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Concept of Time Portrayed in Art

Time is a determinant concept in forms of art where motion is a key factor in order for a narrative to be explored as it occurs, such as in video art, performance, and theatre. The concept of time is also an important parameter for a two-dimensional artwork, which can comprise time through movement or as a snapshot. On the basis of the above syllogism, this essay will determine the nature of time, through the moment, as a still/snapshot in a static artwork and as a sequence in forms of art such as performance.
The concept of capturing time in art comprised subjects for contemporary artists such as demonstrated by Christiane Baumgartner and Marina Abramovic, whose works will be explored through this essay: how do two antithetical mediums, namely; printmaking and performance, deal with this same theme and what are the results of the two visual languages that arise in depicting the sense of time?
The antithesis of time itself is not only a parameter which is reflected in the mediums themseleves, but also in the content. In other words, the antithesis is also portrayed on a theoretical level. While Christiane Baumgartner uses the illusion of the motion continuity and thus the illusion of time by freezing it, Marina Abramovic deals with the actual and real aspect of time by extending the duration of an occurrence. Hence, there is a differentiated perspective in depicting and presenting the real time and the illusion of it, with time consisting of a weaving of reality and deception.
Introduction The issue of time comprises a parameter which, beside the natural sciences was also the object of research by predominately philosophy and anthropology and thereby the extension the art itself, as art was considered to be an essential cultural characteristic. In this essay, the concept of time will be presented via the perspective of perceiving time through the antitheses outlined above. Initially, time should be divided into two categories; such as in the philosophical and sociological frameworks; namely in its real form and in its non-real form that is not quite so obvious. For instance, acquirable time – the procedure of measuring time periods, is completely different from the procedure of perceiving time as a representative of or bearer of consciousness. The existence and at the same time the “non-existence” (lack of obviousness) of time is an object of research for the artists so as to define the sense of time passing via numerous optical dimensions. The model of perceiving time is formed every time by the aesthetic view of the artist.
Philosophy and sociology in many cases are related to the artists’ point of view and thus an interactive relationship in shaping or reconstructing thoughts, which include the phenomenon of time is developed. The contrariety in the approach on the other hand does not create gaps between the aspects of time but they assist in developing depth and assiduous assortment in determining time. However, the contrariety approach comprises a method of analysis; thus, within such a framework regarding contrariety in the perspective of the concept of time, art presents a visual codex and visual symbols and hence the antithesis in approaching and perceiving time can be comprehended.
One very good example is the concept of the time sense as it is understood by most people, specifically time or, the symbol that represents time; the clock is an invention that accommodates humans to divide or to plan their everyday lives. On the other hand, there is an application of the above syllogism which is not an invention of the human civilisation but underlies biological or natural laws which is the concept of human age that accompanies human beings during their entire lives. These two antithetical examples could be characterized as external and internal time. The first one is determined by the sound that is produced by the second-hand and the other by the heartbeat. The parameter of their antithesis, however, does not preclude their interaction, but rather it is a matter of visual perspective of their characteristics (Rudolf Arnheim, Art and visual perception: a psychology of the creative eye, University of California Press, 2004).
Time has had a significant influence in the world of visual arts. Artists have depicted various symbols for time in order to express its impact as a philosophical question that is reflected in the human existence, or important events in history in order to represent the passing of time. The antithesis will be the main subject of interest in this research and stillness-movement, internal-external time, and fluidity-futility will be some of the main points for analysis. The expressions of time concepts differ from artist to artist due to the different perspective each of them uses.
Salvador Dali (1904-1989), the Spanish surrealist painter of the 20th century, created in 1931 the work ‘The persistence of memory’. Time is the theme here, from the melting watches to the decay implied by the swarming ants. The title of the painting suggests memory’s ability to remain intact as time decays around it. Dali painted this work with the most imperialist fury of precision and the only nod to the real are the distant landscape golden cliffs in Catalonia, where he lived. (Alkis Xaralampidis, Art in 20th century, volume II, 1993).
