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Circulatory System of a Rattlesnake and a Human

Circulatory System of a Rattlesnake and a Human
A comparison of the circulatory system of a Homo sapiens (human) to that of a Crotalus durissus (rattlesnake) reveals that the circulatory system of both organisms is made up of three systems that work together: the cardiovascular system, the pulmonary system and the systemic circuit. The circulatory system functions as a way of delivery oxygen and nutrients to cells and taking away wastes and has evolved over millions of years. It does this through an intricate network of arteries, veins and capillaries. It also involves the kidney, which regulates the blood pressure and removes the body’s wastes.
Humans have a double pumped four-chambered heart, one of the most complex in living organisms. The four chambers are made up of a left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and a right ventricle. The right atrium takes in deoxygenated blood, filled with carbon dioxide, and squeezes it through the one-way valve into the right ventricle, where the blood is pumped to the lungs, through another valve, where the carbon dioxide is excreted and replaced with oxygen, see Figure 1 (Better Health Channel, 2018). The now oxygenated blood travels back to the heart, where it enters the left atrium and is pumped into the left ventricle which has a thicker muscular wall, to withstand the high blood pressure, and then into the aorta (Better Health Channel, 2018). From the aorta the blood travels through arteries and then through the capillaries. The heart has one-way valves to stop backflow of blood. The left side of the heart and the right side of the heart are separated by a wall of muscle called a septum. The septum ensures there is no mixing of the deoxygenated and the oxygenated blood. Due to the four-chambered heart mankind is homeothermic, meaning we can maintain our own body temperature, this is essential to our survival as we are very active terrestrial organisms and need to be able to control our body temperature. The snake heart is less evolved than the human heart but is showing evolution in its complexity. The snake heart is three-chambered and consists of two atria and one incompletely divided ventricle, see Figure 2 (There is no diagrams of a snake heart). The incomplete ventricle causes slight mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (Johansen and Hol, 1960). The ventricle is separated into a systemic and a pulmonary chamber (cavum arteriosum and cavum pulmonale) and a third smaller chamber, cavum venosum. Blood that enters the cavum pulmonale during diastole must first pass through the cavum venosum and blood ejected from the cavum arteriosum during cardiac contraction must flow through the cavum venosum. It was found that there was a division between of the systemic and pulmonary inflows meaning that the snake heart is divided during both filling and ejection. The blood pressure in the systemic system were much higher than those in the pulmonary circuit. Snakes have adapted to their environments by losing limbs and staying low to the ground, their elongated, horizontal body means that the heart must pump harder for the blood to reach its destination. The hear may pump the blood but without capillaries the circulatory system would not function.
Figure 1: Human Heart
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped).svg

Capillaries are very small, very thin blood vessels, only 5 micrometers in diameter that are found in both humans and snakes. They consist of two layers of cells, an inner layer of endothelial cells and outer layer of epithelial cells, see Figure 2. They are so small that red blood cells slow down to flow through them single file, this allows gases to diffuse into the blood. Capillaries facilitate the exchange of gasses, fluids and nutrients in the body and remove carbon dioxide and wastes from the body. In the lungs, oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the capillaries to be carried around the body and carbon dioxide diffuses from the capillaries back into the alveoli. Fluids and nutrients diffuse through selectively permeable capillaries in the villi and into body tissue and waste is transported to the kidneys and liver to be removed from the body. Human capillaries are no different from the capillaries found in snakes. The capillaries only have low blood pressure but through the body there are different blood pressures all regulated by the kidney.
Figure 3: Capillary Structure Source: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/capillary-blood-vessel-labelled-vector-diagram-235549774
The kidney’s function is to regulate the balance of water, salt and blood pressure in the body and by doing this it ensures that the body maintains homeostasis. The kidneys are made up of a system of millions of nephrons. The nephrons have two parts: the glomerulus and the tubule. The glomerulus strains blood cells and large molecules from the toxins and fluids passing through the kidney. The glomerulus uses tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism to know when to filtrate the fluids, this helps to maintain homeostasis. The fluids and toxins pass through the tubule and are reabsorbed or go back into the bloodstream and are filtered out of the body (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases). Kidneys also produce hormones that help regulate blood pressure, make red blood cells and promote bone health (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases). The Renin-Angiotensin System is a group of hormones that act together to regulate the body’s blood pressure. When renal blood flow is low the renin angiotensin system activates and begins processes to increase blood pressure around the body, see Table 1 (Weber, 2018). These systems and mechanisms are essential to maintaining homeostasis. The kidneys developed and evolved over thousands of years just like the human heart.
