These colonies claimed their independence from British colonization during the American Revolution which was viewed to be an Anglo-centric approach that shaped the history of the United States. The story that follows the American Revolution has created several distortions over what happened during the past two centuries (Taylor xv).
One of these distortions was that colonial historians could not differentiate the legitimate areas that fell under British colonization. These areas until recently have been identified to be the eastern seaboard of North America between Maine and Florida. Colonial history was therefore based on geographical areas that were seen to be relevant in explaining the history of America.
The second distortion was that many of the thirteen states that fell under British colonization were neglected when it came to compiling historical information. This neglect not only applied to the indigenous inhabitants of America but also to immigrants such as Africans and Europeans that were within the U.S. during that time. Other areas that were neglected included the eastern part of North America, Canada, the West Indies and Latin America (Taylor xv).
The British colonization of America began during the 16th and 17th century. These British colonialists were from different parts of England and they had different sets of beliefs when it came to religion, and culture. They also had different reasons for migrating to America with colonialists who settled in New England running away from the religious persecution that was taking place in England during that time.
The emigrants who settled in the South had moved from England in search of better land to conduct their farming activities and also take advantage of the unutilized land in the states that formed Chesapeake to create wealth for themselves (Rushforth and Mapp ix)
In 1700, the migration differences together with the different religious and cultural divisions led to the formation of Chesapeake and New England. Chesapeake or the Southern part of America was made of Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania while Northern part of America also known as New England was made up of Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut and Massachusetts (Taylor 139).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The New England colonialists also referred to as the Puritan separatists were focused on the community, religion, shared values and beliefs while the Chesapeake British colonialists were focused on creating wealth by growing tobacco, mining for gold and trading with the Native Americans for food or money (Taylor 160).
Madison’s distinction of the two areas as highlighted by Taylor was evidenced when he noted that the British colonialists had instituted a policy in 1617 referred to as the head right system that would enable other European immigrants to settle in Chesapeake by offering them highly valued land so that they could increase the wealth of the regions. The head right system was successful as it saw more British citizens migrating to America to practice agricultural activities and mining activities.
In 1620, 102 pilgrims who were escaping the religious mutiny going on in England landed in Massachusetts without a royal charter which means they were not representing King James I. They found Massachusetts to be undisputed because 90 percent of the native Indians had been wiped out by smallpox. As soon as they arrived, they created their own charter known as the Mayflower which allowed their colonization of Massachusetts to grow.
The Mayflower colony was later used as a model for future Puritan settlements in America by focusing on religion, shared values, culture, beliefs and work ethics. The cultural differences and contracting views that existed between these two groups served to separate not only the British colonists but also the Native Americans during that time (Rushforth and Mapp ix).
The Puritan Separatists who were running away from religious persecution in England created an intolerant environment in New England because they saw themselves to be more godly that the other British colonialists. Their religion which was mostly focused on the family was characterized by a lot of piety with one clergyman for every 600 Puritans (Taylor 188).
The religion in the Chesapeake area was less severe with the Anglican Church being the main predominant force in the area. In terms of economy, the Chesapeake economy was mostly focused on the growth and sale of tobacco as well as slave trade and mining. The slave trade relied heavily on the tobacco plantations which needed many workers to plant and harvest the commodity (Taylor 140).
The tobacco industry raised enough money to import and export more slave workers who would be used in the plantation fields thereby increasing the production of tobacco. These activities saw an increase in the economy of Chesapeake which was not the same case for New England.
We will write a custom Essay on American History During the Colonial Times specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economy mostly focused on shipbuilding, fishing and farming which was done on a small scale. Since the New England religion mostly focused on family and not economic gain, the amount of farming done was enough to feed one’s family. There were many family owned farms that created a secure household competency (Taylor 140). The New Englanders religious beliefs prevented them from hiring outside help or using slaves for economic purposes.
Whatever surplus the family’s garnered from their farming activities saw the wealth being distributed equally amongst the farmers and tradesmen living in the region. Because New England had a decentralized system of governance, the Chesapeake colonialists as well as the American Natives despised the New Englanders by referring to their system of governance as republicanism (Taylor 161).
According to Ulrich, the role of women in New England was divided into that of a mother, neighbor, mistress, heroine, Christian, housewife and deputy husband. These roles were described according to what effect they had on the New England society and the church.
The New England male community treated its female population in both a positive and negative way during the period of 1650 to 1750 although the negative treatment of women was more common (Ulrich 6). The Puritan laws outlined by the New England religious doctrines required women to submit to their husbands without question. When two people were married under New England law, they became one person under the law.
The legal existence of the woman was therefore terminated during the course of the marriage because her legal existence had become incorporated into that of the husband. Women who were married under New England law could not do anything without the permission of the husband (Ulrich 7). Women Chesapeake were viewed differently and treated with respect when compared to those in New England.