Furthermore, Fransis Alys (born 1959), a Belgian artist who lives and works in Mexico City, in his documented video performance ‘Paradox of praxis I (Sometimes doing something leads to nothing)’ deals with the concept of time in a different way from surrealism. Alys in this work expresses the futility of time and effort. The artist pushes a large block of ice through the streets of Mexico City for six or seven hours until it melts. It is a film about transformation, but it is also about the futility of human endeavor. It is an epic kind of uselessness that turns his apparently meaningless effort into an almost heroic event; nothing to something. The subtitle of the work is ultimately an idea which speaks to the frustrated efforts of everyday Mexico City residents to improve their living conditions. (Mark Godfrey and Klaus Biensenbach, Fransis Alys: A story of deception, 2010).
Performance too, which is very much related to the concept of time because of its nature, has presented a number of works which deal with the sense of time. As a time-based art primarily and by extension a media-based one owns its nature
The work of Christiane Baumgartner Christiane Baumgartner was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1967. Her work deals mainly with specific aspects of time concepts; speed and standstill. The images are taken from her own video stills and the chosen format is that of monumental woodcut, mainly black and white. Her aim is to combine in a way two mediums; a traditional, printmaking, with a contemporary one, video art. As the artists herself states: ‘It’s about bringing together the different mediums of the video still and the woodcut, about combining the first and the latest reproduction techniques to produce an image’ (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011).
What her subjects often deal with is the movement between figuration and abstraction and the space between with speed and the passage of time recurring themes throughout her work. What she is mostly interested in is ‘the shifting within the woodcut and the way it changes the image and becomes a blurred, non-figurative image’ (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011). For instance, in ‘1 Sekunde’ (fig. 3) the image disappears at points and becomes blurred through the representation of speed. Other digital images are taken at a very low resolution, 3 dpi, and as a result the printmaking effect creates an abstract image, as occurs in ‘Deutscher Wald’ (fig. 4).
Speed, both in terms of subject matter and technique is something she has always been interested in. Many of her works are images taken from highways or tunnels because their inherent movement has been something that attracts her. Through this rationale are made works such as ‘Lisbon II’ (fig. 5) or ‘Solaris I’ (fig. 6). Technically, the final work is the result of a procedure that takes significant time. The first step is to film the subject in which she is interested in and afterwards, she selects an image from the film which she thinks is the appropriate for cutting.
‘The main point is to figure out which image I will end up bringing into the world. I will devote so much time to making it and give it so much significance in terms of scale, that I have to choose it very carefully. The fact that I am using a technique in which it will be reproduced more than once further influence my decision’. (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011)
Her main subject of interest is urban development and how life is affected by the environment. This material world was produced for humans, but at the same time has made life become an aspect in which a main point is speed. Cars, computers, busy highways, and people running, are the common images that exist in big cities. That is why in her work bridges, tunnels, and roads appear so frequently. In a world which is governed by speed, Baumgartner tries to slow down the way information is processed, to better reflect the way people live nowadays.
‘There is so much movement in our physical lives than 20 years ago. But also the time of information and communication has speed up in an extreme way. Because we are expecting such quick responses to our communications we miss the time for the thinking process and also to really prioritize’. (philagrafika, blog, http://philagrafika.blogspot.com/2009/05/interview-christiane-baumgartner.html)
By choosing woodcut as a medium of expression, she asserts that is it her way of representing the contemporary situation. Her prints, which take a long time to make, effectively slow down time by extending the moment of the constitution of the image from a brief second, which in this case is the video still, to entire months, until the final work is ready.
Baumgartner has created a visual language which needs to be viewed from a certain distance from the work so the image can be revealed. This language is consisted of horizontal lines which cut the subject in pieces so as to produce the illusion of movement and speed. When the viewer stands close to the work what he or she observes is actually thick and thin linear forms that reflect the virtuosity of the printmaker at a technical level. However, when the viewer keeps a distance from the artwork, then the entire theme is revealed. Specifically, the motifs assist the observer to comprehend the utility of the medium in relation to the forms in presenting the illusion of movement and thus, time itself. The visual language that is used makes the work of Christiane Baumgartner representative of the contemporary point of view in depicting motion and time. This is a very common perspective not only in fine art but also in contemporary media and video art. The work of the artist is the result of the contemporary perspective in depicting issues and concepts of time, through a more simplified aesthetic.
The simplicity in using the medium and by extension, the thematic development in a composition also reflects the will of the artist to establish a relationship between the steady artwork and the viewer. In other words, she is trying to make the visual ability of the viewer actively participate mentally in the world she reconstructs. Hence, the concept of time is a parameter that connects the artist and artwork with the visual and mental ability of the observer. This is a conceptual tool in order for the artwork to communicate the illusion of motion portrayed to real time. This kind of reality is a vital factor for human beings because it produces subconscious images and memories.
