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Analysis of Acidic Contents of Vinegar | Experiment

Introduction Vinegar is an acetic liquid produced from the oxidation of ethanol (C2H5OH) by acetic acid bacteria. Astonishingly, traces of vinegar have been found in Egyptian urns dating as far back as 3000 BC. However today, vinegar is commercially available to the public where it is predominately used in food preparation, particularly in the process of pickling (preserving food), vinaigrettes and other salad dressings.
As elucidated above, vinegar is the product of the fermentation of ethanol. This fermentation involves the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols, carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts or bacteria, under anaerobic conditions. When alcoholic solutions containing ethanol less than 18% (CH3CH2OH) are oxidized by Acetobacter aceti (microorganism in the air) bacteria, vinegar (CH3CO2H) is produced.
In the above equation, [O] is the notation for any oxidizing agent, which thus denotes to the acetobacter aceti being used. Typically, the ethanoic acid content will vary from 5-8% in Table Vinegars to approximately 18% in Pickling Vinegars. Depending on what the vinegar is derived from, the acidity or ethanoic content of the vinegar varies, which has consequently manufactured numerous variety of Vinegar.
Table 1, below illustrates information regarding various types of ‘table vinegars’.
Type of Vinegar: Apple Cider
How it is Made: Made from the fermentation of cider or apple must.
% Acidity: 5-6

Type of Vinegar: Malt
How it is Made: Made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar
% Acidity: 5-10

Type of Vinegar: Wine (White, Red, Sherry, sparkling)
How it is Made: The ethanol in the wine is fermented by yeast, producing acetic acid.
% Acidity: 4-7

Type of Vinegar: Fruit
How it is Made: Often made from raspberries, blueberries or blackberries, where carbohydrates in the fruit (glucose) are split up to form molecules of ethanol and thus fermentation can take place.
% Acidity: 5-8
Table 1: information on various types of ‘table vinegars’
As mentioned, the production of vinegar yields its key and fundamental component, ethanoic acid (CH3COOH). Ethanoic acid or acetic acid, is a simple organic acid belonging to the group of carboxylic acids; organic compounds with a – COOH functional moiety. Acetic acid is considered a weak acid, in that it is monoprotic, partially dissociated acid in an aqueous solution.

In Figure 2 to the left, the hydrogen (H) atom in the carboxyl group (- COOH) in acetic acid usually is discharged as an H ion. The strength of an acid refers to its tendency to lose a proton. Therefore the discharging of this H ion (proton) as a result, gives an acetic acid its acidic property. As mentioned earlier, there a different types of vinegars, two of these being; white wine vinegar and apple cider vinegar.
White Wine Vinegar
White wine vinegar, is manufactured from allowing a distilled alcohol (i.e. any selected blend of white wine) to undergo acidic fermentation. Oxygen (O) combines with ethanol molecules, thus reducing its atomic content in the process. As a result of this distilled alcohol being oxidized, the chemical component, as mentioned changes, where the white wine converts to a sour, reasonably unpleasant vinegar.
Apple Cider Vinegar
Apple cider vinegar is created through a two step process involving micro-organisms. The first step involves the fermentation process, where the glucose (C6H1206) present in the juices of the apple juice is converted into ethanol by yeast. This is shown in figure 3 to the left and is further analysed in the appendix on Page sjhd.

In the second step; Acetobacter, a form of aerobic bacteria oxidizes the ethanol molecules formed by fermentation into acetic acid (apple cider vinegar) and a by-product of water. The equation involving the second step of producing apple-cider vinegar is shown below, in figure 4 to the right.
Quality Control Quality control is a process employed to ensure a certain level of quality in a product or service. It may entail any procedures a business/company deems necessary to provide the control and verification of a certain characteristic of a product or service. “The chief concept of quality control is to ensure that products, services or processes provided meet specific requirements and are dependable, satisfactory, and fiscally sound”.
In essence, it involves the examination of a product, service, or process for certain minimum levels of quality. Quality control attempts to identify products or services that do not meet the company’s and governments for that matter, specified standards of quality. Anything that may be purchased by the general public has undergone quality control. From the food we eat to the technology we use, quality control procedures have been carried out, in order to ensure the safety and efficiency of the product.
The quality control of vinegar regards to strength or pH of the vinegar. This therefore, refers to the ethanoic or acetic acid content in the vinegar. At the retail level, as mandated by the U.S. Food

