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Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society Compare and Contrast Essay

Table of Contents Introduction

Death According to the Hindu Society

Death According to the Chinese Society

Similarities in Their Views of Death

Differences in Their Views on Death

The Role of Culture in Shaping Society

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Humanity has made great strides in technological advancements, so great that extra caution is now being taken to ensure these advances do not turn out to be ticking time bombs that may go off sometime in the future. Unfortunately, none of these breakthroughs has managed to beat death.

It is inevitable. Having this in mind, different cultures have embraced it and tried to prepare themselves for whatever comes after death. This paper will analyse the cultural and social stances of the Chinese and Hindu from an anthropological standpoint.

Death According to the Hindu Society The Hindu believes in reincarnation. They believe that the soul (jiva) is immortal, and for this reason, they do not consider death a tragedy. They only acknowledge and appreciate the fact that the soul has moved on to another lifetime and arrange for a respectful send off.

Another key feature of the soul according to their culture is that it cannot be destroyed; they can only shift worlds in accordance to the characters they displayed while in the previous world, that if the dead was of good will and used to help the needy while alive, his/her soul proceeds to a world seen to be higher than its previous one.

This is to ensure that its faith keeps growing in intensity as it will be better nurtured in the watch of the Lord Krishna. The final stage for a soul is when it finally reaches the Lord Krishna. Here, it settles peacefully with him.

Death According to the Chinese Society Similar to the Hindu, the Chinese believe in the existence of souls in living human beings. These souls exist in form of a cosmos consisting of the Yin and Yang, a dark spirit and a light one.

They can be referred to using numerous terms depending on the context. “In the…bodily existence of the individual…are…two… polarities, a p’o soul (or anima) and a hun soul (animus). All during the life of the individual these two are in conflict, each striving for mastery. At death they separate and go different ways. The anima sinks to earth as kuei, a ghost-being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The animus rises and becomes shen, a spirit or god.” (Baynes 64). The anima (yin) is the spirit the Chinese claim to be the driver of all evil in humanity. It is the dark spirit left behind with the body after death. The yang (animus) on the other hand, is the spirit credited with all the good in humanity. This includes humility within the being, self actualization, honor and respect of one’s life, culture and ancestry.

Similarities in Their Views of Death In their view of death, the Hindu and Chinese share a lot in the way they treat their dead and how the deceased is supposed to carry on. They both regard death not as a tragedy, but as a necessary rite of passage in a soul’s lifetime. This is guided by belief that souls of human beings are released from the body at death.

The Chinese believe that once they have been released, the yin and yang head in separate ways to their respective destinations, where they keep on maintaining humanity’s well being. On the same, the Hindu believe that once the souls have been released after cremation, they go to a world of corrective suffering if they did wrong while alive, or one of more pure souls as it continues the ascension towards Krishna, the final destination.

Though mortal, two philosophers in Chinese anthropology, Russian-born Peter Ouspensky and Armenian Sage G. I. Gurdjieff (1877-1949) once pointed out that human beings could acquire immortality. This was received as very good news by all society, though the process was almost unachievable. It instead created a controversy as he indicated that all humanity was asleep. If only they could reach to their self conscious and wake up, they would achieve immortality.

This results in different levels; physical, emotional, and the intellectual level (way of the fakir), the emotional level (way of the monk), and the intellectual level (way of the yogi), following Fakir, Monk, and yogi’s criteria respectively. In the same context, Hindus believe in reincarnation. At cremation, 5 elements of being are released i.e. fire, water, air, earth and the jiva are released. The fifth element is the most important due to its immortality.

One’s death does not does not translate to ceasing in existence, as many situations determine the destiny of his/her jiva (soul). One is the state of mind during death.” if a person is thinking of money matters at the time of his death, very likely he will travel to the world of Vishnu and will be born as a merchant or a trader in his next birth.” (Jayaram Para 9).

Differences in Their Views on Death Just as much as they are similar in a number of situations, they contradict in ways more than a few. The Hindu believe that cremation is a ritual…intended to release the soul from its earthly existence (Mailer India Para 3).

We will write a custom Essay on Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is to grant it the ability to move to another world as it is destined to. Contrary to that belief, the Chinese believe in preservation of the body as it is destined to remain with the yin upon death. This allows the yang to advance to the world of the pure spirits.

The Chinese believe that death means the end of the person’s soul as the yin and yang will under no condition ever come together again. They are totally opposite spirits with contradicting roles in the beings they occupy. “In life, as in death, these souls were most indefinite, vague, and feeble.