Table 1: The components of the Renin-Angiotensin System and their function and place of origin
Name
Function
Where it comes from
Juxtaglomerular Cells
To convert prorenin into renin when renal blood flow is low
Kidneys
Renin
To convert inactive Angiotensin into Angiotensin I
Inactive angiotensin is produced in the liver
Renin comes from the kidneys
Angiotensin I
Has small effect on blood pressure
To be converted into Angiotensin II
Is converted from inactive Angiotensin
Angiotensin II
Directly affects blood pressure by acting on blood vessels to increase blood pressure
Stimulates the release of Aldosterone
Is converted from Angiotensin I
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
To convert Angiotensin I into Angiotensin II
The lungs
Aldosterone
Strong vasoconstrictor can cause a big increase in blood pressure
Makes the kidney retain both salt and water, so as time passes the amount of fluid in the body increase
The adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland
The evolution of the heart can be traced back millions of years. Mammals evolved from other classes of vertebrates and as the organism got more complex so did the heart (Walia, et.al, 2010). The more chambers a heart has the more complex the organism is. Humans have a four-chambered heart as we are currently one of the most complex organisms, snakes however, have a three-chambered heart that is slowly starting to evolve into a four-chambered heart. The evolutionary history of the heart began with invertebrates having a simple circulatory system that pumped blood and fluid around the body through muscle contractions (The University of Melbourne). This then evolved into a fish heart that had two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, and developed a closed circulatory system (University of Melbourne). To increase the efficiency of oxygen distribution a double circulatory system developed (University of Melbourne). After that a 3-chambered heart developed and then a four-chambered heart, the most complex heart.
The comparison of the Homo sapiens (human) circulatory and the Crotalus durissus (rattlesnake) circulatory system shows both similarities and differences. Both systems have evolved over millions of years, the human system, however, is now more complex but snakes are slowly evolving from a three-chambered heart to a four-chambered heart. Although they are drastically different organisms both snakes and humans have virtually the same capillaries. Concluding sentence
Reference List
Johnasen, K.

Structures and Characteristics of Microorganisms for Classification

Microbiology and Microbiological Techniques
Classification of microorganisms
(H S Pathology Private Limited 2018)
Introduction
This assignment will explain how the structures and characteristics of microorganisms are used to classify them. It will illustrate the structures of microorganisms observed using a light microscope and an oil immersion lens. Also will include the comparison of the characteristics of microscopes used for classification and include the comparison of the use of different microscopy technique to observe the structures of microorganisms. Finally it will evaluate the use of microscopy technique to observe structures and classify microorganisms
Bacteria
Bacteria are prokaryotic, made up of one cell. Nearly all bacteria are couple micrometers in length. Bacteria have features such as ribosomes which make proteins from mRNA. Flagellums are hair like structure that turns around to make the bacteria move, some bacteria have additional flagellums or none. Cell wall gives the cell strength and structure. The cell membrane has folds called mesosmes. Plasmids are small loops of DNA, plasmids are not in all bacteria cells. The main DNA floats free in the bacteria cell, the long strand is called a bacterial chromosome. A few bacteria have short hair like features called pili. Pili is used in gene transmission as the pili help the bacteria cell stick to another bacteria cell.
How are bacteria classified?
Bacterial classification uses binomial nomenclature two names genus and species. Species can be divided into subspecies because some organisms are too related to each other. Species of bacteria have different variations called serotypes which determine their structure.​
There are five different groups that bacteria can be classified in to, these are spirochaetes, bacilli, vibrios, Spirilla and cocci, from their shapes.
Spirochaetes- corkscrew
Bacilli- rod shaped
Vibrios- comma
Spirilla- helical
Cocci- spherical
The different groups of bacteria can live by themselves or in groups.
Scientific Classification
Domain: Prokaryotes.
Kingdom: Bacteria.
Phylum: Firmicutes.
Class: Bacilli.
Order: Lactobacillales.
Family: Streptococcaceae.
Genus: Streptococcus.
Species: Streptococcus pyogenes.
Gram Staining
Gram Staining can help to further classify bacteria. By grouping bacteria into two groups’ gram negative and gram positive based on their cell wall. Gram negative is shown when the cell wall of the bacteria don’t keep the crystal violet satin used in the gram staining process. The gram positive is when the cell wall of the bacteria keep the crystal violet satin.
