Get help from the best in academic writing.

Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia Term Paper

Aspects of Government As Personified Through the Ideology of One Man Zine el-Abidine Bin Ali took over leadership as the president of Tunisia in the year 1987 after “ousting his predecessor, the octogenarian Habib Bourguiba who ruled Tunisia since 1956” (Moore, 1988, Page 180). According to Hermassi (1995), this leader came in to power with two ideas on his mind for his reign; “democratization and national reconciliation” (Page 109). According to Sadiki [b] (2002), Tunisia as a country meets, to a large extend, with the Western approval for being “a post of moderation, stability and liberal politics” (page 497). But to a particular level, there exist a “myth” in regard to the “liberal politics” of the country (Anonymous: Zine of the times, 1991). During the Bourguiba regime, “mono-party” rule was “the order of the day” (Krichen, 1992, Page 32). When Bin Ali took over from Bourguiba, Tunisia turned out to have an “electoral democracy” under his reign (Murphy, 1999; Smith, 2011). But, as indicated by Sadiki [a] (2002), “the resulting electoral regime is one that has been carefully controlled by the state is largely constrictive, uncompetitive, and illiberal” (Page 497).

The Power Base of the Tunisian President as Undisputed Leader The “routinisation” and “consolidation” of the hold of Bin Ali on power has brought about much more stability as compared to the situation which was there during the final years of Bourguiba’s reign (Ware, 1986, Zubaida, S. (1989.). The stability came about at the cost of “political pluralism” (Chaabane, 1997). Tunisia tends to have set up credibility in the field of “economic management” (King, 1998, and Economist Intelligence Unit, 1997).

However, in carrying out a comparison between economic liberalization and political liberalization, it is established that economic liberalization has acquired more “momentum” (Sadiki, 2003). Bin Ali used to promise democratizing Tunisia but this was never actually fulfilled (Davis, 2011). According to Zisenwine (2004), Tunisia has stood above the neighboring countries such as Algeria and Libya with its “pro-western foreign policies and its progressive social and economic programs” (Par. 1).

The per capita income of this country is the highest in the region (North Africa- not including Libya), giving a reflection of investment in such key sectors as education. However, the political system of the country has been stagnant and remained at the same point for a long time, beginning from independence time (Zisenwine, 2009).

Standards of Living in Tunisia There exist unfavorable economic conditions in Tunisia. The unfavorable conditions, which include high levels of unemployment and lack of political freedom, is what pushed the unemployed graduate, just like many other youths, to the walls.

According to Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011,), the unemployment rate in Tunisia stands at 14 percent. But in considering the youths alone, the unemployment rate stands at 31 percent. Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011) points out that, “the income share of the top 10% is approximately 32 %, and the top 20% of the population controls 47% of Tunisia income” (Page 18932).

More so, according to Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011), the International Monetary Fund gives description of the Tunisian government management of the economy as well as the economic growth, which is not even; benefiting the northern towns as well as the coastal ones more than interior towns and other regions of the nation as; “prudent macroeconomic management”….”the country’s key challenge is to boost job-generating growth and lower unemployment rates” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18932)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is believed that the President and his family together with a few elite groups are the ones who control the main sectors of the economy to extreme levels (Daragahi, 2011). To emphasize on this point, Anonymous (Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011) points out that that the wikileaks cable from the US embassy in the country gave out a message that “the perception of increasing corruption and the persistent rumors of shady backroom dealings has a negative impact on the economy, regardless of the veracity” (Page 2).

Strength of economic and educational development Even if there are various problems in regard to Tunisia’s economy, not everything about the economy of Tunisia is unwelcoming. The national economy of this country, in relative terms, is wide and diverse, having such important sectors as mining, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.

Beginning from the middle of the 1980s, the Tunisian government has privatized, either in part or entirely, over 160 companies which were formerly owned by the state (Bibi and Chatti, 2005). The country also has good infrastructure including thirteen airports (McDonald-Gibson, 2011).

In the course of the last twenty years, Tunisia has had an average yearly GDP growth of 5 percent (in the course of Bin Ali’s rule) (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011).

According to the IMF report, the economic growth of the country could go even beyond an average of 5 percent over the period of the coming five years as long as “policies and reforms planned by the authorities are aimed at enhancing Tunisia’s competitiveness, developing new markets, and supporting new sources of growth in sectors, with high added value bear fruits” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18933). The education sector in the country is fairly developed but there is need to improve the system in order for it to meet the world standers; and especially the universities (Waltz, 1995).

