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Cotton Growing Districts in India

Abstract
Important cash crop in India is Cotton. India is second largest producer of cotton after China and grown on twelve million hectares. Currently in India only Insect resistant Bt cotton is grown. Remarkable growth has been seen in production and cultivation of Bt cotton in India. This growth is seen with introduction of Bt cotton that has genes of soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and therefore it is called as Bt Cotton. Regular cotton plants re attacked by a notorious pest called bollworm and to protect them from these pests Bt cotton plants are cultivated that have genes that will produce proteins that protect cotton plants from attack of pests. The aim of this review is to find solutions to problems faced by people due to Bt cotton and its impacts on environment and human health.
There has been extensive use of chemical fertilizers, organic manures and bullock labour due to which there are low net returns and therefore we have found an alternative called Bt cotton. Factors that are most important leading to adoption of Bt cotton are very poor quality and quantity of regular cotton plants. Farmers have been benefited by accepting this technology of biotechnology and the various benefits are as follows: Increase in yields, Reduced use of pests, Increased employment, education and standard of living and reduced health risk. An important tool of Indian farmer is Bt cotton that can protect his crop in an environmentally friendly and sustainable manner against its most important enemy, the bollworm.
Introduction
For agriculture economy of India, cotton is an immensely important crop and is recognized as an important commercial cash crop in India. India is the only country in world that cultivates all four Gossypium species which are as follows: G. arboreum (Desi cotton) , G. herbaceum ( Asian cotton) , G. barbadense (Egyptian cotton) and G. hirsutum (American upland cotton) along with Hybrid cottons. In the world there are 50 Gossypium species of which 45 are diploid and remaining 5 are allotetraploid species distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of Indian sub continents. From 45 species of Goppysium only 4 are commercially cultivated and G. hirsutum represents 90% of total production in India and all the current hybrids are at present G. hirsutum. This species gives us superior quality of fibre along with G. barbadense.
Cotton scenario in India
India represents only one third of total cultivated cotton area from 32 million hectares of cotton grown globally. India accounts for 21% of global cotton production and is ranked second after China. The contribution of Cotton in India has increased from 14% in 2002 to 24% in 2011-2012. The production in 1947-48 was 2.3 million bales and 17.6 million bales in 1996-97 and the highest record of 35 million bales was seen in 2011-12 in India. 65% of cotton is needed for textile industries as well as it provides employment and sustenance to 60 million people involved directly or indirectly in production and textile activities. The impact of Cotton production in India has changed livelihood of farmers, economy of country and increase in international trade. In order to successfully cultivate cotton the most important things are climate and soil.
Cotton is cultivated in varied soils, climates and agricultural practices under irrigated and rainfed areas in India. About 65% of cotton is produced in rainfed areas and 35% of cotton is produced in irrigated areas. Three distinct agro-ecological regions where cotton is cultivated is North, Central and South. In Northern India cotton is grown in about a million in hectare in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. Largest area under cotton cultivation is seen in Central zone about 65% covering Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. South zone covers 21% of total area in cotton cultivation consisting of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
India is the only country where commercially all four cotton species are grown on commercial scale and covers 8.5-9.0 million hectares. Total cotton area is 50% in which hybrid cotton is cultivated. Both quality and quantity of cotton has improved in India. There has been increase in production from 2.79 million bales in 1947-48 to 17.6 million bales in 1996 and it reached upto 28.0 million bales during 2006-07 which was an all time record. India use to produce short and medium staple cottons during pre-independence but today India produces long, extra long superfine cotton. There was a rapid growth seen in Indian economy and demand of cotton was also increasing.
India ranks first with regard to area in global scenario (about 20% of the world cotton area) and with regards to production, it is ranked second, next to China. The productivity of cotton is 440 kg/ha in India. Since cotton area in India has remained static since 1995 at around 85-89 lakh hectares, production and productivity have shown significant up trends during last decade.
In North zone, cotton is grown under irrigation in alluvial soils, in Central zone cotton is predominantly grown in black soils as rainfed crop. In South zone cotton is grown in vertisols and red soils.