Bacilli
Bacilli is a group of bacteria, which are rod shaped and are gram positive. Species of bacillus form spores in conditions that bacteria don’t grow in. These endospores make this group of bacteria resistant to chemicals and heat. A few bacillus bacteria can harm plants, humans and other microorganisms
An example is B. cereus can cause canned food to go bad, and if eaten can cause food poisoning for a short while.
(The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica 2018)
Cocci
Cocci is a group of bacteria, which is spherical in shape and are gram positive. Species of cocci can be used to help in identification. If two cocci cells are present they are called diplococci, more than eight of cocci cells are called staphylococci. Some are arranged like squares or in clusters this is because the reproduction of bacteria affects this.
Spirilla
Spirillum is a group of bacteria, which is helical shaped and are gram negative.
Vibrios
Vibrio is a group of bacteria, which is comma shaped and are gram negative. Species of vibrios are very mobile and don’t need oxygen, and have up to three flagella at one end.
Spirochaetes
Spirochete is a group of bacteria, which are corkscrew shaped, very mobile and are not classified as gram positive or gram negative. This type of bacteria have harmful pathogens which cause diseases such as Lyme disease.
Why are bacteria classified?
Bacteria are classified as it helps professionals who are working with bacteria day to day. A microbiologist at a hospital may want to know which treatment is needed for a patient. A scientist working with cultures might want to know if his strategy is working or not. A hygienist may want to check if the food plant he is looking after contains any harmful microorganisms.
Why are bacteria important in medicine?
Bacteria for a long time have been used to make bacteria vaccinations and the discovery of antibacterial antibiotics, since this bacterial diseases have gone down.
To make these bacteria vaccinations the toxin protein that bacteria make, toxin protein is made inactive, so it will not cause disease.
People with weak immune systems will need to have top up vaccinations if having the inactive vaccination to make sure they can fight the disease.
Why is bacteria important in the industry?
Ethanol can be made by using yeast. Yeast have enzymes that in the process of yeast fermentation, the enzymes turn carbohydrates such as sucrose into simple sugars like glucose, then it converts them into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Why is bacteria important in food?
Bacteria can convert milk in to other products that are widely consumed, such as yoghurt and cheese. Buttermilk is used using a culture of Lactococcus bacteria, yoghurt are made the same way but using a different culture of bacteria. Most cheese are allowed to ripen with the use of microorganisms, this is important because different types of bacteria give the cheese different tastes and textures. To preserve food bacteria fermentation is used for pickled onions, pickled gherkins and olives.
Viruses
Viruses are microorganisms which are nucleic acid surrounded by protein. They are smaller than bacteria. Viruses have features such as containing a center of DNA or RNA. The protein coat around the DNA is called the capsid, some viruses have an extra layer called an envelope, taken from the cell membrane of a previous host cell. Attachment proteins stick out from the edge of the capsid or envelope. These lets viruses attach itself on to a host cell. Some viruses carry proteins inside their capsid.
How are viruses classified?
Viruses are classified by their shape and size. Also chemical composition and how they replicate.
Mode of Replication: The genome of a virus may contain RNA or DNA which maybe single stranded (ss) or double stranded (ds) linear or circle. The genome may occupy either one nucleic acid molecule (monopartite genome) or several nucleic acid segments (multipartite genome). The different types of genome require different replication strategies.
Why are viruses classified?
Viruses don’t share the same classification system as organisms because they are not believed to be living. Viruses do not have metabolism which means they can’t produce their own food and can only reproduce using an infected host cell.
Why are viruses important in medicine?
Majority of vaccinations use weakened viruses, this is because if a non-weakened virus was used it would reproduce rapidly inside the body, but by using a weakened virus there is small chance for it to infect the person with the disease rather than preventing it. Weakened viruses only reproduce usually 10-20 times compared with a non-weakened virus, which reproduces thousands of times when a person is infected. Because weakened viruses reproduce less, it means it still can produce memory B cells for that particular infection for the future.
Why are viruses important in the industry?
Viruses benefit plants for example there are few plants grow in the hot soils surrounding the geysers and Yellowstone National Park. This plant has a relationship that a fungus takes over the plant and a virus then infects the fungus. This happens to make the plant survive in 50 degrees Celsius. (U.S. Department of the Interior 2017)
Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic they can be unicellular or multicellular. These are heterotrophs, which means they feed on decaying organic matter. The features that are within a fungi cell are a nucleus where DNA is wrapped around proteins, some have free floating loops of DNA called plasmids, this is similar to bacteria cells.