The Relationships with Foreign Powers In the course of Bin Ali’s rule, the foreign policy consisted ensuring the maintenance of a “balance between close relationships with Western Europe and the U.S along with inter-Arab cooperation” (Anonymous: Tunisia foreign policy, 2011, Par. 1).. More so, support as well as trade partnerships were sought from the Asian nations. France has stayed to be a leading trade partner of Tunisia which is closely followed by Italy.

France had formerly colonized Tunisia but the two countries have still kept links with each other even after Tunisia becoming independent. The relationship established between these two countries has been there for a longer time and they understand each other better and they can deal in various trading activities. The country has also established positive relations with countries in Asia and they nave been engaging in trading activities (Samuel, 2011).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Laws and Civil Liberties in the Country According to Deeb (2002), even if it is clear that Tunisia as a nation has made great efforts in ensuring liberalization of the political system, and is seen as a country having a good track record in the Arab World regarding women’s rights, there still exist several problems to the country’s “genuine electoral choices”.

There exist a number of written restrictions as well as unwritten ones on their choices which makes it quite hard to have “free and fair” elections. More so, in Tunisia, there exist some restrictions that are put in to force, which hinder operations of human rights movements.

An example is given by Deeb (2002) of the “Tunisia Human Rights League” that had its vice president taken to jail in the year 1998. The restrictions are also imposed on NGOs like the “National Council for Liberties” whose registration was turned down. Following this, an environment dominated by fear to come up with political choices that may not get government approval has been set up.

Reasons for the Occurrence of Popular Discontent in Tunisia The Tunisian government was overthrown on 14th January 2011 and the president had to run away from the country to Saudi Arabia (Brom, 2011; Diaro, 2011, Cohen, 2011; “United Nations – Alliance of Civilizations”; 2011; Reuters, 2011).

Bin Ali’s government was overthrown because it failed to control “mass demonstrations” which commenced at the time a youth, who was not employed and was working as a peddler, set himself on fire after the police officers took away his cart which he was using to obtain his daily bread. (Brom, 2011, Amara, 2011, Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, “BBC Monitoring Middle East”, (c), 2010, Oluwafunminiyi, 2011).

This act lit up anger among people who went out to the streets, demonstrating in protest. The protests spread all over the country. These protests resulted from “pent up frustrations over unemployment, high prices and political repression” (Anonymous: Tunisia: President flees anger, 2011, Page 18931).

The only thing the president had to say about this in his speech presented on 13 January 2011, was that he was sorry and promised to make things better but He was removed from power the following day (“BBC Monitoring Middle East”, 2011 (a); (“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [d]; Oluwafunminiyi, 2011). This implies that the president did not facilitate effective negation with the relevant parties to overcome the conflict that was there.

A good leader should be ready to negotiate with the parties with whom he is in conflict. It is pointed out by Hackman and Johnson (2008) “negotiation comes in when leaders must influence those who disagree with them…the goal is to reach a conclusion that is satisfying to both sides. Negotiation consists of back-and-forth communication aimed at reaching a joint decision when people are in disagreement” (Page 180).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Bin Ali’s Leadership in Tunisia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Problems that need to be addressed in Tunisia There are several problems that need to be addressed in Tunisia. Among these problems, we have lack of employment and especially for the youths, unequal distribution of resources, and violation of people’s (mostly women’s) personal and political rights among others. The leadership in Tunisia has not been a fair one.

Resources have been concentrated in some parts in the country, leaving other parts without anything. Some few people in the country have been controlling the key sectors of the economy. The people who have been controlling these sectors are the president and his family, together with a few other wealthy individuals in the country. More so, in this country, the leadership has not been facilitating power sharing.

There has been no realization of the fact that, when people jointly try to find solutions to the problems facing the society, it is easier to find solutions. Lack of commitment to find solutions that face the citizens is actually what brought about discontent among people, resulting in the overthrow of the government.

The kind of Leader I would want to be I would want to be a democratic leader and this is the kind of leader Tunisia needs. “Democratic leaders engage in supportive communication that facilitates interaction between leaders and followers” (Hackman and Johnson, 2008 p.42).

By a leader adopting the democratic communication style, he or she would encourage follower involvement and participation in the determining of goals and procedures. He or she assumes that the followers are able to make informed decisions. He doesn’t have any feeling of intimidation when suggestions are presented to him by the follows but holds a belief that the contributions that are made by the followers improve the overall quality of decision making.

By Tunisia having a democratic leader, this will facilitate formation of a political party that has the potential as well as “intellectual resources”, as Bassma (2011) points out, “to evolve towards a model of Turkey’s Justice and Development Party, by softening its discourse and positions to adapt to the mainstream Tunisians who have a fairly clear consensus on the social model and the values they want” (Bassma, 2011, Page 3).

