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Comparison of Social and Formal Distinctions of Artwork from Different Cultures

Comparison of Social and Formal Distinctions of Artwork from Different Cultures
Introduction
Art is a form of expression that is unique and different in different cultures and nationalities. Through the use of different types of art forms and artwork, artists continue to express their distinct position in the society. Across different jurisdictions in the world and in many different cultures and societies, people have used and continue to use art as a way of expression and as a way of depicting their way of life. The reasons for creation of the art work and the purpose of the art was also considerably different based on the societies and cultures in which the art itself is being applied. Form recreational art, religious art, art to commemorate and appreciate persons of stature to art for purely aesthetic purposes; it appears that there has been continuously multiple reasons as why different cultures and societies would be involved in the creation of art forms in the first place.
The differences in the types of artwork in existence can be depicted through analysis of art in different stages of history as well as art based on the geographical locations from where it comes from. This study will investigate the inherent differences that exist with regard to the creation of art based on geographical location. A concise comparison of; European Renaissance Art, Asian Japanese and Ancient Egyptian art will be carried out so as to bring out the essential differences that manifest in relation to the style and form of the art culture in these regions.
European Renaissance Art
European art, also known as Western Art has gone through multiple steps and changes over time. There are multiple stages in history in which this kind of art can be explained through. These stages include; medieval, renaissance, mannerism, baroque, romanticism, realism, modern and contemporary art (Hahn, 2012). Every stage of this forms of art work tend to encompass a unique culture, form and type of art representation. The renaissance art is therefore, a period of art representation that developed in Italy from about 1400. The type of representation emerged and thrived throughout the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries in Europe where it brought out a new era and form in artistic representation. This is based on the increased awareness of matters related to nature and a new perception where man was viewed as being individualistic and not based on a generalization. The art form can also be seen to be a depiction of the new stage of awareness that the society was going through such as the social and economic changes of the secularization of life, social mobility and a rise of an economy based on rationalism.
The techniques applied in the renaissance form of European art are quite unique. These include; the formalization of use of proportion (Baxdall, 1974). This is a creation of visual relationship between the objects found in the forms of art. The use of foreshortening was also frequently applied where lines were drawn throughout the paintings, to create an illusion of depth. Italian Renaissance artist, Leonardo da Vinci, also introduced the application of the sfumato technique which is the use of a blurring and softening technique to allow blending in tone throughout the painting. Most of the artwork that emerged during this period therefore, represented most of these aspects and it became a style related to European art, in the long run. Below is an example of an European Renaissance art work by Leonardo da Vinci which depicts the aforementioned elements.

Salvator Mundi by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, dated to c. 1500
Asian Japanese Art
One of the prevailing aspect that emerges from Asian art is the fact that it draws influence concepts from various cultures and religions. Also known as Eastern art, Asian art is quite expansive has levels of expressionism and depiction of culture. The difference types of Asian art can be grouped into; Buddhist, Korean, Indian, Nepalese, Japanese, Chinese, Thai, Tibetan, Vietnamese, Laotian culture and many more. Generalizing it as Asian culture therefore, fails to deliver on the finer details of purpose, styles and general intention and application of different types of art (Rupert, 2011). Japanese art is expansive and includes; sculpting, ink painting, calligraphy and aspects such as origami and the modern form of art, Manga. Painting is the most preferred form of expression and involves a set of very unique polarities. One of the technique that tends to stand out is the application of motif with heavy symbolic significance. The culture of the Japanese people reliance significantly on aspects of symbolism and the presence of these symbols allows a better understanding of the culture (Miyeko, 2000). Another significant and interesting aspect that comes up in Japanese art work is the use of miniature expression and minimalism. A fixation of garden designs and the use of multiple colors is also another significant aspect that stands out in the representation of Japanese art. Most of these works resemble humble melancholy, tranquility and meditation practices. Below is an example of Japanese Asian art.

Cypress Trees By?bu, folding screen by Kan? Eitoku, 1590
Ancient Egyptian Art
Egypt is a country in North Africa that is also regarded as being part of the Middle East. Ancient Egypt includes a civilization that was significantly fixated and interested in matters of art and expressionism. Their paintings, sculptures, architecture dates back from 3000 BC to 30 AD where a high level of growth and depiction can be seen in the development of their art work. A number of things stands out from the Ancient Egyptian artwork. This especially involves a highly stylized and symbolic mode of depiction. Most of the artwork was done as a way of representing and depicting the socioeconomic system of the region as well as showing their belief system. The artwork also a very distinctive figure convention. This is where there is aspect of hierarchical proportion where the sizes of the figures and objects end up showing and depicting the status and importance of the people (Stevenson