The cells further contain mitochondria which is said to be the power house of a cell, Golgi apparatus is also present in the cell, and endoplasmic reticulum which is seen as the worm shaped. The cell wall of the fungi cell has polysaccharides called chitin and glucans, which gives it rigid layers and prevents the cell wall from losing moisture and protection. Also have plasma membrane.
How is fungi classified?
There are four different groups that fungi can be classified in which are Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. They are classified into these groups depending on how they reproduce.
Chytridiomycota- chytrids
Zygomycota- bread moalds
Ascomycota- yeast and sac fungi
Basidiomycota- club fungi
(CC BY: Attribution 2018)
Scientific Classification
Domain: Eukaryote
Kingdom: Fungi
Class: Basidio Mycetes
Order: Agric Ales
Family: Agricac Eae
Genus: Agaricus
Species: Agaricus Campestris L
Chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycota is the most simple of all types of fungi. Nearly all chytrids have chitin in the cell was but a group has chitin and cellulose in the cell wall. A few chytrids are multicellular but majority are unicellular. They reproduce as diploid and gametes cells that have a flagellum to help them move.
Zygomycota
Zygomycetes are the smallest group of fungi, this type of fungi is the fungi that grown on the surface of breads, vegetables and fruit commonly known as mold. They are present on decaying organic matter.
Ascomycota
Ascomycota are the biggest group of fungi, they are used in the industry to make different types of alcohol such as wine and beer and yeast in baking. A certain fungi can cause harm to patients who have AIDS who have a weakened immune system. They also can be harmful to crops which then are not able to eat.
Basidiomycota
Basidomycota is a group of fungi which are seen as mushrooms that we eat and the bark on trees, this group includes the most edible fungi but some are very dangerous as they make toxins. For example Crptococcus neformans cause bad respiratory illnesses. (CC BY: Attribution 2018)
Why is fungi classified?
Fungi classification have changed over the years, once they were just thought to be plants but now they have their own kingdom and are in fact more related to animals that plants.
Why is fungi important in medicine?
Fungi are useful to humans they are a part of the nutrient cycle in ecosystems. Fungi can naturally produce antibiotics and stop the growth of bacteria, meaning they don’t have to compete in nature. Penicillin a well-known antibiotic that can be made separating from fungi. After someone has an organ transplant they are likely to reject the organ but a drug called cyclosporine lowers down the risk of rejection. Also a fungi called ergot alkaloids is used to stop bleeding in hospital.
(Boundless Biology 2018)
Why is fungi important in the industry?
The farming industry uses fungi in the root system, this because without in they would not live. Fungal supplements are used as soil additives that can be bought from gardening stores. It is mostly favored for organic farming.
Why is fungi important in food?
Fungi makes up a lot of the human diet such as cheeses the fungi penicillium ripens them, also mushroom the most common one found in many dishes is the meadow mushroom. Truffles are used to garnish dishes and are very expensive. For the making of blue cheese, sheep milk is stacked to get the molds of the genus penicillium for the blue veins and strong taste of the cheese. Fungi is used to ferment wheat to make beer and fruit to make wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of yeast that is used in baking. It has been used for thousands of years to make bread which was a staple in people’s diets. They did this by leaving dough to gather yeast from surrounding air for a couple of days.
Protozoa
Protozoa are eukaryotes which are singled celled. They are parasitic that feed on decaying matter. Protozoa can have many shapes due to not having a cell wall. Some protozoa will have features such as a rigid shell and pellicle which is a thick membrane. They come in all different shapes and sizes. The size range is big with 10 micrometers as the smallest and 60 micrometer. The largest protozoa are called xenophyophores, which can measure up to 20 centimeters in diameter.
(Wikimedia Foundation, Inc 2018)
How is protozoa classified?
Protozoa the group has thousands of species, which belong to kingdom Protista. Some protozoan feed on bacteria and algae others are parasites.
They are classified into four groups based on how they move:
Amoebiod
Flagllates
Cilliates
Sporozoans
Amoebiod
Amoebiods are a group of protozoa that can change its shape, which are in dirt or mud and in water. They travel by using pseudopods, which are located on the edge of the amoebiod, they also use pseudopods to submerge their prey. Amoebiod feed in many different ways.
Flagllates
Flagellates are a group of protozoa that have a flagella on the end of it. They live in many ways one is as parasitic, in intestines or bloodstream of host, the host does not benefit from this relationship. Some flagellates are autotrophic while others are heterotrophs.
