Sources of Knowledge
Justification of Knowledge
Primarily, epistemology centers on the understanding of the theory of knowledge and levels to which such knowledge is legitimate. This one of the most crucial areas in philosophy, for it provides a means of understanding the precepts that make knowledge, its sources, organization, methods of verification, and its confines.
Through understanding all of this, one is able to distinguish between personal perceptions and the ultimate truth of knowledge. The reality of knowledge depends on its justifiability; that is, epistemology tends to question the truth behind human knowledge hence, through such understanding, individuals are able to form a basis of comprehending any piece of knowledge (Heylighen, p.1).
What is knowledge? Knowledge is any belief with a verification mechanism, depending on the facts of reality behind it. Knowledge not only involves the recognition that different aspects of reality exists, but it also involves correct understanding of such aspects; hence, forming a basis of justifying beliefs.
It is important to note that, this definition of knowledge applies the tripartite theory of knowledge, a fact disapproved by the Gettier cases hence, making the preposition lacking. According to the Gettier cases, knowledge cannot be any type of belief with a verification mechanism primarily because, to some extent, the evidential support of some reality concepts maybe out of luck hence, making such evidence unreliable (Pappas, pp. 5-17).
Sources of Knowledge Notions and beliefs held by different individuals arise due to different reasons. The varying nature of beliefs held by individuals occurs due the varying nature of wants (which can be either psychological or emotional) and varying perceptions among different individuals. Philosophically, there exists two primary propositions, which explain how humans acquire knowledge namely empiricism and rationalism. According to empiricism, individuals’ experiences play the central role in knowledge acquisition.
In addition, because perception determines individuals’ judgmental habits, it is an important component in the knowledge acquisition process. Three main classes of empiricism exists namely classical, constructivism and radical empiricism. Classical empiricism refutes the notion that individuals have inborn concepts; a fact supported by Locke’s idea of the mind being like a blank slate: hence, the importance of the surrounding environments in shaping perception.
Closely linked to this is radical empiricism, which states that, senses are the primary sources of knowledge. Therefore, because different individuals have different perceptions of differences occurrences, according to radical empiricists, individuals must have a mechanism of verifying all sensory perceptions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, because human knowledge depends on sensory instincts, acquisition of knowledge must go hand in hand with personal experiences. Lastly, according to constructivism, by using personal experiences, individuals are able to formulate personal guiding rules and mental representations, which they use in understanding their sensory insights and daily experiences (Moser, pp. 72-93).
Contrary to the empiricists’ ideology is the rationalists’ ideology, which postulates that, acquisition of knowledge depends on individuals’ ability to reason and encode meaning from life’s occurrences. Rationalists oppose Locke’s idea of the human mind being like a blank slate by arguing that, experiences are there to shape what humans know, because human beings are born with some innate concepts (Moser, pp. 76-94).
Justification of Knowledge Because of the varying nature of perceptions held by different individuals on different life occurrences, the truth of a claim depends on available evidence to support such claims. Three primary knowledge justifications propositions exist namely: reliabilism, foundationalism, and coherentism.
According to foundationalism, individual infer the truth of a belief from other proved ideas; lack of other proved beliefs means that, such held knowledge is not true because it its proving will lack the justification regress concept. A good example of justified ideas is basic beliefs, a fact that makes this theory to face criticism, because selection of basic beliefs is random (McGrath, Sosa, and Kim, pp. 226-235).
Contrary to this is the coherentism ideology, which states that, for a set of beliefs to be true, then they must be coherent. The coherence of a belief depends on three properties namely: comprehensibility, consistency, and cohesiveness. For an idea to be consistency, then the primary elements forming such a belief must agree with each other.
Existence of any contractions between such elements makes beliefs to lack the coherence property hence, void. Cohesiveness of beliefs depends on the supportive and consistent nature of elements that make up beliefs. Consistence and support are important in truth justification, for it makes beliefs probable (Wray, pp. 53-66).
Reliabilism as a mechanism of truth justification is very different from coherentism and foundationalism. According to reliabilism, the justification of a belief depends on its formation methodology. Depending on the belief forming methodology; whether dependable or defective, the outcome of a justification of the truth varies; hence the existence of true and untrue beliefs (Holt, p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Epistemology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, the legitimacy of knowledge held by individuals depends on the ability of individuals to verify such knowledge, by inferring to other beliefs, checking their forming mechanism, or ascertaining their coherence.
Works Cited Heylighen, Francis. Epistemology, introduction. Principia Cybernetica, 1993. Web.
Holt, Tim. Reliabilism. 2010. Web.
McGrath, Matthew, Sosa, Ernest, and Kim, Jaegwon. Epistemology: an anthology.
Malden, Massachusetts, 2000. Web.
Moser, Paul. The Oxford handbook of epistemology. Oxford: Oxford university Press, 2002. Web.
Pappas, George. Justification and knowledge: New studies in epistemology. Boston: Reidel Publishers, 1979. Web.
Wray, Brad. Knowledge and inquiry: readings in epistemology. Ontario: Broadview Press, 2002. Web.
