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Cardiology Studies: Conditions Involved and Services Offered

1. The area of medicine it studies [i]
Cardiology derived from Greek and Latin. “Kardia” in Greek means the “heart” and “logia” also from Greek stands for “logy” or “study”. Branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart, aorta and smaller blood vessels), their diagnosis and treatment.
2. Title of consultants in this field
Cardiology department is run by Cardiologists which is divided into cardiac sections and various cardiac consultants including Heart surgeons, Cardiologist

Comparison of Beta Blockers Use

1.1 Background Beta-blockers are a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart problems. They are used by millions of people around the world everyday. In 2004, they were the fifth most widely prescribed class of medicine. Beta-blockers are effective, life-saving medicines with more than 25 years of widespread and generally safe use. There are fourteen beta-blockers are currently available. These included Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol, Bisoprolol, Carvedilol, Esmolol, Labetalol, Metoprolol, Nadolol, Penbutolol, Pindolol, Propranolol, and Timolol.
Beta-blockers are just one class of prescription medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease. Four other classes are commonly used to treat high blood pressure, for example. These include the diuretics, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers. These four plus beta blockers are often used in combination, two or more at a time. Indeed, many people with high blood pressure will require two or more high blood pressure medicines to bring their blood pressure down to a normal and healthy range.
Although they are used primarily to treat people with high blood pressure, they are also used to treat other heart conditions. These include angina (heart or chest pain), abnormal heart rhythms, coronary artery blockages, and heart failure. They are also used, along with other treatments, to help prevent repeat heart attacks in people who have already had one, to prevent migraine headaches, and to treat performance or stage-fright anxiety.
High blood pressure is one of the most significantly and persistently under-diagnosed and under-treated medical conditions. It raises your risk of heart disease, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, dementia, vision loss, and kidney failure. In most who have high blood pressure, it is a lifelong condition. Yet studies show that only 30% of people with high blood pressure getting the medicines, care, and blood pressure control they need. Uncontrolled high blood pressure is a leading cause of death. Because it has no symptoms and often goes undetected, high blood pressure is often called the nation’s leading “silent killer.”
Beta-blockers work by blocking adrenaline in the heart and blood vessels. Adrenaline speeds up the heart rate, makes the heart muscle contract more strongly, and constricts arteries throughout the body. All these raise blood pressure. In blocking adrenaline, beta-blockers slow down the heart and reduce its workload. That helps to decrease blood pressure.
Choosing a beta-blocker, and its dose, depends on what people need it for. Studies show that some beta blockers are more effective and safer than others for certain conditions. People respond to the various beta-blockers differently. There are important differences in how the various beta-blockers work that will affect the use of them.
In effect, beta blockers differ in the type of beta receptors they block (β1, β2, and α) and, therefore, their effects. Non-selective beta blockers, for example, propranolol, block β1 and β2 receptors and, therefore, affect the heart, blood vessels, and air passages. Selective beta blockers, for example, metoprolol primarily block β1 receptors and, therefore, mostly affect the heart and do not affect air passages. Labetalol and carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. Blocking alpha receptors adds to the blood vessel dilating effect of labetalol and carvedilol.
Beta-blockers are generally safe medicines. They have not been shown to cause any serious long-term or irreversible negative consequences, even after many years of use. But side effects are common among people taking beta-blockers. The majority of people can expect to experience at least one. These include fatigue or drowsiness, dizziness or lightheadedness, slow heartbeat, low blood pressure, difficulty breathing, numbness, tinkling or coldness of fingers, toes or skin, weight gain, mental depression, disturbing dreams, reduced libido, erectile dysfunction in men, or ability to reach orgasm in both men and women. Most side effects can be avoided or minimized by starting with a low dose and increasing it gradually. Also, some of these adverse effects go away or diminish in time, after body gets used to the drug.
Overall, the strongest evidence on beta-blockers links them to a lower risk of repeat heart attack and early death in the aftermath of a heart attack. More than 60 studies have examined this, and all have found a marked benefit for the pills. There is also compelling evidence that some beta blockers lower the risk of death in people with heart failure, preventing 3.8 deaths per 100 patients in the first year of treatment. Therefore, everyone who has had a heart attack should be taking a beta-blocker.
Below are the list of beta-blockers that use in Klinik Kesihatan Greentown:

No: 1.
Generic Name: Atenolol
Trade Name: TENORMIN®
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 100mg

No: 2.
Generic Name: Bisoprolol
Trade Name: CONCOR®
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 2.5mg , 5mg

No: 3.
Generic Name: Carvedilol
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 6.25mg , 25mg

No: 4.
Generic Name: Labetalol
Trade Name: TRANDATE®
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 100mg

No: 5.
Generic Name: Metoprolol
Trade Name: BETALOC®
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 100mg

No: 6.
Generic Name: Propranolol
Trade Name: INDERAL®
Dosage Form: Tablet
Strength: 40mg
1.2 Objectives 1.2.1 To list down types of beta-blockers in Klinik Kesihatan Greentown.
1.2.2 To analyze the usage of each beta-blockers in Kinik Kesihatan Greentown.
1.2.3 To compare the most commonly used beta-blockers in Klinik Kesihatan Greentown based on the results.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW From the past, beta blockers is widely use for the treatment of hypertension besides treatment such as stable and unstable angina, arrhythmias, bleeding esophageal varices, coronary artery disease, asymptomatic and symptomatic heart failure, hypertension migraine, and secondary prevention post-myocardial infarction (Mark Helfand, MD, et al., 2007). Although some study shows that beta-blockers are not first-line drugs in the treatment of hypertension (Wiysonge CS, et al., 2007) but when initiating a beta-blocker, it is proven to be as effective and safe as initiating an ACE-inhibitor first (Ferenc Follath, 2006).
Besides, beta blockers provide similar clinical outcomes and are associated with fewer adverse events than calcium antagonists in randomized trials of patients who have stable angina. (Paul A. Heidenreich, MD,, 1999) There is also evidence that suggest B-blockers are useful in managing angina and reducing mortality after myocardial infarction and in heart failure (H T Ong, consultant cardiologist, 2007) but beta blockers appear to be less effective when used as monotherapy in black hypertensives (Walter Flamenbaum, MD, 1985).
Additionally, beta-blockers may be considered as a first-line option in women of child-bearing potential because of concern about foetal renal maldevelopment with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (British Hypertension Society, 2008). When starting beta blockers, it should be started at the lowest dose, with the dose increased every two to four weeks until the target dose or highest tolerated dose is reached because beta-blockers showed little evidence of useful antiarrhythmic action in the dosage used (J M Roland,, 1979). It also should reconsider in the treatment of hypertension since doses smaller than those recommended are almost as effective and much cheaper. (A K Scott, et al., 1982) On the other side, when beta blocker treatment given as secondary prophylaxis after myocardial infarction it is highly cost effective (G Olsson, L A Levin, N Rehnqvist, 1987).
Among all the beta-blockers, atenolol had the most widely used in Klinik Kesihatan Greentown because study proven atenolol is more effective than placebo in lowering blood pressure but does not appear to reduce the rates of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality (Carlberg B., et al., 2004). One of the studies also shown that the use of atenolol (started 72 h before operation) is effective in reducing the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmias following elective coronary artery bypass operations in patients with good left ventricular function (R. K. Lamb, et al., 1988). When compare between atenolol versus nifedipine versus the combination, atenolol was slightly better than nifedipine on exercise time, but the combination was slightly better for decreasing the number of attacks (El-Tamimi, H.