This leader will ensure the women’s legal status and their personal rights are protected. He will ensure there are equalities in work as well as representation in the government institutions.

He will also be able to carry out genuine reforms in regard to have democratic elections (Meyer-Resende and O’grandy, 2011). In general terms, in the case where we have a democratic leader, there will be formation of a government that will enable “participation of all forces and meet the objectives of the popular revolution” (Anonymous: Opposition party quits new Tunisia government, 2011, Page 1).

To ensure national unity, the politicians who are in the opposition parties if need be, as Anonymous (Tunisia pins hopes on new rulers, 2011) points out, have to join the government, “parties burned under president Bin Ali…have to be allowed to operate and the repressive laws of the past have to be swept away” (Page 22) and there should also be freedom of the media (“BBC Monitoring Middle East” (b), 2011). Having a democratic leader in power, this will be realized ion Tunisia.

How to Deploy Resources There is need to have equal distribution of resources among people and regions. This is a weakness that has been there in Tunisia causing some people to languish in poverty while others enjoy wealth. The Northern towns and the coastal ones have enjoyed more resources than other regions in the country during Bin Ali’s rule and this need to stop. The idea of a few wealthy elites having excessive control on the economy should cease.

The common trend that has been seen in Tunisia, while Bin Ali was in power, of the president together with his close family controlling the key sectors of the economy should cease if good leadership has to be realized. The specific needs of all the people in the country in all the regions should be identified.

This calls for a need to have a selfless leader who will put the needs of others ahead of his or her own. All the relevant information should be gathered about the needs of every region and various groups of people in the society. This will ensure there will be fair and equal distribution of resources in the country.

Assistance Needed from Foreign Powers The foreign countries need to give assistance to Tunisia in terms of investing in the country and providing foreign aid. The U.N needs to send advisors to the country to give the necessary assistance that may be needed by the government to break away from the unfavorable traditions of the last regime. More so, IMF and the World Bank and other “international lending agencies” are supposed to provide credit to the country to boost business activities, This will help in solving the problem of unemployment.

More so, Tunisia is supposed to be given foreign assistance so that the country can be able to upgrade their curricula in the education sector and this will play a major role in offering educational opportunities for the youth in the country. The local universities are supposed to receive funds from foreign countries and also partner with the foreign universities in order for them to improve the education system.

These attempts will play a major role in the provision of the crucial “economic and social underpinnings for the Tunisian economy” (Davis, 2011). Through this move, the country will also be able to send out a powerful signal or message to the rest of the “authoritarian states” in the Arab World that it is very possible to achieve democratic changes in this region, “an assertion that it suffers from a democracy deficit notwithstanding” (Davis, 2011, Par. 16).

Steps to be Taken by the Leader to Change Tunisia for Better As stated earlier, in order for Tunisia to realize positive change, it need to have a democratic leader. Such a leader will be ready and willing to deal with all the problems facing people in the country by taking necessary measures. A democratic leader does not have self-interest and puts the interests of his or her people before anything else.

He or she is ready to take other people’s suggestions. Following this, he will be able to ensure there is equal distribution of resources in the country without favoring particular regions or individuals. He or she will also put in place a proper democratic system where we have free and fair elections.

He will also be able to find out, from others, the best ways possible of creating job opportunities for his or her people in order to take the necessary measures. Where there is need, foreign assistance in all possible areas will be considered by the leader, especially in regard to foreign aid and investment in the country and improving the education sector.

The leader should facilitate power sharing. By a leader facilitating sharing of power, abuse of power is prevented. “The individuals who do not share power are free to project their insecurities, fears, hostility on others, and to further their interests at the expense of followers”( Hackman and Johnson, 2008, p.148).

The individuals who are powerful in most cases ignore the needs of other people. They pay less attention to identifying other people’s feelings. As a result, these people “are more likely to hold and act on harmful stereotypes and particularly to minority group members” (Hackman and Johnson, 2008, p.148). But on the contrary, the leaders who distribute power have a lower likelihood of abusing power, to take advantage of their followers, to overlook the needs of other people, or to stereotype.

List of References Amara, T. and Lowe C. (2011). Unity government bid to tackle Tunisian protests, The Herald, pp. 16

Anonymous. (1991). Zine of the times.The Economist, pp. 51.

Anonymous. (2011). Opposition party quits new Tunisia government. Chinadailycom.cn, pp. 1 – 2.

Anonymous, (2011). Tunisia foreign policy. Web.

