two. Consequently, the Roman Catholic Church clergy advocated strictly religious and sacred artworks whereas the reformers preferred artworks depicting the lives of ordinary people. The Northern Protestant painters believed that “an ordinary life could glorify God just as much as a life `in the ministry’ “; since god created humans in His image, the reformation artists claimed that they are glorifying god by portraying the natural beauty of his creation, in other words, the people. These differing ideas are well conveyed through the artworks produced from the regions south of the Alps, north of the Alps, and the Netherlands mentioned above. My thesis is partially proven to be correct in that Italian art was definitely influenced by the Counter- Reformation and that German art was influenced by the Protestant- Reformation. But contradicting to my statement, the Netherlands was influenced by both religious movements. According to the Art History Professor Sarah Blick from Canyon University, the Counter- Reformation had a more direct influence on art produced after 1520s then the Protestant Reformation. Therefore, she suggested me focus on the lack of religious content in the artworks in order to study the influence of Protestant Reformation during her interview. Although artworks from each of these regions have distinct characteristics that set them apart, Italian style of painting frequently perceived in these artworks indicate that artists were inspired by each other. Because I had to narrow down my topic, many new questions emerged from my research. I am curious to know whether the various Protestantism had different influences on art. For this research, I referred to Protestants as one group but I want to extend my research so that I can investigate on the influence of the Protestant Sectarianism on art.
Bibliography
MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation A History. New York: Viking Adult, 2004. Print.
The Annotated Mona Lisa. Missouri: John Boswell Management, Inc., 1992. Print.
Helen, Gardner,. Gardner’s art through the ages. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College, 1996. Print.
Iconography of the Counter Reformation in the Netherlands heaven on earth John B Knippings
“Art of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation.” HyperHistory.net. Web. 07 Oct. 2009. .
“Scipione Pulzone (Il Gaetano): The Lamentation (1984.74) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: metmuseum.org. Web. 07 Oct. 2009. .
Janson, H. W. History of art for young people. New York: H.N. Abrams, 2002. Print.
“Matters of Taste: Genre and Still Life Painting in the Dutch Golden Age.” Welcome to Albany Institute of History and Art. Web. 07 Oct. 2009. .

Impact of Spanish Civil War on Surrealism Art

This investigation assesses the significance of surrealist artists’ responses to the Spanish Civil War and how the experiences of the horrific event were documented visually. In order to evaluate such significance, this investigation examines the impact the events the war had on surrealist art in Spain, through the use of primary recounts of the war’s impact on art and visual art history, mostly focusing on works by Salvador Dalí and Pablo Picasso who became world renowned for their contribution.
The Spanish Civil War broke out in the summer of 1936, as did the revolution within surrealist art. It was an event that did not just affect people locally, but on an international scale. Although, European art in general was impacted by the war, this investigation will not examine the effect the war had on continental surrealism, thus will only focus on Spanish artists and their work. As the leading artists in this movement were the Spanish born artists Picasso and Dali, they will be the central focus.
Two of the sources used in this essay will assess are Surrealism and the Spanish Civil War by Robin Adèle Greenley and The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí by Salvador Dalí will be evaluated for their origins, purposes, values and limitations.
This investigation does not assess the difference in ideologies (Republicanism versus Nationalism) tearing apart Spain, nor does it assess other surrealist art movements in literature, philosophy, film, architecture or music.
Background on the Spanish Civil War The summer of 1936 marked the beginning of a landmark event within modern European history: the Spanish Civil War, inviting with it a three-year tumultuous period of terror, destruction and persecution, shattering the nation. Its deep rooting ideological confrontations resulted in the intense commitment of all its participants and the loss of over half a million Spanish lives acted as a stimulus to the various international surrealist movements of the time, inspiring artists of all cultures. The creative energy focused on portraying political ideologies and illusions, the social idealisms and the military take on modern warfare, documenting the hopes and despair of the participants in this Kafkaesque war.
The fall of the crumbling Spanish Monarchy and the dissatisfying Second Republic, and the electoral success of the leftist Popular Front, a rebellion against the newly elected government erupted. The Falange or the Nationalists, lead by General Franco, conducted a nationwide revolt, alongside General Mola. They managed to seize the key cities in Northern Spain, including Madrid. The Catalan and Basque country, both known for their persistent separatist movement, anarchism and socialism, unsurprisingly sided and remained loyal to the Republic. This politically polarized Spain, dividing the country into the Nationalist and Republicans.
Mostly socialists, separatists, artists and intellectuals sided with Republicans. Franco wanted to follow Mussolini’s example and establish a secular conservative regime and was supported mostly by the conservatives, the military, the royalists and the Clergy. Even though the Church and the Falange experienced some friction, they continued to remain in their ‘marriage of convince’ because the Republic was seen as antidisestablishmentarian and lethally temporal. The Nationalists rose against the electoral Popular Front government and finally over threw it.