After death, when this small troop of colorless spirits was dispersed, how could they possibly be gathered together and reformed into a unity? … (The body is unique, and serves as the dwelling place of all these spirits….” (Maspero 177). The Hindu on the other hand believe in the possibility of the individual coming back in another form, and even better off joining his/her own family lineage.

Moreover, the Chinese believe in the fact that beings have only on lifetime. Upon death, this lifetime comes to an end and that will be it. The soul elements disperse never to meet again, hence making it impossible to have multiple lifetimes. The opposite of this belief is heavily emphasized by the Hindu.

The soul only goes through this lifetime as part of its stages on a long term quest to achieve ultimate holiness and take a place beside the Lord Krishna. This promotion and demotion to different worlds is inevitable until the soul reaches its expected purity level.

The Role of Culture in Shaping Society Such culture as that of the Hindu and Chinese shapes greatly the way society reacts to certain phenomenon. Children nurtured in them tend to grow up respectful to their ancestry and of good ethical morals. By naming after the dead, these cultures keep in mind that the new born children in Hindu societies are reincarnations of their fore parents; hence they are brought up in utter discipline.

The Chinese often train their young ones to overcome temptations originating from the yin and to pay attention to their yang (conscience) as they try to reach out and guide them. Finally, with the thought that there is some form of severe punishment with the wrong people do on earth, people tend to try as much as possible to do more good than possible evil.

People believe in such after reading them from aged articles about the consequences of behaving otherwise. Such include the Chinese Oracle, the I Ching (pronounced yee jing) (Life after Death), and through such realizations as the Fourth Way. To add onto that, in times of calamities, individuals resort to seeking hope from such beliefs, and increase their belief when the situation settles down after their soul searching.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Everyone in the world belongs to a certain culture. No matter where from, cultures often work to the advantage of society. This is specially noted when they result in the establishment of strict behavioral discipline with the belief that the almighty one is watching. This is then take more seriously with the ever looming thought on everyone’s mind that judgment day gets closer with everyday gone by.

Works Cited Baynes, Cary. Wilhelm, Richard. The Secret of the Golden Flower. 1962. 64.

Jayaram, Victor. “Death and Afterlife in Hinduism.” London: Word press, 2010.

“Life after Death.” The Chinese after-life: Taoist approaches to immortality. Spiritual Book Store. W.Va, 2010

Mailer India. “Hindu Way of Life.” Mailer India. 08 October 2010 http://www.mailerindia.com/hindu/veda/index.php?death

Maspero, Henri. “Le Taoism.” Smith, Howard. Chinese Concepts of the Soul. Paris, 1950. 177.

Examples of Critical Thinking in Law Enforcement Research Paper

Nursing Assignment Help Homeland security officers risk their lives everyday for the protection of the general public from perceived and potential threats. From 1993 and beyond, the US has developed many security concerns.

For example, the US has been severally attacked through acts of terrorism such as the Oklahoma City bombings that happened in April 1995. Other potential threats still lurk, like the World trade centre bombings of 1995 and the September 11th attacks in New York.

The fight against terrorism has thereafter taken a very broad dimension whereby the citizens to be protected now include the whole world and the perceived threat to state security is also taking a global dimension (Vaughan-Williams, p. 105). These new developments therefore mean that laws and policies need to meet the new challenges of state security.

There has been a considerable degree of development in law enforcement to tackle newly perceived threats in state security and many proactive approaches have been adopted in the same regard. Although this progress is commendable, more can still be done to further improve state security from what it is.

This therefore means that homeland security officers need to “think outside the box” by employing critical thinking as their core pillar in changing most of their policies (Vaughan-Williams, p. 105). More creative security policies therefore need to be developed and new paradigms also need to be arrived at.

This study incorporates this thought by developing strategies that the US homeland security can use to improve the accomplishment of its security mandate. Core in this study will be the critical thinking model which will act as the ultimate model to the development of homeland security procedures.

The eight elements of thought in critical thinking will outline the model and provide a blueprint to the development of new policies and strategies. Comprehensively, this study advances the fact that critical thinking can be potentially used to improve homeland security services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Elements of Critical Thinking In any kind of human thought, there are eight elements of critical thinking that always take place. These eight elements are encompassed in the critical thinking model.