History and Analysis of the Ashoka Pillar

Ashoka Pillar
One of the foremost unimaginable manifestations of the old civilizations, the Ashoka Pillar is the memory of the bygone times and the foremost mind-blowing example of the old craftsmanship. The pillars of Ashoka are known as an arrangement of shafts scattered all through the Indian subcontinent, raised or at slightest engraved with orders by the Mauryan Lord Ashoka in the midst of his run the show from 268 to 232 BC to spread his Buddhist message of non-violence. Its greatness is astounding, and barely anybody can clarify how the individuals having a place to that period might make something of the kind. When we talk about one of the most prominent secrets of the cutting-edge times, Ashoka pillar can be compared to the Egyptian pyramids.
At normal of 40-50 feet in tallness and weighing up to 50 tons each, as it were 19 pillars survived with engravings. Numerous are protected in a fragmentary state. These pillars were carved into two sorts of stone. A few were of the spotted ruddy and white sandstone, the others of buff-colored fine-grained difficult sandstone as a rule with little dark spots. The consistency of fashion within the pillar capitals recommends that they were all etched by experts from the same locale. They are cut from two distinctive sorts of stone: one for the shaft and another for the capital. The shaft was nearly continuously cut from a single piece of stone. Laborers cut and dragged the stone from quarries in Mathura and Chunar (places in India), found within the northern portion of India within Ashoka’s realm. The primary pillar was found within the 16th century. They were comprised of a circular, and a solid shaft decreasing from the base with a distance across extending from approximately 90 cm to 125 cm.
Among one of a few pillars, the pillar of Sarnath is almost fourteen feet tall, of a barrel shape, with four lions situated with their backs to each other at the best. It is also made of cleaned sandstone; the pillar is of yellowish sandy color with a slight tint of brown and gray. With respect to the solidness of sandstone, it is supernatural that a few pillars have stood through centuries and are presently the portion of our advanced world. It is accepted to stamp the location where Lord Buddha lectured his to begin with the sermon. It is said to be put where Buddha instructed Dharma to five ministers. This place has a proclamation engraved on it that uncovers data around Ashoka’s stand against divisions of any sort within the society. When interpreted, it says “No one shall cause division within the arrange of ministers”.
Although numerous pillars have not survived the time test and smashed, the Ashoka pillar of Sarnath is still as great as modern, with fair many pieces of sandstone lost. One more thing which is well worth saying is the shape of the pillar. The adjusted layout, the delicate form, and the clear lines are something to admire. The ancient stone workers reached flawlessness, making the image of Ashoka.
Moreover, the pillar portraying the four lions looks to some degree delicate, but this is the case of misleading appearances. The smooth and silky surface makes one think of the foremost wonderful marble within the royal residences of the old kings. But this distinguishing proof is deceiving since the capital speaks to a bloom, lotus, not a chime. The capital is surmounted by a math device on which fowls, creatures, dharma chakra, etc. have been carved out. The delegated wonderfulness of these pillars is creature figures at the beat of the columns.
The appearance of the pillar is very forcing. At the base of the pillar is a modified lotus bloom which shapes a stage for the pillar. At the beat of the pillar are four lions sitting back to back confronting the four prime headings. Other outlines on the pillar incorporate the Dharma Chakra (Wheel) with 24 spokes which can be seen on the Indian national hail as well. All outlines have their claim meaning and importance. There are four creatures outlined in the pillar. They stand for the following:
The outline of an Elephant means Ruler Buddha’s conception. When Buddha was conceived, his mother envisioned that a white elephant had entered the womb.
A Bull outlined on the pillar means the zodiac sign of Taurus because it is said that Buddha was born amid the month of April – May conjointly achieved illumination amid this time. The Bull moreover stands as an image of Ruler Shiva.
The Horse stands for the horse named Kanthaka that Buddha rode when he left from his royal residence to practice self-denial and accomplish enlightenment.
The Lion that is demonstrated implies the achievement of enlightenment.
Ashoka rose to the throne of royalty in 269 BC acquiring the realm established by his granddad Chandragupta Maurya. He was supposedly a dictator at the start of his rule. Eight a long time after his increase he campaigned in Kalinga where in his possess words, “a hundred and fifty thousand individuals were ousted, a hundred thousand were murdered and as numerous as that died…” After this occasion, he changed over to Buddhism in regret for the misfortune of life. Buddhism didn’t get to be a state religion but with Ashoka’s bolster, it spread quickly.
The engravings on the pillars depicted proclamations almost ethical quality based on Buddhist precepts. Legend has it that he built 84,000 Stupas commemorating the occasions and relics of Buddha’s life. A few of these Stupas contained systems of dividers containing the center, spokes, and edge of a wheel, whereas others contained insides dividers in a swastika (卐) shape. The wheel speaks to the sun, time, and Buddhist law (the wheel of law, or dharma chakra), whereas the swastika stands for an infinite move around a settled center and guards against evil.
This Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been received as the National Symbol of India and the wheel ‘Ashoka Chakra’ from its base was set onto the center of India’s National Hail. He built the Sarnath pillar to commemorate the location of the primary lecturing of Lord Buddha, where he instructed the Dharma to five monks. The Sarnath Lion Capital is packed with imagery motivated by Lord Buddha’s life. The four creatures within the Sarnath capital are accepted to represent diverse stages in Buddha’s life. The Elephant could be a representation of Queen Maya’s conception of Buddha when she saw a white elephant entering her womb in a dream. The Bull represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a ruler. The Horse symbolizes Buddha’s flight from palatial life, and the Lion speaks to the achievement of Nirvana by Lord Buddha.
Nevertheless, there are some theories approximately why Ashoka utilized the pillar as an implies for communicating his Buddhist message. It is conceivable that Persian craftsmen came to Ashoka’s realm in search of work, bringing with them the shape of the pillar, which was common in Persian craftsmanship. But is additionally likely that he chose the pillar since it was as of now a set up Indian craftsmanship shape. In both Buddhism and Hinduism, the pillar symbolized the hub Mundi (the pivot on which the world turns). The engravings on the pillars portrayed proclamations approximately ethical quality based on Buddhist principles.
Out of all the pillars, the foremost celebrated is the Ashoka pillar found at Sarnath. The appearance of the pillar at Sarnath is very forcing. At the base of the pillar is a rearranged lotus bloom which shapes a stage for the pillar. At the best are four lions sitting back to back confronting the four headings. Other outlines on the pillar incorporate the Dharma Chakra with 24 spokes. The pillars had messages engraved on them in which Ashoka clarified his approaches and his desires. The content is composed in a colloquial fashion, utilizing neighborhood dialects rather than the Sanskrit utilized at court. The pillars were to a way of spreading his nearness all through the domain, joining together it, and making each subject mindful of who he was. Darius, the ruler of Persia, had put up comparable pillars where he had boasted around the number of individuals he had slaughtered. But Ashoka’s pillars rearrange this message. His pillars express his guarantee to run the show his individuals with compassion and generosity, allow up to provide up savagery and make sure that everybody is cheerful and well encouraged.
Among five of the pillars of Ashoka, two at Rampurva, one each at Vaishali, Lauriya-Araraj and Lauria Nandangarh conceivably stamped the course of the old Regal thruway from Pataliputra to the Nepal valley. A few pillars were migrated by afterward Mughal Realm rulers, the creature capitals being expelled. The two Chinese medieval traveler accounts record sightings of a few pillars that have presently vanished: Faxian records six and Xuanzang fifteen, of which as it were five at most can be recognized with surviving pillars. There are too a few known parts of Ashoka pillars, without recouped Ashoka engravings, such as the Ashoka pillar in Bodh Gaya, Kausambi, Gotihawa, Prahladpur (presently within the Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi), Fatehabad, Bhopal, Sadagarli, Udaigiri-Vidisha, Kushinagar, Masada, Basti, Bhikana Pahari, Bulandi Bagh (Pataliputra), Sandalpu and a couple of others, as well as a broken pillar in Bhairon (“Lat Bhairo” in Benares) which was crushed to a stump amid riots in 1908 in India.
The social and magnificent borrowings from the west, the pillars of Ashoka, alongside very a bit of Mauryan craftsmanship stay exceptional in their achievements and in some cases differentiate emphatically with the rest of the world at that time. John Marshall and V. Smith have lauded the building, plan, fine enhancing carving, clean of Ashoka stambha, the pillar. Individuals from all ways of life are drawn towards the image of lotus, the dharma chakra, and the four lions. The Ashoka pillar at Sarnath is the finest among all the pillars. One of the foremost radiant pieces of amazing old India, the Ashoka pillar is truly worth seeing. Breathing with the privileged insights of the Indian divine beings, this put is like a haven for the Indians. The four lions keep their watch well. This magnificent piece of art that carries the history of Mauryan Period and the preachings of lord buddha is still passed on to the future generations and is believed to be mortal till the time exists .

Ashoka pillar, c. 279 B.C.E. – 232 B.C.E, Vaishali, India (where Buddha preached his last sermon).

Ashoka pillar capital at Vaishali, Bihar, India, c. 250 B.C.E.

Ashoka Pillar at Lumbini, Nepal, the birthplace of the Buddha.
Bibliography:
“A History of the World – Object: Pillar of Ashoka.” BBC, BBC, www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/acRBNzquSrOA5ZYNmLWA_g.
Dhammika, Ven S. “The Edicts of King Ashoka.” KING ASHOKA: His Edicts and His Times, The Wheel Publication, 1993,
www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html.
Pritchett, Frances. Ashoka, www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/bce_299_200/ashoka/ashoka.html
Asian Art and Architecture: Art

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