The interferences from external powers such as Germany and the Soviet Union dragged out the war and worsened the conflict. Horrific events which paralyzed the country, such as the annihilation of the Basque country by the German Luftwaffe’s Blitzkrieg, served as inspiration which sparked the notion of a world exhibition in France, in 1937. The section dedicated to Spain was known was the Pavilion. Many artists, such as Dali, Picasso and Renau were asked to participate; each created a response to the many atrocities which occurred in the past year of the war. It was the first exhibition of its kind, prompting propaganda from countries such as Spain.
Surrealism and the Spanish Civil War Surrealism, with no exact definition due to its ambiguous nature, is known for ‘imaginative eccentricity’ and became a major movement in the late 1920s and throughout 1930s Europe; mostly in places like Germany and Spain. The twisted yet fantastic reality which surrealism creates is seen as an escape from the actual reality. Surrealist artist art is considered to be closely connected with Freudian psychological analysis, claiming that such warped art is an insight into a deeper psyche.
The surrealist works of the Andalusian painters Dalí and Picasso (amongst others) became signatures of the satirical content of the war, acting as world informants of the paralyzing happenings within the country. Although both artists had very different notions of surrealism, both artists depict the war in a grotesque, incomprehensible, violent and audacious manner which reflected the Civil War in all its accuracy. It can be concluded that the war distorted many perspectives of reality. Traditional elements of surrealism stemmed from the Dadaism movement and were subjected to metamorphosis by many artists who incorporated components from cubism, impressionism, ‘Enlightenment’ and post impressionism as well as various other movements. In its ‘purest form’, surrealism had little or no affect on the civil war, in fact, prior to the war, it was much more submissive and discerning. However, the introduction of war perverted the movement in Spain most notably by Dalí’s Autumn Cannibalism (1936) (fig. 2) and Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War (July, 1936) (fig. 1) and Picasso’s Guernika (1937) (fig. 3). Such works were considered a mutation and mockery of works of artists from previous movements like El Greco whose work was considered contemporary for his time.
The Spanish surrealist art culture became a symbol of the Spanish Civil War as well as its leftist orientation and the Republic. This demonstrated the highly interlinked nature of political and cultural developments in 1930s Spain. Architects, like Alphonse Laurencic, drew inspiration from the twisted works of Dali, Kandinsky and Klee among others to invent a form of ‘psychotechnic’ torture found in the mind-bending prison-cells and torture chambers of Barcelona and elsewhere, built in 1938. Jose Millicua suggested that through the use of the psychological properties of colors and geometric abstraction found in these works, Laurencic created a hell that would physically distort and mentally disturb the victim connecting the growing art culture with the growing militaristic government.
Section C Evaluation of Sources [400w]
Surrealism and the Spanish Civil War was written by Robin Adèle Greenley, a respected art historian, currently Latin American Studies professor at the Connecticut University. The book, published in 2006 by Yale University Press, New Haven, is a critical interpretation of Surrealist art works by five artists, including, Dali and Picasso. The purpose of Greenley’s work is an ‘attempt to unravel the correspondence between aesthetics and politics during the Spanish Civil War’ and focuses on surrealist aspects of the war, how they differed and were affected by the intense struggle plaguing the country. The value of the book is that there is a clear study of the correlation between the art and the events which took place. It is a secondary source, designed mainly for the purpose of educating. Greenley intimately analyzes how ‘artistic practice offers unique insight into the cataclysmic debacle of war.’ The limitation of the book from a historical perspective are the existence of some ‘peculiarities in relation to its subject’ because she examines the surrealist artists and their work immaculately, but fails to draw strong parallels between the political situation of the time and the drastic change of the movement. Her work, although useful, is mostly suited for contemporary aesthetics and critical theory.
The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí was written by Salvador Dali (published in 1942 in its original French, then in 2000, translated into English by Haakon M. Chevalier). The purpose of this source is a memoire, allowing an inside scope to Dali’s life. The source’s value is that it is a direct account from the leading artist of the Surrealist movement, providing the historian with a unique and personal insight as how the war impacted him and his work. Dali is considered one of the few misunderstood artists of his time and here the idea that ‘his genius saves him from chaos’ allows us to understand him more. The book allows a deeper understanding of the awesome painter. It is a primary source and therefore is subjected to personal prejudice. Taking into account that the source is a personal memoire, Dali has grandiose his life and placed a very positive theme to everything he did with is ingenious use of words. This highlights the limitations of the source. However, he acknowledges some of this over-the-top heroism on his part in the central chapters of his prose as ‘false memories’. The memoir written only three years after the war, and passions were still running high in Spain while many people were trying to exonerate themselves from the general violence and anarchy.
Section D Analysis [650w]
Both the civil war and the surrealist art movement are closely connected and referred to by Greenley, as the public’s awakening of politics and pictures in the politically polarized Spain. It is an accurate description of the relationship between the cultural and political aspects of the war, pointing out how closely connected the two were, although they are often treated as two separate issues within the 1930s.