NORTH ZONE
The zone covers the following states Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. The cotton cultivation has been threatened from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease, bollworms and water logging stress. There are many efforts taken for cultivation and release of CLCuV disease resistant cotton. The rate of success is limited in the release of hybrids (Om Shankar, HHH 223 and LHH 144) and varieties (H 1117, H1226, RS 810 and RS 875).
In these States, the yield potential of hirsutum and arboreum varieties shows the superiority of arboreum cultivars. However, desi cotton (G. arboreum) area has been eroded over the years and the main reason is that the desi cotton varieties have large coarse and non-spinnable lint. Therefore, there is always a price reduction compared to American cottons (G. hirsutum). But there is a scope of improvement in this zone due to recent release of intra specific hybrids along with Bt cotton hybrids.
In spite of the fact that cotton in North Zone is fully irrigated, the average yield levels are around 400 to 500 kg lint / ha, whereas the potential is around 800 kg lint/ ha under ideal irrigation and management conditions. There are certain areas that are prone to waterlogging and flooding which affect the cultivation of cotton and limitations in yield is also seen due to high salinity areas. A harsh climate with high temperature (40 – 45oC), with a limitation in canal water irrigation is seen in North zone. There is 20% reduction in cotton area in Rajasthan due to shortage supply in irrigation water. Research is done in development of high yielding Desi hybrids with a try to improve the quality of fibre and the area for desi cotton needs to be raised, besides general increase in area under cotton as compared to previous years.
CENTRAL ZONE
Almost 65% of cotton area is covered under this zone that covers Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra alone covers for nearly 30% of the cotton area. Although there is limitation of irrigation source in Central Zone, ideal temperatures and ample sunshine during growth and maturity periods and the extended moderately cool, rain free dry weather prevailing during October to February are most favoured for obtaining higher yields (1000 to 1500 kg lint per ha). Jamnagar,Rajkot, Junagadh, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bharuch of Gujarat have the highest yield potential for cotton in India, followed by the summer irrigated tracts of Western Maharashtra (Rahuri, Padegaon) and irrigated holdings in Jalgaon, Aurangabad, Nanded and irrigated tracts of Madhya Pradesh (Khargaon, Khandwa and Indore).
Maharashtra
Largest cotton growing area in the country is seen in Maharashtra accounting for nearly one third of national cotton area (30 lakh hectares). This is due to vast tract of shallow soils with poor fertility and also the precarious and uneven distribution of rainfall over larger area, the cotton production is only around 6-10
q/ha, but there are also certain econiches that have high productivity (20-30 q/ha) throughout the State. The frequent droughts and early termination of monsoon rains during September in Marathwada region called for strong water harvest programmes and farm ponds. It is noted that there is a vast potential for water harvest in the undulating terrain of Maharashtra. The total rainfall in cotton growing districts of Maharashtra is from 700 to 1000 mm and so it is not difficult to augment rain water through Farm ponds and Mini reservoirs.
The irrigated cotton in Maharashtra is having high yield potential (30-40 q/ha). Such efforts are taken care by CICR, Nagpur in the Research Farm revealed the success of water harvest programme in stepping up the cotton productivity. For every ten hectare area of the land, there should be one-hectare area under farm pond for effective water harvest programme. Crop management strategies, water harvest programme (developed by CICR, Nagpur) and “Ashta” model IPM approach hold the key for record production in Maharashtra.
Gujarat
In Gujarat, about 24 lakh hectares area is under cotton. To increase or enhance the productivity Herbaceum (Desi) cotton is a great challenge from existing low level of productivity of about 200kg/ha. This state is more prone to drought conditions and delay in rains cause heavy rainfalls which results in floods.
Gujarat has emerged as the largest cotton producer with 90% of hybrids of G. hirsutum group and a range of Bt cotton hybrids with productivity of 100 lakh bales in 2006-07.