The basic elements are thinking for a purpose, raising questions, utilizing specific information, incorporating concepts, deriving inferences, making assumptions, deducing implications, and embodying a point of view (Philips, 2008). They outline the blueprint structure below:

Thinking for a Purpose Instead of sitting back and waiting for a specific calamity to happen (before action is taken), it is important to incorporate critical thought to avert such eventualities. Critical thinking can be incorporated as a progressive type of thinking that can possibly lead to the development of multiple scenarios.

Critical thinking as a proactive measure is one instrument law enforcement officers can use as a managerial technique. This approach is better than being reactive, which only leads to pointing out fingers at people or parties who are perceived as the cause for a security lapse.

With regards to homeland security, using critical thinking to develop tactical strategies and implementing them is just one side of the coin because a lot still needs to be done to come up with the right solution to security problems. Indeed, Philips (2008) notes that “Tactical Case Support Prevails, Yet Operational Strategic Analysis and Predictive Intelligence or Warning Intel- Ligence Is Non-Existent or Misunderstood” (p.3).

Critical thinking as a proactive measure enforces homeland security intelligence systems. Most organizations and institutions the world over have already accepted the importance of critical thinking as a standard operating requirement, more so, for massive or statewide operations like that of the homeland security.

Philips (2008) is of the opinion that ‘now that thinking about thinking is globally accepted as a critical business function, the most successful companies not only recognize, but also embrace, the behaviors and skills required’ (p. 4).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Examples of Critical Thinking in Law Enforcement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In developing a critical thinking approach for proactive purposes, it is important to note that critical thinking needs to incorporate previous experiences, should be team based, and should incorporate a formal structure for decision making. For example, when an officer is given a gun to practice shooting, he/she should consider possible scenarios before he/she can take a shot.

Proactive critical thinking uses the same principles. Critical thinking will therefore enable homeland security to gauge these possible scenarios and come up with prudent policies and possibly overcome situational biases.

Raising Questions Engaging critical thinking is aimed at overcoming biases, assumptions, myths and fallacies associated with security to come up with applicable and effective security policies. When incorporating critical thinking in national security procedures, it is imperative that officers should continuously question the agency’s strengths while constantly pushing to break their limits.

Critical thinking is primarily fueled by thinking and challenging perceived thoughts to come up with better policies. Philips (2008) attests that:

“Questions define variables, state factors, outline tasks, clarify issues and express problems. Complex questioning drives thought beyond what is superficial and historical. Asking questions forces everyone involved in the decision to express and challenge preconceived notions and assumptions” (p. 4).

Utilizing Specific Information Probing in critical thinking for the purpose of improving public safety warrants law enforcement officers to reevaluate their sources in terms of their validity, credibility and reliability.

More so, having an efficient homeland security agency is not only based on coming up with viable security policies and enforcing them but also engaging a high level critical thought and developing skills that would help contain security threats before they happen.

Incorporating Concepts Critical thinking also goes hand in hand with problem solving and can go a long way in solving homeland security’s perplexities because the countermeasures to be derived are developed at an optimum level of thinking. Moreover, critical thinking can help to rank policies or solutions developed in terms of their effectiveness and reliability in measuring up to the goals and objectives of the agency.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Examples of Critical Thinking in Law Enforcement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Deriving inferences One of the most prominent inferences derived from critical thinking is that in-depth questioning and analysis will not only ensure homeland security meets its desired goals and cut above mediocre solutions; it will ensure that a right solution to a given problem is arrived at.

This kind of scenario also breeds more ground for reassessment incase a given solution fails to work because more brainstorming can be engaged at a higher level of thought to come up with the precise solution to a given problem.

Making Assumptions Many researchers have often deduced assumptions that critical thinking is associated with an internal drive to think and break comfort zones of thought. Nonetheless, the truth is not far away from this hypothesis because critical thinking engages a high level engagement of cognitive skills, a high level of interpretation, explanation, evaluation and reasoning beyond conventional thought (Philip, 2008).

It is quite possible for homeland security officers to achieve these desirable levels of thought in a natural way if they engage critical thought. In fact, there is no difference from this thought development with the development of artistic, athletic and leadership skills.

Deducing implications Self reflection is a critical component that supplements critical thinking because it exposes the implications of critical thinking. At an advanced level, this level of critical thought is important to comprehend procedures and strategies together with monetary limitations and the likelihood of event occurrence.

With regard to homeland security, this thought process is important in assessing risks. Philip (2008 argues that:

“the use of critical thinking skills is purposeful — the self- regulatory review process results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based” (p. 5).