Due to the fact that Christiane Baumgartner’s works deal with the conceptual aspect of time in unreal time, she contributes to perceiving this issue from a point of view that functions as an antithesis. In a two-dimensional space she creates the illusion of a three-dimensional theme and in the end she also adds a fourth dimension (time), so as to reveal both the theoretical background of the concept and the sociological extension of it as it is formed in the contemporary life.
The social character of Christiane Baumgartner’s artwork reflects in a way the contemporary model of life. Although the real time remains the same, the contemporary life in the modern societies goes faster. The human itself has created the speed in order to compress life inside the urban environment. Time compresses a contemporary citizen like motion in art is displayed through compression of lines. If a viewer observes the rush hour in a city then he or she will realise how in a mental form, motion is similar or equal to time. Namely, a passing person is a parabolic symbol of passing time. This is why the immediacy of the medium is related to the complexity passing time. The steadiness or the immobility that the medium itself includes is altered by the motion that is depicted. In the same logic, the steadiness or the immobility of environment is altered by human motion itself. All these examples reflect the antithetical nature in perceiving time. In one print of Christiane Baumgartner a close observation will be a starting point to perceive moving time in a still depiction while she underlines the fact that she uses “a slow medium like woodcut to express a fast idea”.
The work of Marina Abramovic Performance art contrasts to the above perspective regarding time via a static or still medium. Performance is a branch of artistic expression whose basic elements that create its nature are time and space, the presence of which along with the active involvement of the artist and essentially, the audience’s presence or interaction is vital. Performance as a visual art incorporates the characteristic of time as a dynamic aspect of its nature. Thus, the medium itself includes the reality of the duration of time as an important parameter which is used extensively by the performance artists. It is like a tool for the performer in ‘depicting’ the issue or the concept of his interest by using his or her presence.
Marina Abramovic, born in 1946 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, has been a representative artist since the 1970’s, the starting point for her career in performing arts. Her work of this type of expression indicates her perspectives of many aspects of her personal experiences but mainly her intellectual enquiries. In many of her performances there are references to the concept of time regardless of the fact that time itself is included in the medium. For instance, in the ‘Relation in movement’ (1977) Abramovic and Ulay moved in a circle direction repeatedly by driving around a square in Paris for hours. They kept driving until it got dark. The only existing lights were those of the car. There was continuity and duration to this action until the next morning. The couple had different tasks to accomplish; Ulay followed the back wheel and Abramovic loudly stated the number of the accomplished rounds. Additionally, the next morning revealed the black marks that the wheels had created in the ground and they tried to follow those marks. Another significant point which is not a usual one was the lack of audience. Only passers-by witnessed the event.
The main idea of the performance was to present the repeated movement in physical and mental level. Namely, they presented in a symbolic way the mind’s circles around an idea or thought. The concept of time enters this performance as an idea that is divided into two subcategories: the obvious time that comprises the duration of the night that the performance took place, and the time which was emphasised every time Abramovic shouted the number of laps completed. In the first case, the artists dealt with time as a frame to present their performance which was main aspect of the length of the performance. In the second case, time took the form of the space and the movement together. In other words the artists defined on the basis of both space and movement the nature of time. Each lap comprised the value of time according to their perspective. The symbolism is still the same, but the gravity of the importance in perceiving time is not solid and this was determined by the artists. Marina Abramovic and Ulay on the basis of ‘relation in movement’ developed another performance of relevance to the present research, entitled ‘Relation in Time’ (1977).
In ‘Relation in time’ a static situation is described. The couple Abramovic and Ulay are sitting facing back to each other with their hair tied together as a symbol of their connection. The duration of their performance lasted 16 hours in a gallery without any audience and only during the 17th and hour were the audience allowed to watch the performance. The couple was still sitting motionless for this final hour. During all this time there were only few changes in their presence. According to Lilian Haberer “their shared plait, their external connection, their umbilical cord, works loose as the hours pass”. She continues in the same sense to explain that “there is a contrast to the outward connectedness in their inward separateness, their different feelings” (Lilian Haberer, Collection: Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany).