Ciliates
The ciliates are a group of protozoans that have hair-like organelles called cilia. Cilia are used in the movement, eating and attaching. Most ciliates are heterotrophs.
Several ciliates feed by osmotrophy which is by absorbing the energy. Whereas some hunt for their sources of energy that are other protozoa
There are different types of ciliate protozoa which are crawling, stalked and swimming ciliates. All of which use ciliates for movement and getting their food.
Sporozoans
Sporozoans are a group of protozoa that are unicellular and consist of parasites.
Why are protozoans important in medicine?
Protozoans are food for a lot of organisms that live in water. Example Zooplankton are small protozoans that live in the sea. This is a part of the diet of blue whales, they consume this as they are taking gulps of water.
Why are protozoans important in the industry?
Protozoans have vital roles with soil fertility. As protozoa eat the bacteria in soil, they keep the number of bacteria low, which would mean a higher fertility of soil. They also produce nitrogen and phosphorus which benefits the soil. As plants such as lentils like to thrive in nitrogen and phosphorus rich soil.
Summary of microorganisms
Bacteria
Viruses
Fungi
Protozoan
Cell Structure
No nucleus
Complex cell wall
(dependent on host cell)
Nucleus
Simple cell wall
Nucleus
Cilia
Flagella
Reproduction
Binary Fission (asexual)
Replication (asexual)
Budding
Fragmentation
Spore release (sexual/asexual)
Binary Fission (asexual)
Structure
Spherical
Rods
Spirals
Spherical/ Polyhedral
Helical
Spherical (oval)
Filaments
Complex Structure
Size
1-3 μm
-0.01-0.3 μm
3-30 μm
1-150 μm
(PeteJago 2013)
Identifying structures from electron micrographs
The nucleus is a large, circular structure surrounded by a tiny membrane.
The nucleolus is contained within the nucleus, and it is responsible for creating rDNA, the ribosomal genome that translates mRNA to proteins.
Mitochondria structures are accountable for making the adenosine triphosphate (cellular energy) for metabolism and chemical reactions inside cells. They are recognizable by the cristae formations that zigzag within the mitochondria cell.
The Golgi complex is the packaging center for the cell. It adds the final compounds on biomolecules such as proteins and fatty acids and transports them to other parts of the cell or into the blood stream
Chromosomes hold the genome of the cell. They are only visible during cell division. They are little, worm-like structures contained inside the nucleus in animal cells.
How the structure of microorganisms is viewed using light microscopes with and without oil immersion?
Light microscopes use lenses and light to magnify a sample, the sample is extremely close to the lens and small, so light can pass through easily.
Oil immersion is a method where the image will look bigger, as it makes the resolving power of the light microscope higher.
Compared to stereo microscopes light microscopes are cheap to purchase and use, small and portable, natural colour of specimen can be observed, living as well as dead matter can be viewed, to set up is quick and simple, requiring little knowledge and not affected by magnetic field.
Light microscope
Fungi- Penicillium 100x magnification not oil immersion
The penicillium is not clear compared to the oil immersion 1000x magnification.
Light microscope
Fungi- Penicillium 1000x magnification with oil immersion
The penicillium is very clear compared to the light microscope without oil immersion and at 100x magnification.
How the structure of microorganism is viewed using stereo microscope?
A stereo microscope is used to observe something that requires a low magnification, it is done when light is reflected of the sample. The magnification is 100x magnification, it is quite low compared to light microscopes that can go up to 1000x magnification when using oil immersion.
Stereo Microscope
Skin and nail 100x magnification which is the highest is magnify to.
There isn’t much detail when using a stereo microscope as the magnification is quite low, only hair and skin indents are seen when a hand is put under a stereo microscope but this is because it is purposely designed to.
Importance of light microscopes and stereo microscopes in medicine and industry
In medicine stereo microscopes are used in pathology labs to view tissue specimens, as it provides accurate observation, which would provide with other information that would not be able to see with the naked eye, the stereo microscope gives a correct final diagnosis.
In industry stereo microscopes are used a lot in factories that make electronic devices, where soldering would take place. Also to see the quality of products, if they are consistent and inspection of delicate product. The reason why they are used is because the high can easily be adjusted and can be moved out of the way if needed by swinging it.
In medicine light microscopes are used because organisms that cause diseases can best seen under a microscope are therefore microscopic. Because of this when a sample is taken from a patient to identify the microorganisms, this allows the patients to receive the right treatment or medicated drugs.