Embodying a Point Of View Proper inquiry cannot be made without the inclusion of critical thinking. Nonetheless, for this process to be entirely successful, it is important that homeland security officers take into consideration the evidence, method and context in which important security decisions are to be developed.

The thought process involved therefore goes beyond coming up with the most appropriate decisions because the process spills into engaging critical thinking to come up with better alternatives/decisions. State policies can therefore be better developed and be supported at all levels of governance.

Advantages of Critical Thinking for Homeland Security Critical thinking enables homeland security officers to create viable security policies and options in a flexible manner that enables them device new strategies that are effective and practical for implementation.

Homeland security officials can also develop and analyze information better than the contemporary way of using fallacies which often misguides their actions. In this manner, they can come up with sound and persuasive arguments for reviewing national security policies.

If critical thinking is adopted in a sound manner, homeland security officers can develop sound policies that will prove effective in today’s age of changing security variables while developing consensus building ability with regard to complex security issues and also learning to build a motivating spirit around ideas that are viable and out of the ordinary.

Critical thinking also enables officers to focus on important issues and avoid debates that waste time or which are not focused on supporting the agency’s mandate. In close relation, the homeland security agency can save a lot of time in reducing the frequency of meetings.

Critical thinking being comprehensive and participative in nature will also help motivate all officers to contribute to the overall decision making process of the agency. Techniques to foster comprehensive decisions will also be developed while coming up with different scenarios for perceived threat analysis. Public officers will also be empowered with decision making skills by incorporating new models for assessing decisions.

This new attitude will supersede the traditional and contemporary attitude purporting that there is only one right solution to every problem faced. In this regard, psychological barriers that always impede the adoption of better and efficient policies will be removed, creating an opportunity for fresh ideas.

In the same regard, critical thinking will stop most officials from making important decisions without analyzing important facts or whether new reforms are in line with the mandate of the agency and whether they conform to the goals and objectives of the organization.

Critical thinking will also help the agency identify the pros and cons associated with each course of action they undertake. Moreover, it will enable the agency get a firmer public approval because critical thinking is not only comprehensive but also incorporates feedback from relevant parties.

Critical thinking will also help the agency prioritize their actions through the determination of critical factors. Although critical thinking is highly advantageous, instances where its adoption fails will provide a good opportunity for new opportunities to be developed because failed strategies provide groundwork for new experiences.

This therefore means that sober decision making after factoring in all relevant variables is likely to change poorly functioning courses of action, lead to the adoption of decisions without looking back, and initiate a progress into the future with a lot of enthusiasm because past events are deemed history.

Conclusion Critical thinking skills are usually acquired and perfected with time. Perfection is usually achieved if individual actions are made in the context of critical thinking and practiced repetitively to create a new pattern of behavior. Critical thinking should especially be emphasized in law enforcement because of the sophisticated nature of security threats in today’s world.

Since homeland security’s core mandate is ensuring public safety, incorporating the experiences of knowledgeable individuals and incorporating new ideas developed from critical thinking (which are of an out of the box nature) is critical.

To eliminate the threat of terrorism by homeland security, the adoption of critical thinking skills has never been more important in the history of homeland security. More importantly, critical thinking skills should be strategically used in the operations of homeland security as a tool to develop different security scenarios.

Regardless of the level of threat posed by different security threats, it is important to counteract them and plan for their potentiality if they become real. For instance, the probability of an aeroplane crashing into the world trade centre should have been evaluated in terms of the number of planes that can potentially crash into the building and their potential effects.

Critical thinking also plays a fundamental role in establishing core ethical roles and determining the burden of legal responsibility because players are usually empowered to be more creative in their thought processes. Philips (2008) affirms that ‘everyone should take responsibility for their own personal creativity behaviors and skill development, whatever their role or level’ (p. 7).

This is especially true because as has been previously noted, terrorism has taken a whole new dimension, which warrants innovative strategies to solve such kind of problems through critical thinking, because homeland security has the responsibility of being proactive and analyzing the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attack.

This is still done even with the responsibility of tackling old kind of crimes and new kinds of security threats.

Through the adoption of creative thinking therefore, the agency will be able to overcome the challenge of dealing with new, perceived and emerging threats. From this analysis therefore, critical thinking proves to be an important tool homeland security could use to improve its services because it essentially helps them “think out of the box”.

References Philips, W. (2008). Decision-Making Skills That Encompass a Critical Thinking Orientation For Law Enforcement Professionals. Web.

Vaughan-Williams, N. (2009). Critical Security Studies: An Introduction. New York: Taylor

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