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Gender Stereotypes on Television Analytical Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Television advertisement perpetuates gender stereotypes through their advertising. This is through reinforcing the traditional gender roles assigned by the society. The traditional stereotypes about being a man is being business minded, tough, independent while being a woman means being passive, sensitive, and submissive, having beauty, elegance a good homemaker.
Television commercials are most likely to be run at the time when the advertisers think the target audience is watching television to sell their products. For instance, during daytime advertisers will run commercials about food, beauty products cleaning agents and so on in soap operas or dramas that have more women viewers than men viewers have.
On the other hand, in sports programs commercials for things such as beer, vehicles and property are run because the audience for such programs are mostly men. Gender stereotyping in television commercials is a topic that has generated a huge debate and it is an important topic to explore to find out how gender roles in voice-overs TV commercials and the type of products they are selling to the public are related. From many findings, it is clear that advertisers use gender to sell different products during different times in broadcasting.
Many studies in content analysis have been done on television commercials. The studies have focused on gender stereotyping but many have ignored the economic motivation behind the stereotyping in commercials. Advertisers want to make most of their advertisement and run the ads when the target audience is likely to be watching certain television programs. For example during soap operas advertisers will run ads on things like diapers.
This product is hardly seen during programs watched mostly by men for instance sporting programs. While some advertisers may not consider the age and sex of the audience some do so because it is cost effective as they are able to reach most people in the target group using one commercial (Craig 1).
Gender roles stereotyping comes in when advertisers choose to run ads on products aimed at women during daytime. This is considered the best time to reach this target group, as most women are likely to be at home taking care of their children or just housekeeping. These young women are more likely to buy the products advertised than the older women who are largely ignored by the advertisements, as they are not considered as big buyers.
During prime time, the advertisements changed and target women who usually work. To make the advertisement more economical; advertisers run ads that target a wider audience of both men and women. Thus during this time products that appeal to both gender are more likely to be advertised. During the weekend most television stations run sporting events, they are mainly targeted at men, and thus products aimed at men are advertised during these programs. Products such as cars, beer are advertised (Craig 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is also important to note that television programs are also gendered. There are programs created primarily with a specific gender in mind. During these programs, the advertisers get a good opportunity to sell their products to their target audience. The programs are made in such a way that they help to sell the products being advertised.
This is achieved by portraying the characters in the programs with traits that are desirable to the target audience. This in turn makes the target audience desire those traits and thus are more likely to buy products advertised during such times (Craig 3).
For example, men are portrayed as dominant, autonomous; in occupations that are prestigious on the other hand, women are shown as caring, compliant or in domestic settings. Therefore, women will be shown in ads about domestic products while men will often advertise outdoor products or business related products (Chandler 1).
In voice-overs, the gender stereotypes are reinforced and maintained. The program or advertisements makers use voice-overs that represent the products they are advertising and that fit the society’s stereotype of gender roles. In voice-overs, regarding authority male voice-overs are used.
The males do voice-overs for products that are masculine in nature. The male voice-overs are also used in various product advertisements unlike their female counterparts who are mostly used in doing voice-overs for domestic products such as food, cleaning agents or female beauty products.
The female voice-overs are often gentle, sensitive, and dependent or even submissive (Chandler 1). If men are used in advertising home products, they are often shown as being unable to handle the task. For example, a man may be unable to operate a washing machine and a woman comes over and shows him how to use it with so much ease.
This advertisement although not breaking from tradition and having a man advertise at the end a woman comes and she is the one who is able to run the washing machine successfully thus reinforcing the traditional gender roles that homes are best run by women as men cannot be good homemakers. On the contrary, advertisements about men have male figures that work very hard. These males are often rewarded with a beer at the end of a day’s hard work.
We will write a custom Essay on Gender Stereotypes on Television specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stereotype type being propagated in such an ad is that men work very hard outdoors or in businesses and thus need a reward at the end of the day. Some ads may also show a man who is successful as having many women and thus reinforces they notion that a man can have a woman as long as he works hard. This kind of ads objectify women (Limpinnian 1).
We are in the 21st century and even though the role of women has shifted drastically from that of being care givers to professionals the stereotypes still persist in television advertisement. This may be attributed to the patriarchal society in which males dominant every aspect of life.
Interesting enough children tend to learn these stereotypes from the advertisement they see on television. Girls are often used in fewer ads than boys are and in those advertisements that are used to portray the traditional roles of women.
For example, the girls will be used in doll ads or in cooking fat ads to show that their role is in the home. Conversely, boys are portrayed in ads as being care free with toys cars and tough. This means that the boys and girls grow up to fit into gender behaviors shown in the advertisements (Bradway 1).
Finally, the gender roles in voice-overs in television commercials and the type of products advertised by different genders all seem to reinforce the traditional stereotypes. The advertisers do not want to shift from gendered advertising because they would not want to upset the status quo in the society as the products they produce are produced with a target market in mind.
Works Cited Bradway, Jacquelyn. Stereotypical Gender Roles Portrayed in Children’s Television Commercials. Web.
Chandler, Daniel. Television and Gender Roles. Web.
Craig, Steve. Men’s men and Women’s Women: How TV Commercials Portray Gender to Different Audiences. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gender Stereotypes on Television by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Limpinnian, Danielle. The Portrayal of Men and Women in TV Ads. Web.