Definition and distinction of performative and constative utterances Performative utterances are those sentences or expressions, which are neither true nor false but rather have effects of felicitousness. This happens because there is assumption that the expression of an action is in form of words that are in explicit manner. Unfortunately, one can decide to utter the words or say a statement without conscience hence not fulfilling the promise of purported act. When this happens, the result is unhappiness, which heralds failure.
The phenomenon of performative action comes into play during circumstances like when making marriage vows, when writing a will, naming of babies during baptism or in a betting game. Austin asserts that the purported action may be socially acceptable as true or false hence describing perfomative action as senseless. For instance, in American law evidence, an account made by another person automatically becomes a testimony and not hearsay (Austin 79).
On the contrary, constative statement has a clear difference between the false and the true; hence, one can make a judgment from them. On the other hand, the performative statement can be wrong in three different ways as opposed to the constative statement. For instance, the perfomative statement may be invalid if a person who is unauthorized by law performs it.
Secondly, the performative utterance may be unacceptable if the persons involved do not intend to fulfill the action. Thirdly, perfomative utterance may be performed without bearing in mind the commitments involved hence being null (Austin 80). These features distinguish perfomative and constative statements.
An example of Performative utterance using the 3-i model In the context of marriage as a social institution, the performative statement said to fulfill the action is “I do”, which fulfills the action of marrying (Austin 79). Analysis of this statement makes it as the real action of marriage. This clearly describes an agreement between all the participants to keep the promise. There is some element of subjectivity among the participants including the priest administering the marriage vows.
All of them have to undergo personal experience or emotional feeling during the process or citation of the statement. Suppose the performative statement “I do” is said incorrectly, or one is already married; in such situations, the marriage action is null. Additionally, if an illegal or unqualified person conducts the marriage, it is also subject to nullification. In summary, the 3-i model; that is, institution, interpretation and inter-subjectivity describes marriage vows as a performative utterance as shown above.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The perfomative utterance is distinct from constative utterance in that it is neither true nor false. Due to this feature of perfomative statements, they are subject to abuse hence not fulfilling the purported act. Despite the lack of truth that underlines perfomative statements, they occur in important life issues like in marriage and during presentation of evidence in courts.
Works Cited Austin, John. How to do things with words. Harvard: Harvard University press, 1975.
Globalization Argument of Anna Tsing Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Anna Tsing has defined globalization as a way of interaction among the people, organizations, as well as arms of different nations. The process of globalization is activated by commerce, various types of investments, and information technology among others.
On the other hand, the impacts of globalization are widely felt on the environment, cultural practices, political aspects, and in the advancements of the economies globally (Appadurai, 32). Moreover, the welfare of the human beings also depends greatly on the globalization. This essay will be focusing on the argument of Anna Tsing on globalization with regard to economic industry.
Globalization is believed to be in existence for thousands of years. People in the past were interacting in trade by buying and selling to each other at great distances. Later, the corporations as well started investing in different nations at different levels. The cross border interaction through trade and investments has resulted to policy and technological advancements in the past few years (Tsing 345). This type of advancement has enabled the world to enter into a new level of economic development.
The trade interaction among different nations has increased by 20 times since late 1950s to current times. The current globalization in the economy is positively defined as it is faster compared to the past, it has cheaper expenses, its effects are running deeper, and its going farther compared to the globalization of some decades ago.
Various flows of the current globalization have come up with strategies of operating economies both inside and outside the countries. This has been made possible through different governments exercising free market methods of economy. The free market economic system has resulted to increased productivity and the provision of new business opportunities where investments can be practiced.
The current globalization has created a path for governments to negotiate the changes of various barriers to commerce (Appadurai 89). Through these paths of negotiations, several international treaties have been made for advancing the commerce of goods and services, as well as different ways of doing investment.
Through the idea of creating opportunities in outside markets, several organizations have managed to establish foreign industries whereby both the production and trade of the final goods and services is managed by their foreign counterparts. The globalization definition by Anna Tsing of being plural is manifested by its diverse nature of encompassing various disciplines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The economy sector of any nation has so far made a great positive move through the advancements of the information and technology which is one of the major drivers of globalization.
The different arms of economy such as consumers of goods and services, different types of investors, and the traders have been empowered by the advanced information and technology to utilize the upcoming business opportunities (Tsing 333).
These economic actors are able to make more informed decisions concerning the prevailing trends of the economy globally, through the help of the advanced information and technology. The process of shifting assets is understood better by these actors better and is done faster through collaboration with the right partners.
The diversity of globalization has proofed to improve the standards of living of the underdeveloped countries together with their citizens economically (Appadurai 124). Though globalization is associated with both benefits and costs, analysis shows that the benefits are outweighing the costs and such it should be adopted by the majority as part of the developments.
The opponents of globalization try to claim that the issue of free market is of being of benefits to the western world at the expense of the underdeveloped and the developing worlds.
Works Cited Appadurai Arjun. Globalization. Minneapolis: University Press, 2001.
Tsing Anna. “Global Situation”. Cultural Anthropology volume 15, issue3, pages 327-360, August 2000.
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