In future irrigation practices and water harvesting through farm ponds and try of yielding drought resistant varieties can strengthen future situation. The Narmada Project will also help in increasing potential of irrigation and will help Gujarat to maintain the lead as largest cotton producing state. The Narmada Project, when completed may also increase irrigation potential; thereby Gujarat may maintain the lead as the largest cotton producing state.
Madhya Pradesh
The cotton growing area of Madhya Pradesh (Khargaon, Indore, and Khandwa) shows an undulating terrain with soil depth ranging from 15 cm to 2 meters. In valley portions productivity is very good (25 to 30 q/ha) and is very poor (5 to 8 q/ha) in eroded shallow soils.
In Madhya Pradesh irrigated cotton has tremendous production potential as compared to Central Zone States. The monsoon rains along with protective irrigations and cultivation of hybrid cotton holds the key for higher sustainable production in Madhya Pradesh, that has witnessed 18 lakh bales during 2006-07. Moreover, efforts and steps are needed for development of efficient genotypes suitable to shallow soils.
SOUTH ZONE
In South zone covers Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. South Zone states are also ideal for cultivation of extra long staple varieties of cotton, but the quality is dependent on irrigation conditions.
Andhra Pradesh
Since 1990 the area of cotton and production of cotton have increased and improved. The cotton area has shown increase from 6 lakh hectares to 10 lakh hectares along with increase in production from 17 lakh bales to 33-35 lakh bales. In Krishna, Guntur, Karimnagar, Kammam, Warangal, Adilabad, Mahaboobnagar, Prakasam and Nalgonda districts of Madhya Pradesh cotton is extensively grown.
Bt cotton hybrids that are popular are RCH 2 Bt, RCH 20 Bt, Bunny Bt, Mallika Bt and Tulasi Bt. 25% is under irrigated situation of the total area. The factors that lead to reduced yields are as follows multiplicity of cotton hybrids, extensive use of adultrated insecticides and pesticide use due to which the high yielding areas of Andhra Pradesh are affected. Outbreak of pests is seen when there are heavy rains which causes damage to cotton production.
Another major drawback in Andhra Pradesh is use of heavy dose of imbalanced
chemical fertilizer that is applied on cotton plant and monocropping of cotton practiced by cotton farmers. Cotton is damaged by bollworms,aphids,jassids and whiteflies and so appropriate remedies like Insecticide Resistance management strategies, Integrated Pest Management, Integrated Nutrient Management besides scientific methods of weed control and water management have been perfected through All India Coordinated Cotton Improvement Project of ICAR, State Agricultural University besides Central Institute for Cotton Research.
These are the measures that are being followed in Andhra Pradesh for improving productivity of cotton and sustainability of cotton cultivation by farmers. In future, any incidence of newer pest / diseases or any abiotic stresses on cotton are continuously taken care and looked into by the scientists and developmental officials for immediate problem solving approaches for effective follow up by the farmers. Besides, ICAR sponsored Frontline Demonstrations under Technology Mission on Cotton have been conducted in farmer’s fields for demonstrating newly released cotton varieties/hybrids and Bt cotton hybrids, proper fertilizer usage, micronutrient need etc, wherein 15-20 % yield increase are reported.
Karnataka
A downtrend in area and production of cotton was shown by Karnataka over the years. The area where cotton is cultivated has come down to 4 lakh hectares. This reduction in area is due to competitive crops like maize and pulses. From Dharwad to Raichur , Karnataka covers vast tract of dry land and farming areas and in this belt the Desi cotton (G. herbaceum) is cultivated. Eventhough, production potential of this long duration herbaceum cotton is as low as 6-8 q/ha, but it can accommodate Onion and Chillies as inter crops and hence the farmers would like to continue to cultivate this cotton. In other remaining areas, other cotton hybrids as DHH 11, NHH 44 and other private sector Bt hybrids are grown. In Karnataka also, majority of cotton growing area (about 70%) are under rainfed condition. Protective and life saving irrigation are the only measures to raise the cotton production and productivity of the dry land cotton.
