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Contemporary Management Expository Essay

The main role of a manager is to find creative ways of solving problems. There are principal of management drawn from various academic fields to assist managers in creative problem solutions. These, divided in to four main functions, include, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

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The Role of Hypotheses in Psychological Research Expository Essay

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Introduction Psychological research is often done by developing and testing theories. A theory on the other hand is a well established, principle which has been developed to give a reasonable explanation to some worldly phenomenon. Most theories arise out of repeated observations, testing and other scientific facts, laws and tested hypotheses.

In most cases, deductive approach is used to generate specified predictions from other general theories. The process through which detailed predictions are drawn concerning the validity of a theory is the testing of hypothesis.

Hypothesis A hypothesis is a specified concept about a certain concept which can be tested about the anticipation of the outcome in the study (DeCarvalho, 1991, 48). For instance, a research developed to study the relationship between study habits among students and examination anxiety could have a hypothesis that states, “The study is developed to evaluate the hypothesis that students who studied better experienced less anxiety for examinations”.

The hypothesis explains what the researcher is expecting as the outcome unless it is explorative (Coon