Anonymous. (2011). Tunisia pins hopes on new rulers: Coalition government pledges huge reforms in bid to halt violence. Belfast Telegraph, pp. 22.

Anonymous. (2011). Tunisia: President flees anger. African Research Bulletin, 47 (12), 18931 – 18966.

Bassma, K. (2011). Tunisia’s democratic revolution and its actors. NOREF Report, pp. 1 – 4.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [a]. (2011). Tunisian leader promises his people freedom, democracy. BBC Wide World Monitoring. PP. 1 – 3.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [b]. (2011). Tunisian’s react to new media options. BBC Wide World Monitoring, pp. 1 – 2.

“BBC Monitoring Middle East” [c].(2010). Tunisia TV airs reaction to president speech over protests. BBC Wide World Monitoring. pp. 1

“BBC Monitoring Middle East”[d]. (2011).Writer says Tunisian-style uprising in Egypt possible but would not last. BBC Wide World Monitoring, pp. 1

Bibi, S. and Chatti, R. (2005). Trade liberalization and dynamic of poverty in Tunisia: A layered CGE microsimulation analysis .MPIA Working Paper, 2006 -2007, 132, 24 – 54.

Brom, S. (2011). The toppling of the Tunisian regime: Ramifications for the Arab World. ISSN Insight No. 238.

Chaabane, S. (1997). Ben Ali on the road to pluralism in Tunisia. Washington DC: American Educational Trust.

Cohen, R. (2011). The West must stand up for Tunisian democracy – Islamists and all. The International Herald Tribune, pp. 818

Daragahi, B. (2011). Tunisia: Ex-ruler’s finance under investigation. Los Angels Times, pp. 3.

Davis, E. (2011). Beyond the secular-Islamist divide in the Middle East politics. Web.

Deeb, M. (2002). Tunisian elections and election laws. Arab Law Compedium. Web.

Diaro, D. T. (2011, January 16). Toppled president flees Tunisia. Sunday Age (Melbourne, Australia) pp. 16.

Economist Intelligence Unit, (1997). Tunisia: Country profile, 1997 – 1998. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.

Hackman, M. Z. and Johnson, C. (2008). E. Leadership: A communication perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hermassi, A. (1995). “The rise and fall of the Islamic movement”. In Tunisia in L. Guazzonne (ed.), The Islamist Dilemma: The political role of Islamist movements in the contemporary Arab World: Ithaca, pp. 105 – 127.

King, (1998). “The political logic of economic reform.” In A. Layachi (ed.), Economic crisis and political change in North Africa. Connecticut CT: pp. 107 – 128.

Krichen, A. (1992). Le Syndrome Bourguiba. Tunis: Ceres Productions.

McDonald-Gibson, C. (2011). Tunisia in Turmoil as president flees from the anger of the dispossessed. The independent (London), pp. 4

Meyer-Resende, M. and O’grandy, P. (2011). What’s next for Tunisia? The International Herald Tribune, pp. 9

Moore, C. H. (1988). Tunisia and Bourguibisme: twenty years of crisis. Third World Quarterly, 10, 176 – 190.

Murphy, E. (1999). Economic and political change in Tunisia: from Bourguiba to Ben Ali. London: Macmillan.

Oluwafunminiyi, R. (2011). Nigeria: A lesson we must learn from Tunisia. African News, pp. 1

Reuters,(2011). Street protests seen continuing. Dubai Business, pp. 2.

Sadiki, L. (2003). Political liberalization in Bin Ali’s Tunisia: Façade democracy. Democratization, 9 (4), 122 – 141.

Sadiki, L. [a] (2002). Bin Ali’s Tunisia: Democracy by non-democratic means. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 29 (1), 57 – 78.

Sadiki, L.[b] (2002). The search for citizenship in Bin Al’s Tunisia: Democracy versus unity. Political Studies, 50, 497 – 513.

Samuel, H. (2011, February 28). Sarkozy sacks foreign minister after Tunisia row. The Daily Telegraph, pp. 16

Smith, M. (2011). Tunisia could trigger pro-democracy wave. The Scotsman, pp. 8

“United Nations – Alliance of Civilizations” (2011, Junuary 14). Tunisia’s president dissolves government. African News, pp. 1.

Ware, L. B. (1986). The role of the Tunisian military in the post-Bourguiba era. Middle East Journal, 39, 27 – 47.

Waltz, S. (1995). Human rights and reform: Changing the face of North Africa politics. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

Zisenwine, D. (2004). Tunisia’s elections: The long road to democracy. Tel Aviv Notes. No. 113. Web

Zisenwine, D. (2009). Tunisia’s elections: Marking time. Tel Aviv Notes. Web.