Cotton cultivation is also extended in the irrigated areas of Ghata Prabha, Mala Prabha and Thungabadhra ayacuts, only when the farmers leave monocropping of cotton and go for desi varieties of arboreum or desi hybrids to sustain cotton production and to save the crop from severe pest damages. Increase in productivity of quality hybrid DCH 32 and desi cottons/long-linted arboreum besides augmenting water resources and adoption of novel intercropping, rotation cropping in rainfed and irrigated command areas will give better economic returns to farmers and ensure sustainable production.
Tamil Nadu
The cotton area remains at 1.3 lakh hectares, and production and productivity has improved. Very rarely in irrigated areas and rainfed conditions, cotton is cultivated. Cotton varieties LRA 5166 and MCU-5 dominate the cotton acreage during main season and MCU-7 and SVPR-2 are cultivated as summer cotton. Cultivation of extra long staple super fine cotton “Suvin” is limited to about 1000 hectares and the area is declining further.
The possibilities regarding bringing additional area under ELS ( extra long staple) cotton needs to be explored in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, as the country urgently requires around 15 lakh bales of ELS cotton by 2010. With India accounting for 40% of global share in fine and super fine yarn, the production needs to be stepped up in a concerted way from present 3 lakh bales of ELS cotton to 15 lakh bales in few years from now.
3 Zones of India

Effect of Steroid Sulfatase (STS) on Sex Selective Disorders

Introduction The inner workings of the body are amazing. Through evolutionary time and random chance, proteins used in one area of the body become crucial in others. It would seem very unlikely that one enzyme would be responsible for proper brain function AND proper skin maintenance, because the two areas seem different in terms of function and composition. However, enzymes are associated with both of these areas. One of the enzymes linked to these two areas is steroid sulfatase. This enzyme is coded by the STS gene. A defect in this crucial protein can cause severe neurological and physical disorders, including some cancers. Several of the disorders associated with steroid sulfatase include autism, ADHD, X-linked ichthyosis, aggression, and breast cancer. While these disorders are seen in both males and females, one sex is especially more vulnerable to these disorders for understandable reasons. This paper will first look into the basic properties of steroid sulfatase and the conditions that steroid sulfatase can cause in order to gain a broad, yet adequately full, understanding of what the gene and the protein that it encodes are capable of doing. As it will soon be clear, many of the disorders associated are sexually dimorphic.
STS Location and Structure The X-chromosome variant of the steroid sulfatase gene is the only significant variant. The X-chromosome STS gene is approximately 140 kb large, consists of 10 exons, and is located at band Xp22.3 (Ballabio et al., 1990). It is expressed in the cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum, but it is also present in the liver, adrenal, and the human placenta in an insoluble form (Nicolas et al., 2001a). In rats, this STS gene can only be found on the X-chromosome (Kopsida et al., 2009). In humans, the gene is present on both chromosomes, however, only the gene on the X-chromosome is functional (Kopsida et al., 2009). The human, Y-chromosome variant of STS is not expressed because many base substitutions, deletions, and insertions have inactivated the gene (Yen et al., 1988). The protein precursor is approximately 63 kilodaltons before being cleaved down to 61 kilodaltons during post-translational modification (Stengel et al., 2008). The STS gene is composed of 562 amino acids, and like the name “steroid sulfatase” suggests, it is classified as a hydrolase enzyme (Hernandez-Guzman et al., 2003). The structure of steroid sulfatase includes 2 antiparallel alpha helices that give the protein a mushroom-like shape (Hernandez-Guzman et al., 2003). These typical alpha helices are hydrophobic, suggesting that part of the steroid sulfatase structure is anchored inside a phospholipid bilayer, quite possibly the plasma membrane that belongs to the endoplasmic reticulum inside cells of the cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, or the cerebellum. A study on mouse fetuses reveals the presence of steroid sulfatase mRNA in the hindbrain, cortex, and the thalamus on the final week of gestation (Compagnone et al., 1997). Additionally, an adult bovine brain reveals that steroid sulfatase is expressed in the midbrain and the hypothalamus (Park et al., 1997). These two pieces of evidence suggest that steroid sulfatase expression could vary throughout development and/or they could differ between species. One thing that is certain is that the differential expression of steroid sulfatase between the sexes can cause its own problems.