Abramovic and Ulay’s approach is revealing because of the fact that time takes the form of destruction, ruination, spoilage and damage. As an example of this destructive operation of time, the couple presents the human relationship which is the main subject of their performance. The direct reference to the ugly face of time in the human life represents the inner fear of all human beings. This type of continuity causes the objects and the living creatures to age and become old. The relationships and the parameters that enrich them are also under the fear of spoilage. The old man as a symbol of the age of time has now given its place to the more conceptual ones. Like Abramovic and Ulay present, time is not an annoying feeling. The impact of time in living creatures as a natural procedure leads them to fall despite its ugliness. It is as natural as death itself in a symbolic or literal way. In the case of Abramovic, ‘time no longer leads down a threatening path of aging, death and ending: it is reproducible’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present)
This approach concerning time also involves sociological and philosophical understandings. If we consider the philosophical nature of time as a route to death or a procedure that leads human beings to physical and mental decay, then it is a rational conclusion that it also affects human social unity. With sociological determination, this model of understanding time has a significant behavioral impact. This syllogism transforms the concept of time from an ordinary system of measuring into a system of interpreting life. The performance reveals these parameters and gives multiple dimensions in interpreting the inner intellectual process of social life as a diachronic phenomenon. The perspective that is created makes the viewer redefine his or her position in the society. Admittedly, this rationale is a main idea in many performances produced by Abramovic and the personal experiences make the philosophical inquires more obvious via art.
In her latest performance at MoMA ‘The artist is Present’ Abramovic performed the longest work in her performing career. She sat motionless for more than 700 hours in total, seven hours every day the museum was open, for more than 3 months. In this performance she was sitting silent and motionless at a table in the museum’s atrium inviting visitors to sit silently across from her for how long they chose to, making the performance interactive and becoming in this way participants in the artwork. She will not talk or respond to any of the participants, but their involvement in the process is essential and fundamental element for the work to be completed. ‘The artist is present’ is one of her most representative time based works as it deals with the long duration and the passing time remaining motionless and speechless.
Most of her works contain a kind of mystic energy from which she derives great power in order to concentrate and remain motionless. In ‘Nightsea Crossing’ she ‘describes staring into Ulay’s eyes and from a certain moment on seeing only a blue, blind, empty screen in front of her, like the length of her arm, to achieve an empty timeless stare’. (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present)
‘The artist is present’ features, according to Biesenbach, as many of her works do, ‘in the endless act of sitting’, which is a central aspect to her art. Biesenbach continues: ‘in contemporary times sitting has taken the form of political protest’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present). Durational sitting is the principal of ‘The artist is Present’ which finds Abramovic sitting at a table and waiting for the visitors to get involved in the occurrence. The table here has a symbolic and a parabolic meaning. It functions as a stage and at the same time refers to another motif in her work, which considers images from the ritual daily familial gathering during mealtimes and the routine of a motionless life as time passes and its marks become obvious.
The main idea in this last performance is the impact of time in the contemporary life. How much time one disposes in order to participate in the artwork is a personal decision and it depends on the way people nowadays divide time. In a world that is governed by speed, every moment is important. Hence, how willing is each of us to let time pass by is a matter that Abramovic’s performance deals with. Abramovic says ‘you have to give me your time in order to see the work…’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present) and this is true in any aspect of contemporary life; we have to give time in order to do anything. Biesenbach underlines that ‘while there is no empirical duration established for MoMA’s visitors, the moment one sits in the chair, he or she participates in an unspoken agreement with the artist to enter into another perspective’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present)

Impact of Globalisation on the Nation-State

Introduction
The discussions of globalization have become topics which are in the great demand. Especially with the development of information and technology and the form of global economy, the global affairs have become more and more complicated. It is hard to distinguish the internal affairs and external affairs. People found that the distances between different countries are shorter than before. After the Cold War, a great amount of countries publish their economic policies to develop their economies. Take American 11th September for example, 11th September is an event that New York America attacked by the terrorists. However, the global aviation, finance, technology all has been affected as well as the international business. Even the central banks in mostly countries have taken the action of decreasing the interests to make the effects of 11th September not to be so serious. Those phenomenon show that globalization has growth rapidly, and has deeply influent the development and vicissitude of the situation of global politics and economy. To observe it deeply, different countries and institutions have different influences. As the matter of fact, it is to some extent a relationship of gain and lost. Whatever the existence of globalization or the debates of scholars on globalization, those all illustrate that globalization is a development of process. However, the importance of globalization has already drawn the attention of countries.