Common Themes in Surrealist Art Spain’s political polarization was that of artistic polarization too. The Spanish artistic culture were more than just a visual voice of the war’s terrors; they took a more proactive role within the war, thus recording and commenting on the accounts of the petrifying events from a firsthand perspective. The perversion of the surrealist art movement was done in a manner that possibly was perfectly collaborated between all artists. There is no evidence that suggests this, however. The idea of the body as a political metaphor for the country, the people, the artist, for the audience to relate to was simply a trend that caught on. The lewd art united the people, it was not only those who were suffering on Spanish soils, but those who had suffered from the previous war and the various other struggles that were happening concurrently or had passed recently. The surrealistic art ‘evolved and functioned’ in ways that ‘one can relate his stylistic consistencies to his wild political swings’ Both Greenley and Dalí agree that that surrealism is the portrayal ‘horrific metaphor for the physical annihilation of life.’
Prevalent abstract portrayal in surrealist works Fundamental components which make up work such as that of Dalí and Picasso were considered contemporary, even for surrealism and, to some extent, were frowned upon and considered the ‘assassination of painting’. These innovative elements found in surrealism seemed to pervert the movement making reality more abhorrent and unnatural, but at the same time it acted as an escape from the living nightmares of their reality allowing life to have a more satirical texture to it. Things such as disembodied humans, genitals, death, destruction, furniture and foods even references to religion and Catholicism became the norm in surrealist works represented the supple irony of the artists’ lives as well as that of the people; they were painting from their perspective of a war that created a reality for the world that was so obscene, it could not be captured any other way
Spain’s political polarization was that of artistic polarization too. The Spanish artistic culture were more than just a visual voice of the war’s terrors; they took a more proactive role within the war, thus recording and commenting on the accounts of the petrifying events from a firsthand perspective. The perversion of the surrealist art movement was done in a manner that possibly was perfectly collaborated between all artists. There is no evidence that suggests this, however. The idea of the body as a political metaphor for the country, the people, the artist, for the audience to relate to was simply a trend that caught on. The lewd art united the people, it was not only those who were suffering on Spanish soils, but those who had suffered from the previous war and the various other struggles that were happening concurrently or had passed recently. The surrealistic art ‘evolved and functioned’ in ways that ‘one can relate his stylistic consistencies to his wild political swings’ Both Greenley and Dalí agree that that surrealism is the portrayal ‘horrific metaphor for the physical annihilation of life.’
Use of media Elements of Spanish Surrealism became mostly to do with fascism in a farcical, perverse form of display, causing a ‘ruin of surrealism’. This was mostly Dali’s movement, joined with other surrealists like Rene Magritte and Max Ernst. Dali, in particular, served as the main revolutionary artist to this complex way of painting. The constant elements of his works were things he found some sort of fascination in as a child such as food, death, the idea of sexuality, the human anatomy, insects, a crutch, and various other strange items which he later turned into a satirical, metaphorical component for his work.
The idea of the body as a political metaphor became a fast trend throughout Surrealists work. The body came to represent many concepts of the happenings within their lives. It was a metaphor for the artist’s body, a body wounded by war and its ritualized combat, personal strife of civilians and artists, of politicized or sexualized body, an indicator of unconscious desires as well as body mechanisms acting as a transgression of avant-garde within the social context. It was created in a fashion as a universal component; anyone and everyone could relate to the art effortlessly.
Picasso’s Guernika (1937) utilized these aspects to create an unconscious conception of war, where the strong prey on the weak as a response to the Pavilion,capturing the violence and the disruptive nature of the confusion of private sexuality. It was a symbol of Guernica’s struggle and suffering after its violation by the German Blitzkrieg attack.
Dali’s Autumn Cannibalism (1936) also took into consideration these components, as well as his signature elements to represent the Kafkaesque idea of the war with a more ironic twist than Picasso’s art. Dali’s work making mockery of bourgeoisie and the subtle grotesque manner in which this war is carried out, an element of sadomasochistic aggression between the two faceless, closely entwined figures that have an almost parasitic feel to them, turning a seemingly amorous kiss into a fatal, inescapable trap; underlining the murderous violence depicted.
Artists’ social and political issues in their work A majority of the art responses to the war were surrealist, proving an obvious correlation between the two events. The war had an overwhelming impact of the surrealist art movement inspiring artists such as Dalí and Picasso throughout Spain.
Section E Conclusion [200w]
It is evident the Spanish Civil War had an impact on the surrealist visual art movement and altered, significantly, the ways in which the movement was captured. The fundamental elements and secondary components that such works were composed of obtained many satirical and metaphorical characteristics which were impacted very much by the war.
Previously, the image of the body as a perverse form of political metaphor was not thought of and therefore rarely appeared in surrealist paintings for the mutation of the body was seen as sacrilegious, and in doing so, the already worrying contemporary art became aesthetically tormenting The perverse maturity of the images from artists such as Dalí and Picasso have been used as ideal examples of this epic movement which altered not only the way people saw their reality but the global ideal of art and art history.
The Spanish Civil War did impact surrealist visual art in Spain by forcing the elements of the work not only more uniform among the artists but changed them to represent something more than the war in their minds.

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