Sexually Dimorphic Characteristics Recall back to any introductory genetics course and remember that males and females have different versions of the same types of chromosomes, except for one. Females and males have different sex chromosome complements: Females typically have 2 X-chromosomes, whereas men usually have 1 X-chromosome and 1 Y-chromosome. While this difference in sex chromosome complements between men and women is the basis for sex-linked disorders, it is also the basis for sexual dimorphic traits, since the gene products encoded by these sex chromosomes can affect the concentration of androgens and estrogens in the body which will have effects on skeletal and neurological developments.
The steroid sulfatase gene is associated with sexually dimorphic traits. As previously mentioned, the gene is present on both X- and Y-chromosome in humans, but the Y-chromosome variant is not functional due to the many changes to its nucleotide sequence. In rats, the STS gene is completely gone on the Y-chromosome (Yen et al., 1988). Moreover, it has been shown that STS is not subjected to X-inactivation, suggesting that women would most likely have more steroid sulfatase in circulation compared to men if the gene expression of STS between men and women are identical (Kopsida et al., 2009). And if so, depending on the processes that require steroid sulfatase and its products, it would make logical sense that the different amounts of these two compounds could lead to sexually dimorphic responses. However, while women do have twice as many STS genes as men do and both genes are capable of being expressed in females, current research have concluded that women do not have twice the level of STS activity compared to men (Kopsida et al., 2009). There is not twice as much STS activity, like neurotransmitter receptor modulation, DHEA production and other mechanisms that will be discussed below, in female tissues than there are in male tissues.
STS Functions Depending on the mammal, the function and mechanism through which steroid sulfatase acts can be different. The general mechanism for steroid sulfatase consists of the cleavage of sulfate groups from various steroid precursors, the product of which modulate neurons by acting as modulators for different types of neurotransmitter receptors (Davies 2014). These steroids affect the receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), and sigma-1 receptors. One of the most notable products of steroid sulfatase is dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is converted from dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (Davies 2014). As previously noted, the STS gene is expressed in the cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. All of these areas are associated with ADHD in mice and in humans (Davies 2014). A deficiency in STS results in increased levels of DHEAS, which could cause problems for whoever possesses it, be it man or mouse.
In Mice
In mice, steroid sulfatase is needed to convert DHEAS to DHEA. This reaction controls sexually dimorphic behavior such as male aggression to other male mice within the same species (Nicolas et al., 2001b). It was suggested that steroid sulfatase may also have a role in regulating the immune response. A study using mice DHEA in vitro was able to conclude that DHEA (and not DHEAS) can suppress the release of Th2 cytokines, which causes an enhanced Th1 (Type 1 helper T cell) response (Daynes et al., 1993). A decrease in the gene expression of STS or the lack of steroid sulfatase causes an increase in DHEAS which is found to be correlated with an increase in male aggression higher than those of the control group (Nicolas et al., 2001b). In addition to that, mice with unusually low amounts of steroid sulfatase show symptoms similar to those with ADHD, such as hyperactivity, aggression (as previously mentioned), increased emotional reactivity, and atypical striatal and hippocampal neurochemistry (Trent et al., 2012). However, inhibition of STS has been shown to cause improvement in spatial learning for mice (Johnson et al., 2000). From the data gather on experimentation in mice, it would seem that there are pros and cons with having a deficiency in the expression of STS gene: a mouse could be quick at learning, but he would also become more aggressive and emotional towards his fellow male mice.
In Humans
In humans, steroid sulfatase is largely distributed throughout the body (Purohit et al., 2008). During pregnancy, steroid sulfatase produces androgens and estrogens from sulfated steroid precursors in the placenta. These steroids are crucial for fetal development (Compagnone et al., 1997). Data gathered suggest that steroid sulfatase is able to promote tumor growth, and because of that, steroid sulfatase is now of interest to those working in cancer research. Breast tumors require estrogen to grow and survive in postmenopausal women. These tumors highly express STS in order to get the estrogen they require to sustain themselves (Nussbaumer and Billich 2005). And because women carry two copies of the gene, it becomes easier for the breast tumors to survive in women.