This essay will be divided into three sections. Firstly, the definition of globalization will be analysed. Through the compare of different definitions, a clear sense of globalization will come out. After that the process of globalization will be briefly introduced from some aspects, the geography and time period, the global economy and culture and politics. Secondly, nation-state will be discussed. In this section, five aspects will be analysed. This section includes the definition of nation-state, the influence of politics, economy and culture on nation-state. Moreover, the role of media in global condition will be discussed. Thirdly, this essay will discuss if globalization destroyed the nation-state or not. Then finally a conclusion will be made.
Globalization
What is globalization?
Globalization could be argued to be a process, which the flow of substances and spirit products destroy the area and the boundaries of countries, and effect the people’s life around every corner of the earth. The globalization also includes the immigrations.
It could be seen from the table, it is not easy to define what globalization is. It is a phenomenon which influenced people’s life. Based on Busch (2009), globalization is a continuing process of intensity not only the economy, but also culture, social life and politics. From the definition above, it could be argued that the definition of globalisation could be analysed into two parts. The first one is the space. As the Busch’s and Water’s view, globalization means that the boundaries of countries are being decreased. Although this does not mean the compression of geography, it is the economy and culture make the distances between different countries decreased. Secondly, it is something about relationships. Robertson (1995) indicated that the conflict and unity of homogeneity and heterogeneity make globalization. The globalization makes the people from all over the world getting more and more close in culture, economy and politics. The countries are more relied on each other.
The process of globalization
Basically, the process of globalization could be divided into three moments. The first one is in geography filed. The first emergence of globalization could be dated back to 1492 A.D. according to Butzer (1992), the European encounter discover the American continent. Then after a period of time, Britain colonized India, the world has changed from a large scale to small size. The second moment, Holton (1998) indicated that from 1960s the advent of globalization has more developed. The words “globalization” and “global village” are newly added into the dictionary. Take American foe example, in the post-1945 ear, American constructed a hegemonic order (Ikenberry, 2007). To some extent it could not be denied that the hegemonic order of America pushed the economic globalization within the global condition. The third moment is after the history steps into the 21st century more opportunities are produced to people, so that the people flow cross the countries to seek more comfortable life. However, this might be harmful to some of the countries. For instance, the U.S. was the most opened country in the world before 10th September 2001. On 11th September 2001, the U.S. has been attacked by terrorists. After that America’s border was quite closed (Alden, 2008).
The widely discussions of globalization is the global economy. Based on Wills, Samli and Jacobs (1997), the world economy is trending globally. And there are three major economy regions in the world, the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Pacific Rim (Bennett, 1995). The economic groups indicated that the economy in each country has more closed. Culture and politics globalization are also notable. Take American culture for example, because of the development of technology, the communication within the world is getting easier and easier. Movies which are made by Hollywood are very famous among the countries. Now Hollywood movies are trying to absorb the actors from different countries to gain more global audience (Robertson, 1995). However, politics are more closed with economy. The hegemonic order which constructed by America, the policies which published, most of them are aims to support the development of economy.
Nation-state
What is nation-state?
According to Grossberg (2006), nation-state could be argued to provide some securities for people, such as economic, social and physical. Grossbegy (2006) went further that nation-state also means that the sovereign is under control of its own leadership or people, but not under control of some other external aspects. It could be identified that nation-state is a political community. Within the nation-state, the country has the power to set up its own laws to make sure its territorial autonomy is integrated and political sovereignty is not encroach by some other countries else. The social cohesion within a nation-state has its unique society. Moreover, the people in a nation-state share the same culture, religion language and so on.
The influence of politics on nation-state.
Politics has great influences on nation-state. Politics is an activity and relations. Politics could be seen as the treatment of the relationship between people. Vitally, politics could influent the nation-state economy. Without a steady, health condition of political atmosphere, the economy will not be developed. Take Japan for example; in the years of Meiji era, the government gave the great support for the economy. Therefore, Japan became richer and richer. At that time, the government encouraged people to develop the economy; the policies the government made were more concentrate on economy. Many companies have grown fast. As Ikenberry (2007) indicated after the World War ?, the leaders of America made many efforts to rebuild the trade, investment and currency. Although those politicise helped America to construct is hegemonic order; it could not be denied that those policies made the American economy quickly recovered. Moreover, the governors should fully understand the economy. If the government misunderstand the economy, the politics they made will destroy the economy. For example, if a country import a foreign product at a very low price, even lower than the internal price, many people in the same filed within the nation-state will lost their job.
