To bring awareness to the work of Cristobal and her contribution to Critical Race Theory, I recognize that Kanaka ‘?iwi is the preferred terminology when referring to the Indigenous peoples of Hawaii. In order to avoid the misuse of Kanaka ‘?iwi, I will use traditional Western terminology. Between 2012 and 2018, I worked for the United States Air Force and was stationed on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. During this time, I volunteered hundreds of hours with Big Brothers Big Sisters Hawaii (BBBSH). Each year, the program helps over 1,000 at-risk youth facing adversity, to include those living in poverty (BBBSH, 2019). According to Office of Minority Health (2019), 15.4% of native Hawaiians fall below the poverty level, in comparison to only 9.66% for the non-Hispanic whites (Office of Minority Health, 2019). Over the years, I worked with children from the local community and provided a mentoring friendship that focused on educational, social and emotional well-being. Some of the community youth did not attend the public school system and I was introduced to Kamehameha Schools thru the educational portion of the program. Kamehameha Schools fall under a private charitable education trust established by Bernice Pauahi Bishop, a direct descendent of King Kamehameha the I. The Schools do not receive any state or federal funding and approximately 98% of support to the school’s educational programs comes from Bishop’s endowment fund (Kamehameha Schools, 2019). Bishop knew that education would be vital to the survival of native Hawaiians and requested her estate to be used towards an educational system.
After the Hawaii Kingdom was overthrown, the native methods of teaching and learning were banned as part of a systematic distancing to the culture. Many Natives believed the Hawaiian language was required to fully understand the culture, which saw a resurgence during the 60s and 70s. Shortly after, policies were generated to promote the “study of the Hawaiian culture, history, and languages” and to recognize Hawaiian as an official state language (Hawaii State Department of Education, 2019). Beginning in early 2000, there were a series of disputes with Kamehameha Schools, specifically regarding the admission policy, which “gives preference to children of Hawaiian ancestry” (Kamehameha Schools, 2019). The goal of the admission policy is to improve the capability and well-being of Hawaiians through education and is currently serving just under 7,000 students of Hawaiian ancestry (Kamehameha Schools, 2019). The policy is being used as a way to remedy past harms and current imbalances suffered as a result of colonization and to rectify some of the socioeconomic and educational disadvantages. In 2006, the admission policy was challenged under Doe vs. Kamehameha in which a non-native Hawaiian claimed he was denied admission because of his race and in violation of his equal rights (Watson, 2006). I would argue that the admission policy is not problematic, the issue rests with non-Hawaiian students who attempt to use reverse discrimination as a way to challenge and gain admission to affirmative action programs such as Kamehameha Schools. The court upheld the admission policy preference which enables children of Hawaiian ancestry the first right to education (Watson, 2006). The outcome of the case was a significant victory for Hawaiians and all minorities impacted by educational discrimination.
Critical Race Theory
Critical Race Theory (CRT) is a movement “interested in studying and transforming the relationship between race, racism, and power” by highlighting historical and continued racism in all aspects of life (Delgado
Benefits of Structured Recreational Activities for At-Risk Youth
Doctoral Comprehensive Assessment: Pre-Candidacy Prospectus
The purpose of this qualitative case study is to explore how structured programs such as recreation, sport, and leisure activities can help at-risk youth graduate from high school when offered in a structured environment with the mentors/support of classroom teachers. The primary investigator will interview six to 10 participants who actively work with youth in after school programs who are identified as “at risk.”
The qualitative case method is suitable for this investigation (Creswell