Works Cited Rushforth, Brett and Paul Mapp. Colonial North America and the Atlantic World. London: Pearson Prentice Hall. 2009.
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies: the settling of North America. New York: Penguin.
Publishers. 2001. Ulrich, Laurel. Good wives. New York: Vintage Books. 1991.
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Concepts of Development of Jewish Culture Compare and Contrast Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Abraham and the Patriarchs
Moses and the Covenant
Introduction Like any other people in the world, the Jewish people are an ethnoreligious society that has its own way of life in addition to religious confederacy. These people have their own practices and beliefs that form their way of life-culture.
Thus, it is very difficult to differentiate between traditional culture of the Jewish people and that of Jewish as a religion. These people live in every continent of the world; have witnessed the development of cultural phenomena, Jewish in nature and not exclusively religious.
The Jewish culture incorporates factors from Judaism, and others from the interactions among the Jews. Additionally, the social and cultural dynamics of the Jewish communities are integral in forming this culture, rather than religion. Perhaps this is the reason why the Jewish culture varies from one community to another due to social and cultural backgrounds. History asserts that over the past 2000 years, there has been no unanimity of this culture among communities responsible.
Different types of Jewish people live all over the world due to dispersion. For instance, while the Ashkenazi Jews inhabited Europe, the Sephardi Jews live in regions of North Africa and Turkey. Additionally, there are also Mizrahi Jews mainly found in Arab countries. The paper examines the gradual development of the Jewish culture and the contract of the Jewish Culture among different Jewish communities (Tracey p.1).
Abraham and the Patriarchs Many historians tell the story of the Jewish people from the religious viewpoint. It all started from the creation of humanity in what many scholars term, Biblical Judaism. After creation, God instituted succeeding covenants with humanity through Adam, Noah and then Abraham.
The fourth covenant involved the setting of the Ten Commandments through Moses aimed at separating the Hebrews from those who went contrary to God’s wish. Each time they went astray, God sent a warning to them through prophets and other invading agents aimed at bringing them back to His ordinance.
Different history writers have written numerous articles explaining the development of Judaism. One article that illustrates the origin of the Jewish culture and its development is the “geniza”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article describes the debate comprising of wise men from Christian, Jewish and Muslim religious backgrounds that took place over 1000 years ago. Notably, the three groups agree that the all-powerful God formed the world in seven days.
Nevertheless, they differed when it came to the idea on development of the Jewish culture. Many historians believe that Abraham was the father of Jewish culture. Although Abraham never discovered his creator, God Himself called him and made a covenant with him. God established a covenant with Abraham and his descendants of moving out of Egypt to enter the Promised Land of Canaan (Paul pp. 2-15).
Moses and the Covenant According to historians, a great famine caused the migration of Hebrews into Egypt. Here, idolatry and all-manner despicable acts enslaved them hence separating them form their God. In order to reclaim the Hebrews back, God sent plagues and Moses to drive them out of Egypt. Earlier on, God had established a covenant with mosses on Mount Sinai and identified a new nation. This was just the beginning of the development of the Jewish culture. However, the history and development of this culture did not end at Mount Sinai.
Many historians assert that it all started from Mount Sinai. Through many successive years, the auditions and triumphs of the Jewish people led to the development of Jewish religion, a religion characterized by widespread philosophical workings and vast literature.
For instance, the gradual development of the Jewish culture saw incorporation of traditional experiences together with religious doctrines to create a stalwart religion. The development of the Jewish culture comprises of layers of laws and holidays.
To begin with, the first layer comprises of laws and holidays as written in the Pentateuch. These are the fundamental laws given by God Himself- Ten Commandments illustrating how the Jews observed and shall observe the Passover, the Sabbath and how they should be prepared for the Day of Atonement.
The second layer of holidays and laws involves those obtained or developed between two periods, that is, the first temple and the commencement of the second temple characterized by the observation of various laws from Sabbath to cleanliness to diet. Thus, laws were the basis of the development of the Jewish culture (Lendering p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Concepts of Development of Jewish Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion By the end of the second temple, the Jews at the diaspora had dispersed and written so much literature on the laws governing their culture.
Consequently, the Jews started observing a thrice format daily prayer, and the obliteration of the second temple ensued into the prime figure of worship. However, the dispersion of the Jews in different places around the world brought detachments and disconnections that led to variation of Jewish laws.
Some groups abrogated the laws to match their way of life. In addition, the ability of different customs and mentalities of people neighboring Jewish people to gain recognition is high, making it vulnerable to further sophistication and development. However, the Jewish people are currently reuniting their contradictory aspects in order to form a finer religion as opposed to culture.
Works Cited Lendering, Jona. The Jewish diaspora: Rome. (n.d). Web.
Paul, Johnson. A History of the Jews. New York: HarperCollins.1988. Print.
Tracey, Rich. Judaism 101. 2008. Web.