The influence of economy on nation-state.
The economy influenced the nation-state as well. As the matter of fact that the nation-state economy influent the politics and culture within the nation-state. As Grossberg (2007) indicated that the nation-state has more concentrate on the sovereign and territorial autonomy. However, the economy is the basic construction which could decide if people within the nation-state have a better life or not. Altschull (1997) argued that there are four basic patterns which influence media ownership; one of the four patterns is commercial aspect. From here, it could be seen economy has influenced each part in the nation-state. Economy also influences the national culture. There was an old saying in Chinese culture “only you have enough food, you could have time to pay attention on your behaviours”. People have enough food; they could do their jobs well or not resist the government. If a scientist is hungry and no food to eat, he would probably not continue doing his research. If a litterateur does not have enough food to eat, he has to do some physical work, such as cultivation. He would probably not write those literatures. Without the development of economy, the society members have to cultivate themselves, the society, even the nation-state could not be developed.
The influence of culture on nation-state.
Culture could be argued as the spirit of the nation-state. People in the same nation-state share the same history, religion, language and so on. It is said that, for a person, his fortune is decided by his personality. The culture could be compared with the personality of a country. Thus, culture could by the actions and response when a country faced some problems. Culture could affect people’s lifestyle (Evans, Jamal, and Foxall, 2009). Take Japan for example; according to Lebra (1974), the spirit of Japanese culture is to respect the person who is perfectly capable. They do not have any sympathizes for the wreakers. Therefore, if one wants to get some respect from other Japanese, the first thing to do is to become stronger. It could not be denied that become strong so as to gain identify of the world. Apart from the correct or incorrect of this spirit in the ethic field of Japan, only concentrate on the development of the nation-state is beneficial to Japanese society. Under this culture, Japan could become more and stronger. Culture could be inherited. Therefore; culture would influence the idea of a nation. A perfect culture passed on generation by generation, the later government will become strong and well developed.
The role of media in the erosion of nation-state.
Media actually helped globalization to shock the national culture, however the globalization of media make the distances of countries shorter and shorter. Firstly, the globalization of media threatens the national culture. As Doyle (2002) indicated that the trends of international media id expansion and the press are controlled by large companies. Sreberny (2000) argued that after American hegemonic order, American values are now stepping into to the hearts and minds of the Third World countries. Take Hollywood movies for example; as it mentioned in previous sections, Hollywood movies have now employed more people with different nationalities to act and produces the movies so as to attract more audiences for outside the U.S. However, the American do not full understand other countries’ cultures, there always have some misunderstandings in the movies to make other countries people feel uncomfortable. Moreover, with the development of technology, televisions are widely spread. Satellite television could receive hundreds of channels. Young people could learn another culture from the television; but for their own culture, it might be fade. However, the globalization of media makes the distances of countries shorter and shorter. As mentioned above, the development of technology, more families have television. Through television programs, people could learn more things. Especially after the invention of computer and internet, all the information from each country could be checked from them. This made people’s life more comfortable.
Has globalization destroyed nation-state?
Globalization has not destroyed nation-state.