Like previously mentioned briefly, ADHD and X-linked Ichthyosis are both disorders caused by the dysfunction of STS. Within males, like it is in mice, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed 4 to 6 times more often, most likely due to the fact that males need to have their one and only copy of STS on their X-chromosome function properly, whereas women have two STS genes to rely upon for normal function (Trent et al., 2012). Also previously mentioned, STS is a modulator for GABA receptors. Specifically speaking, DHEAS is a negative modulator for GABA receptors and GABA is a neurotransmitter that reduces neuronal excitability, producing a calming effect (Yadid et al., 2010). In patients with dysfunctional steroid sulfatase, there is an abundance of DHEAS, which negatively affects the GABA receptors. Negative modulation of GABA receptors will prevent GABA from binding onto the receptors, and because GABA is a calming neurotransmitter, the individual with a low functional STS gene will suffer from hyperactivity due to reduced GABA receptor functionality (Yadid et al., 2010). A reduction in the calming effect that GABA receptors provide will also increase the emotional reactivity of the individual with ADHD, much like in male mice.
In humans, a common X-linked skin disorder known as X-linked ichthyosis can occur due to deficiencies in steroid sulfatase or a mutation in the STS gene. The symptoms of X-linked ichthyosis include dry, scaly skin, typically on the neck, torso, and the lower extremities (Basler et al., 1992). Since females have two active copies of the STS genes (one on each of their sex chromosomes) and both escapes x-inactivation, X-linked ichthyosis is more likely to occur in males, because unlike females, males only have one copy of the steroid sulfatase gene (Ballabio et al., 1990). For females, the presence of a defective STS gene is often compensated by the presence of a normal STS gene on the other X-chromosome. The cause of the appearance of dry, scaly skin is due to the accumulation of cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) in the epidermis. Steroid sulfatase is densely concentrated in the lamellar bodies, and it stays there until it is secreted to the subcorneal interstices (Elias et al., 2004). Steroid sulfatase typically degrades cholesterol sulfate to free up cholesterol for use in the skin barrier. CSO4 is also a serine protease inhibitor, and a decline in its concentration due to STS allows the protease to degrade corneodesmosomes, permitting normal desquamation (skin peeling) to occur (Elias et al., 2004). A deficiency in steroid sulfatase leads to an accumulation of CSO4 that could work in two ways to cause symptoms in X-linked ichthyosis. The first way is that CSO4 could further separate the spaces between the atypical skin barrier and the corneocytes (Elias et al., 2004). The second way is that CSO4, while in the stratum corneum, can delay corneodesmosome degradation, leading to non-normal desquamation (Elias et al., 2004).
Conclusion In this mini review, steroid sulfatase has proven to be an essential hydrolase enzyme that is associated with several sexually dimorphic disorders. It has roles in processes affecting everything from the brain to the skin. Currently, there is more research being conducted to learn more about the functions of steroid sulfatase and its steroid products. Knowledge for future cancer treatments could be potentially heightened if a better understanding of steroid sulfatase is had, as shown in the discovery that steroid sulfatase is needed for the growth of tumors in breast cancer patients. But like most cancers, it’s difficult to target one pathway, shut it down, and expect all other pathways to cooperate as if nothing has changed within the body. Take out steroid sulfatase to treat breast cancer and the patient might end up with flaky skin, aggression, and hyperactiveness even though she will be able to retain short-term information much more easily. Hopefully, this review has shed light on some of the basic knowledge for steroid sulfatase and how its differential expression between males and females can explain the higher prevalence of certain disorders in one sex over the other. Although the focus of this paper is to provide knowledge of steroid sulfatase, the information provided in this paper only scratches the surface of the total knowledge researchers have on this enzyme. More aspects of this enzyme can be learned and discovered with more time.
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David Nguyen | CSU-Long Beach, Department of Natural Science and Mathematics | May 5, 2015

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