Zubaida, S. (1989). Islam, the people and the state: Essays on political ideas and movements in the Middle East. London: Routledge.

Racism in America after the Civil War up to 1900 Essay

Nursing Assignment Help The United States experienced a revolutionary time from the 1840s to 60s. During this time, Murrin et al assert, “that two of the main issues which remained prominent were slavery and women rights” (236). This paper highlights the abolitionist views on race and change since the civil war to the year 1900 and how they affected the American view on race.

Alcott as an author turned nurse serving in the civil war shows some mixed views on race in the extracts from one of her works at the hospital sketches. Alcott in her writing extracts in hospital sketches points out that despite the revolution, racial and sexist beliefs remained prevalent. The abolitionists of whom Alcott’s family was one were opposed to slavery. Alcott expresses the dilemma encountered by her. At the onset of the civil war, Alcott looks for employment as a nurse.

This is in breaking free from the traditional role defined by the sexist attitude at that time. Her family in the dialogue suggests to her a number of options. A suggestion by Tom to “go to nurse the soldiers” (Alcott Ch. 1) finally gets Alcott’s upbeat. There is an air of disillusion with a tone of racism even as Alcott considers this option where she resigns with the view that “the Periwinkles are a hopeful race” (Alcott Ch. 1).

The desire to offer her nursing results in an interview and a readiness to go to Washington at short notice. The response to Alcott’s application comes and it “brought a disappointment along with its good will and friendliness” (Alcott Ch. 1) informing her that her application in the Armory hospital was unsuccessful, but she has to fill “a much less desirable one at Hurly-burly house” (Alcott Ch. 1).

As the narrative builds up, Alcott portrays mixed views on the issue of race. Slavery as a product of racism was a major issue in the civil war, with the opponents of slavery as abolitionists. However, the tone in Alcott’s writing, including words like colored, Irishman, Englishman still indicates Alcott had mixed views on race. As an abolitionist, Alcott conflicts her view when she addresses some of her patients as “Irishman” (Alcott Ch. 3, par. 12).

The mixed views by Alcott concerning race also show up when she goes to the Senate chamber where she “found the speaker’s chair occupied by a colored gentleman” (Alcott Ch. 5, par. 14). At the nursing facility in Georgetown, Alcott while working becomes vocal about the deplorable conditions at the treatment facility. She is also aware of a part of the African American labor force at the facility that unfortunately has no option but to work under the deplorable conditions for long periods, which in itself is a form of slavery (Alcott Ch. 5).

Americans’ view on race from the time of the civil war to 1900 was most conspicuous during the ‘time of the reconstruction’ (Lecture notes- Reconstruction 1a). When the union forces finally won in the civil war, slavery as a product of race was unilaterally abolished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The southerners who were agriculturalist and heavily depended on slaves to work on their large farms suddenly found that there was no labor, since they could not retain slaves. So abstract was the idea of free labor that began in the north that when the federal government moved in during reconstruction after the war, the white southerners mooted racial based clandestine movements such as the Ku Klux Klan (Lecture notes-Reconstruction 6), which carried out violent attacks on black southerners.

The free blacks in these southern states had racial reactions against them and were not able to compete favorably for honorable jobs, eventually settling for menial ones with low wages that always tied them to a dependency arrangement with their masters or employers.

The American civil war was partly about the re-definition of the American constitution in line with every federal state’s policies. The eastern and northern states adopted certain inclinations that separated them from the southerners and westerners.

This re-definition also affected the labor market even as the executive arm of the union of federal states shifted towards the abolition of slavery as a product of race. Free labor became a political ideology for the northerners who now looked at the southerners who depended on slave labor as misplaced.

However, this ideology was carried on more as a political gain stay because there still existed racism in the northern states or well still the African American or colored to even up to 1900 and beyond. The notion of free labor from a northerner‘s perspective was therefore, more of a party ideology, the same one that saw the names of famous abolitionists like Lincoln assume presidential office.

Seemingly, the American view on race dramatically changed during this period of the civil war. It, nevertheless, assumed a different form after the civil war up to the year 1900 and beyond with aspects of racism remaining pronounced in attitudes. Today race remains a very sensitive issue in the American society being driven on one part by antagonist views and the protagonist ones on the other side.

Works Cited Alcott, Louise. Hospital sketches. 1863. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Racism in America after the Civil War up to 1900 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lecture notes (Feb. 14 to Feb. 25).

Murrin, John, Paul Johnson, James McPherson, Gary Gerstle, and Emily Rosenberg. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American people. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth publishing, 2003. Print.

[casanovaaggrev]