In 1998 former president Clinton spoke to the graduating class of the U.S. Naval Academy and he said that the security of the United States is threatened by a new breed of adversaries that has found a way to harass and terrorize America.
Clinton said that they are international criminals and terrorists who cannot defeat us in traditional theaters of battle, but search instead for new ways to attack by exploiting new technologies and the world’s increasing openness” (Aldrich, p.1). He is talking about cyberspace and one of its unwanted by-product cyberterror and cybercrime.
It is important for the general public to know more about it in order to pressure government officials to invest more to protect them from unscrupulous men.
Cybercrime is the act of committing crime using the Internet as a tool to bypass security and increase its capability to cross borders and victimize people beyond the hacker’s country of origin. Cyberterror on the other hand is the use of the Internet to send malicious code in order to disrupt, contaminate and cause accidents in transportation hubs and at government utility facilities.
The problem here is the commission of a crime without being physically present in the target area. The second major problem is the ability of criminals and terrorists to create havoc to countries like the United States, even if they are physically located thousands of miles away in another continent.
Defense and Prevention The first line of defense must be international cooperation. It is useless to develop elaborate defense systems without the capability of catching criminals and terrorists that are developing their attacks outside the United States.
The clamor reached a higher level when in October of 1998 Russian Foreign Minister Ivanov communicated to then General Secretary of the UN Kofi Annan and made it known that even Russia is felt what he called as the “increasing danger of information warfare” (Aldrich, p.4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International cooperation can be intensified by refining International laws concerning transnational crimes especially those related to cybercrime and cyberterror.
There are at least two issues that have to be resolved in order to win in this battle. First, there is a need to develop laws and defense mechanisms that are effective but at the same time does not violate privacy of individuals (Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives, p.36). Secondly, there is a need to be one step ahead of criminals.
Experts are lamenting the fact that “In this dynamic threat environment, attackers are constantly ahead of defenders, and yet the PCI standards are updated only by unanimous consent every 2 years” (Committee on Homeland Security House of Representatives, p.1). Citizens of the United States must constantly pressure their government officials to make the war against cybercrime and cyberterror one of their priorities.
Conclusion The Internet created a high-level of global interconnectedness. It is a blessing for commerce but a major problem when it comes to security.
Because of the I Internet, it has become increasingly difficult to deal with criminals and terrorists that can operate beyond the reach of American authorities and yet still possess the capability to wreak havoc by commuting crimes and acts of terror. International cooperation is key as well as the realization that governments must invest heavily in the fight against cybercrime and terror.
Works Cited Aldrich, Richard. “Cyberterrorism and computer crimes: issues surrounding the establishment of an international legal regime.” USAF Institute for National Security Studies. 2000. Web.
Committee on Homeland Security House of Representatives. “Do the payment card industry data standard reduce cybercrime?” Government Printing Office. 2009. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Computer Crimes Defense and Prevention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives. “Hearing on data retention as tool for investigating internet child pornography and other internet crimes.” Center for Democracy and Technology. 2011. Web.
Democracy and Its Types Research Paper
Nursing Assignment Help Democracy is type of political administration in which the governing individuals of a country are voted in by the people (Dahl, 2003). The people have basically equal say when it comes to making the laws that govern their country.
In addition, democracy goes to the extent of allowing the society to overrule verdicts that have been passed by the legislative body. These verdicts may revolve around economy, social and cultural factors (Dahl, 2003).
For a nation to be termed as democratic, it should have fundamental civil liberties for all kinds of people residing in that nation, and distinction of authorities between the organizations of the country. These organizations are usually the judiciary, legislature and the executive.
A democratic government should also have liberty of expression; this means that all the individuals should be allowed to air their thoughts. Furthermore, it should put the interest of the society without favouritism first. At the appropriate age, the citizens should be allowed to choose their representative through a fair election.
Lastly, every citizen should be allowed to worship in whichever manner they wish as long as there will not be a conflict of interest. All these factors should be written down in a constitution of that particular state (Arendt, 1993).
Currently, there is proof of democracy in United States of America. From the 2008 elections, we realize that every citizen had an equal right to vote for their desired representative of the state. Apart from that, the elections were fair and free from fraud or any irregularities. In thee U.S constitution, there is a bill of right which ensures that every citizen is treated fairly by corporations or other fellow citizens (William, 1962).
There are various kinds of democracy. The three main types of democracy are: semi direct, direct, and indirect democracy. Other types of democratic systems stem from these three.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Direct democracy is a type of democracy in which the citizens contribute directly in the decision making processes of a nation. Besides, the citizens influence the executive, legislative and judicial powers of a country without the use of intermediaries. In the indirect democracy, ruling is done by the use of an elected body to act as their representative.
On the other hand, the semi direct democracy is a type of democracy which contains both the rudiments of direct and indirect democracy. A good example of semi direct democracy is deliberative; this is a type of democracy which combines both the direct and representative components (Arthur, 1996).
In indirect democracy, representatives are not chosen by the society but are haphazardly selected from the community. The best examples of indirect democracy are the representative and the parliamentary types of democracy. Representative is a type of democracy in which societies choose a body which makes implementations and decisions on behalf of the society. On the other hand, parliamentary democracy is the one which the country’s rulers are elected by the members of parliament (Arthur, 1996).
United States of America has a representative type of democracy; the state elects a body of people who represents the entire society in matters relating to their interests such as political, economical, culture and social (Dahl, 2003).
In conclusion, there are many other types of democracy not discussed here. They include cosmopolitan, religious, Supranational, Consensus, social and inclusive democracy. Democracy is not only political; it involves all factors that affect an individual in a nation (Dahl, 2003). Such other factors may be related to education, health and corporate governance.
References Arendt, H. L. (1993). What is Freedom? Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Penguin.
Arthur, W. C. (1996). Liberisation and the problem of knowledge: A New Rhetoric for Modern Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Democracy and Its Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dahl, R. A. (2003). The Democracy Sourcebook. Chicago: MIT.
William, R. H. (1962). The Theory of Political Coalition. New York: Yale University press.