Gram Staining helps scientists to further classify different types of bacteria. By grouping bacteria into two groups’ gram negative and gram positive based on their cell wall. Gram negative is shown when the cell wall of the bacteria don’t keep the crystal violet satin used in the gram staining process. The gram positive is when the cell wall of the bacteria keep the crystal violet satin. These method needed the use of a light microscope.
In industry light microscopes mineralogists use light microscopes to identify what minerals are present in rocks. Mineralogist have a process called thin section. Rocks are cut into thin sections, thin enough for light to pass through from the light source to the mineralogist’s eye. Different crystal grains will be seen because the rock is so thin. Then the shapes seen will let the microbiologist identify what minerals are present.
Reason microorganisms are placed in different groups and why is there such division
I argue that microorganisms are placed in their different groups as microorganisms are divided into seven types: bacteria, archaea, protozoa, algae, fungi, viruses, and multicellular animal parasites. Each type has a unique characteristic cellular composition, morphology, mean of movement, and reproduction. Microorganisms are beneficial in producing oxygen, decomposing organic material, providing nutrients for plants, and maintaining human health, but some can be pathogenic and cause diseases in plants and humans.
Examples of why microorganisms and infectious agents are placed in different groups
Bacteria
Bacteria are prokaryotic, made up of one cell and have no nucleus. There are five different groups that bacteria can be classified in to, these are spirochaetes, bacilli, vibrios, Spirilla and cocci, from their shapes.
Spirochaetes- corkscrew
Bacilli- rod shaped
Vibrios- comma
Spirilla- helical
Cocci- spherical
Gram Staining can help to further classify bacteria. By groping bacteria into two groups’ gram negative and gram positive based on their cell wall. Gram negative is shown when the cell wall of the bacteria don’t keep the crystal violet satin used in the gram staining process. The gram positive is when the cell wall of the bacteria keep the crystal violet satin. Bacteria can be split again depending on how they react to oxygen, which are anaerobic, aerobic and both.
Depending on the way they get energy, they are called chemoautotrophs as they get there energy from chemical processes, also heterotrophs as bacteria use decaying matter to get energy are named saprophytes.
Example
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a Gram-positive coccus belonging to the coagulase-negative genus Staphylococcus.
Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. saprophyticus
Binomial name
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
(Wikimedia Foundation Inc 2018)
Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic they can be unicellular or multicellular. These are heterotrophs, which means they feed on decaying organic matter and they have co-opertave relationships with plants, this means both the fungi and the plant benefit. The features that are within a fungi cell are a nucleus where DNA is wrapped around proteins, some have free floating loops of DNA called plasmids, this is similar to bacteria cells.
Example
Penicillium albocoremium is a fungus species in the genus Penicillium.
Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Order: Eurotiales
Family: Trichocomaceae
Genus: Penicillium
Species: P. albocoremium
Binomial name
Penicillium albocoremium
(Wikimedia Foundation Inc 2018)
Protozoa
Protozoa are eukaryotes which are singled celled. They are parasitic that feed on decaying matter. Protozoa can have many shapes due to not having a cell wall. Some protozoa will have features such as a rigid shell and pellicle which is a thick membrane. They come in all different shapes and sizes. The size range is big with 10 micrometers as the smallest and 60 micrometer. The largest protozoa are called xenophyophores, which can measure up to 20 centimeters in diameter.
Example
Plasmodium falciparum is plasmodium that causes malaria, which can cause death in humans. This species of plasmodium is unicellular
Scientific Classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
(unranked): Alveolata
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Aconoidasida
Order: Haemosporida
Family: Plasmodiidae
Genus: Plasmodium
Species: P. falciparum
Binomial name
Plasmodium falciparum
(Wikimedia Foundation, Inc 2018)
Viruses
Viruses are classified as microorganisms (that are not classed as living) which are nucleic acid surrounded by protein. Viruses have features such as containing a center of DNA or RNA. The protein coat around the DNA is called the capsid. Virus have to live inside a host as they can’t reproduce without a host, which are usually eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. This then leads to diseases.
Example
Ebola virus (which used to be known as Zaire ebolavirus) is a virus within in the genus Ebolavirus
Scientific Classification
Group: Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Ebolavirus
Species: Zaire ebolavirus
Binomial name
Zaire ebolavirus
(Wikimedia Foundation, Inc 2018)
Reference List
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Books
Parsons R 2015. A-Level Biology Edexcel A (Salters-Nuffield). 1st ed. Newcastel upton Tyne: Coordination Group Publications Ltd.
Websites
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