Globalization brings numerous benefits to the world. Some people believed that globalization helped poor people from developing countries out of the poor conditions. Because globalization helped the developing countries opened their markets. Ikenberry (2007) pointed out that after the World War ?, American leaders have promoted to recovered the economy by publishing a series of policies to set up an open system of business, investment and currency. The price of labour in developing countries is much cheaper than developed countries. Therefore, many multinationals have been set up, and provided more job opportunities to the local people. Take China for example, the expending of employment in multinationals have helped many poor Chinese out of poverty. According to Bardham’s (2006) research people who live in the rural areas whose daily living cost under $1 per day were decreased from 79% to 27% in China from 1981 to 2001. China is a socialism country, but introduced capitalist business methods in 1987 (Bennett, 1995), and opened its markets to other countries to developed its economy. The capitalist business methods have made great achievements to China. There is another good example from Bangladesh; Barfham (2006) did an interview of a woman call Rahana Chandhuri who works in garment export factories. She said there are many women work in the garment export factories. Although the job is not fair, compare with other people, she still earns much money. A research shows that 86% of women work in the garment industry and their average monthly income are more than their neighbourhoods (Bardham, 2006). Globalization weakens the barriers of geography, but closes the link between different countries. Slagnt, Harben and Pallant (2006) argued that all the countries could share the materials all over the world. People in different countries could buy whatever they want in the local supermarkets and the materials for industry used also could be import and export easily. Fro example, Chinese students who studies could buy Chinese cooking ingredients in Tesco, and in U.K.’s stores, it is not hard to find any products which said made in China. In addition, the development of transportation makes the distance of different countries shorter and shorter. For instance, in the past it might take years to travel from China to Britain. However, now from Beijing to London, it only takes less than 10hours by direct flight. Globalization of economy bring many benefits to the countries within the world, so as the culture. Still take Hollywood movies for example,, many people with different nationalities work together to produce movies suitable for the audience from all over the world.
Globalization has destroyed nation-state.
Globalization also brings many disadvantages to the nation-state. Firstly, for example, after the multinationals enter the developing countries, it could not be denied that human is greedy, in order to make more money, the owners of export and import factories even hired children work for them. Based on Bardham’s (2006) research, in Bangladesh, the garment export factories used to hire children to work for them; because children is much cheaper than adult labours. If the owners of those factories employed children work for them they will gain more profits. In 1993, the U.S. has banned on importing products using children labour, the garment dismissed about 50000 children. However, only few of them went back to school, most of them went to stone breaking or even child prostitution. Secondly, the economy of developing countries was helped by large international organisations such as economic groups. Those developing countries need to change something in order to fit those economic groups. It could be easily lost the autonomy of those countries. China enter WTO in 1999, nine hundred laws would need to be changed to adapt the world economy (Nolan, 2001). This might be the biggest challenge to Chinese retailers, for they have using the original laws for a long time, the changing of laws might make some of the small retailers go bankrupt. Moreover, changing laws could make China loose the autonomy in charting the complex path of economy reform. Thirdly, the globalization of culture destroyed local culture. Islam culture is a unique culture, and different from western culture. Turner (2007) argued that the development of global mass communication has influenced the Islam world. It is an extension of westernization, and will weaken the local culture. With the American hegemonic order, the Americanization has appeared many places all over the world. For example, many Chinese students or even adults are huge fans of NBA, a basketball association in America. Those fans even look down upon their own countries basketball association. Another example, McDonalds are in every part of China. Children like this American fast food than Chinese dishes. Fourthly, English is using wildly; people could travel to any other countries whose native language are not English; however, English is still workable there, the same as Chinese. Since the English and Chinese are widely use all over the world, some language whose native speakers are really few will be endangered. When a language disappeared, the culture will soon disappeared, and could only be finding in the books.
Conclusions
This essay is aiming to discuss if globalization has destroyed nation-state or not. This essay was divided into three parts. The first part focuses on globalization. There were many definitions of globalization; they are defined from different aspects. From compare different definitions of globalization given by scholars, then an idea of definition of globalization is being cleared. Globalization is not only a pheromone within the world of politics, economy and culture, but also a process. The earliest emergence of globalization could be dated back to the year of 1492. In recent times the construction of hegemonic order of America pushes the speed of the globalization. The second part was concentrated on nation-state. Globalization is a kind of process; the nation-state is more focus on the political sovereignty and territorial autonomy, social cohesion and culture. Politics, economy and culture all have the influence on nation-state. Media has two sides; it has erosion on nation-state, but also makes the distance of countries shorter. The third part discussed if globalization destroyed nation-state or not. Globalization is a sword with two sides. For one aspect, the globalization made the developing countries out of poverty. People in those countries lived in a more comfortable life. Globalization also weakens the barriers of different countries, and makes the links of different countries. The distances of different countries are getting closer. However, globalization made some destroys of nation-state. For example, in some developing countries the factories owners hired children. Some developing countries have to change their laws to enter the economy groups to make more profit, so that those countries will probably loose their autonomy. The widely spread of American culture and English language will make some local culture and language endangered. As mentioned above, globalization is a sword with two sides, if the nation-state makes the proper polities and protections of culture, the benefits of globalization will make the countries become stronger.
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