Roles and Functions of Bones and Muscles

TAQ 1 – In a short account explain skeletal and bone function which aid carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both.
The human skeleton is made up of bones, these bones are composed of a mineral called calcium. Due to this mineral bone is a very hard substance, without the presence of calcium bone becomes soft and rubber like. There are two types of bone which are spongy and compact, spongy bone has lots of small spaces that are filled with marrow, this type of bone is found at the ends of long bones such as the femur. Compact bone is very densely compacted bone, this makes up the main shaft of the bones, this dense compaction is what gives them strength. Bone has different structures, these include the diaphysis which is the main shaft of the bone, the epiphysis which is the extremities of the bone, the articular cartilage which forms a joint and is a thin layer of cartilage which covers the epiphysis of the bone. The periosteum is the tough fibrous coating that covers that contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels that go into the bone, they also act as a point of attachment for ligaments and tendons. The marrow cavity is the space in between the bone which contains either yellow or red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow produces white blood cells whereas red blood marrow produces red blood cells. The skeletal system needs bone to be tough as the human body uses the skeleton as support. It also uses the skeleton in order to move, with the use of joints between the bones such as fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints. Without these bones and joints the body would not be capable of supporting itself or locomotion.
Word count: 271 words.
TAQ 2 – Joint table
Joint Type
Movement Range
Suture – Connection of plates on the cranium.
Fibrous – A fibrous joint is a fixed joint that has no join cavity, the bones are held together with fibrous connective tissue.
Vertebrae joints –Joints between the vertebrae in the spine.
Cartilaginous – A cartilaginous has no join cavity, the bones are held together with cartilage which is called intervertebral cartilage.
Flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation.
Knee – Joint between upper and lower leg.
Synovial – A synovial joint has a joint cavity between the two articulating bones, the surface of the bones is covered in articular cartilage which decreases friction between the bones, whilst absorbing the shock of impacts. The joint is surrounded by an articular capsule that has two layers. The outer layer consists of dense fibrous tissue, this is strong and prevents dislocation and the inner layer is the synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid which provides lubrication and nourishment for the articular cartilage. The knee joint has bursae which are structures that are lined with a synovial membrane which fills the bursae with fluid, this is to further lubricate the knee joint as there is persistent movement.
Flexion and extension.
Shoulder Joint
Synovial – Just like the knee joint the shoulder joint is a synovial joint, however it is described as a ball and socket joint and so it has a larger movement range than the knee joint.
Flexion, extension, hyperextension and rotation.
Word count: 232 words.
TAQ 3 – Part 1 – Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved in running and how are they involved? (200 words)
Part 2 – Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved at a computer in an office and how are they involved? (200 words)
Part 1:
The most common muscles used within the body in running are the quadriceps, the calf muscles, the hamstring and the gluteus maximus. Muscles are required to move the structure of the skeleton. The quadriceps are used to move the hip joint, which is a synovial ball and socket joint that starts the body moving off forwards, then the hamstring contracts which moves the lower leg, this happens while the calf muscle contracts which moves the ankle which in turn propels the body forward. All of the muscles that have contracted and have been used to propel the body forward relaxes and their antagonistic pair to that muscle group then contracts moving the leg back into the resting position whilst the other leg propels the body forward. The arms also play a large part in the momentum of running, this includes the pectoral muscles pulling the shoulders forward and the tricep muscles contracting and extending the forearms. The back muscles are involved in running by keeping the spine straight to maintain balance during the process of running. The back along with the abdominal muscles are using tonic fibres that are used as slow, involuntary movement that provides the body with balance.
Word count: 200 words.
Part 2:
Within the office, the human body itself is not moving very far in terms of distance therefore is not putting in a lot of effort to move the skeleton. The main muscles that are used at a computer within an office environment are the muscles within the fingers that are using twitch fibres that are providing voluntary movement to the fingers in order to press the keys to type on the computer. Additional twitch fibres are used within the tricep, bicep and the forearm muscles are used in order to move the mouse on the computer. The back muscles such as the trapezius and latissimus dorsi in conjunction with the abdominal muscles such as the transversus abdominus and the internal oblique muscles use tonic fibres which are slow moving involuntary fibres that are used in order to maintain balance for the body on the chair. Other muscles use twitch fibres in order to make voluntary movements such as the muscles in the eyes, for example the cillary muscle that moves the eyes in order for the person to either look at the screen, eyes or a piece of work on the desk.
Word count: 192 words.
TAQ 4 – Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how to they allow the muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)
Skeletal muscles are allowed to move with a voluntary, conscious, action. They do this by the brain sending an electrical signal to the spinal cord which in turn sends the motor neurons the same electrical signal. This electrical signal then causes the muscle specific muscle to contract and therefore movement is achieved. An example of this would be in the arm there is the bicep and the tricep muscles. If the arm needs to be bend (flexion) then the brain sends the electrical signal to the spinal cord which send the electrical signal to the motor neuron that controls the bicep muscle which makes the bicep muscle contract and therefore move the lower arm move towards the body. If the arm needs to be straightened the process is the same however the muscle that contracts is the tricep and the bicep relaxes as there is no electrical signal sent to the bicep, only the tricep. The skeletal muscles are made up with what is called twitch fibres (fast fibres) and is striated in appearance. The muscle is able to move the bones of the skeleton as there is a structure that is called tendons. Tendons are fibrous tissue that is both strong and flexible, this allows the muscle that contracts to move the bone without snapping or stretching which prevents dislocation of the joint. When the muscle contracts this shortens the distance between the tendon and the joint itself and therefore allows the arm to move towards the body. If you look at a joint that is extension as well as flexion such as the shoulder joint which is a ball and socket joint, this has several sets of tendons that allow the upper arm to move in several different directions with the contraction and relaxation of different muscle groups.
Word count: 300 words.
TAQ 5 – Movement requires muscles and all muscles have ‘antagonistic pairs’. Using this as a title write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism (200 words)
The contraction of a muscle to move a joint requires the use of muscle, tendons, ligaments and bones. The contraction of the muscle begins with motor neurons from the spinal cord which send out a signal to the muscle that the brain wants to contract, this electro-signal therefore contracts the corresponding muscle and therefore the joint moves in either a flexion or extension motion. With the example of a bicep and tricep muscle of the upper arm, if the signal is sent to move in the direction of flexion then the bicep muscle contracts which shortens the bicep muscle which pulls on the tendons of the bicep muscle on the humorous of the person therefore the upper arm moves in a flexion way. If the tricep didn’t relax at this point and contracted, i.e. shortened at the same time, then the upper arm couldn’t move in a flexion or extension way. Extension is the same but with the contraction of the tricep muscle and the relaxation of the bicep muscle. This is how the limbs of a person move, they use both pairs of antagonistic muscles in order to create movement.
Word count: 191 words.
Principals of Anatomy and Physiology, Tortora and Grabowski, 9th edition, 2000, Von Hoffman Press, pages 241 – 263.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles, Distance Learning Centre, 2014, All Pages.