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Airspace for Drones in Canada

Executive Summary
In order to response the commercial use of drones, I have summarized the information of drones and airspace in Canada. The purpose of the paper was to determine the feasibility of opening airspace for drones in Canada. The classification of drones determines the maximum of attitude, endurance and the maximum of range. To solve the traffic problem of drones, I chose an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) as the controller. Also, I summarized the benefits and risks of opening airspace for drones in Canada.
List of Tables and Figures
Tables
Table 1: Classification of drones by size …………………………………………………….….
Table 2: Classification of drones by performance parameters ………………………………….
Figures
Figure 1: Photo of a delivery drone……………………………………………………………….i
Figure 2: Simplified structural model of the UTM System of Systems ………………………….

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………….. ii
Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………………… iii
List of Tables and Figures ………………………………………………………………….….. iv
1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………….……………… 1
2. Classification of drones ……………………………………………………….……..……… 2
2.1. Classification of drones by size ………………………………………….…….……… 2
2.2. Classification of drones by performance …………………………..…….…….……… 3
3. Flight System ………………………………………………………………………………… 4
3.1. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
3.2. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
3.3. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
3. Traffic Management ……………………………………..…………………………………… 4
3.4. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
3.5. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
3.6. A ………………………………………………………………………….……..……… 5
4. Benefits and Risks of opening airspace for drones …………………………………………… 5
4.1. A
4.2. B
4.3. C
5. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….……..…….…… 5
6. Glossary ………………………………………………………………….……..……….…… 5
7. References ………………………………………………………………….………..…….… 5

1. Introduction
The technological development causes drones are popular in Canada. Due to the reduces cost and different designs of drones, drones can be used for various function at different places. Meanwhile, this also causes Canadian airspace facing a new challenge. The conventional aircrafts and drones using the same airspace expose to risk of safety. In order to protect the conventional aircrafts and people on the ground, the concept of unmanned aircraft system traffic management (UTM) has been created. This paper summarizes the classification of drones and the drone flight system. The UTM plays an important role to fulfill the safety flying with drones.
Drones fly in Canadian airspace every day. They are not the only one type of object using airspace. The Canada air traffic controlled 5.5 million conventional aircraft movements in 2016. Since January 2019, the Transport Canada published new rules for flying drones in Canada. The rules require a pilot get a drone pilot certificate for the drones which the weight between 250 grams (g) and 25 kilograms (g). It protects the life and properties on the ground. But these rules cannot apply for the future and current applications of drones which controlled not by human.
One of the American company Amazon finished their tests for using drones to delivery their products to consumers. Their drones controlled by automatic because these drones require to fly a long distance that is out of human control range. The new rules of drones do not include these applications, so this causes people and companies using drone for these applications illegally and limits the development of drone.
In England, there was a drone incident in December 2018. The drone flied into Gatwick Airport and interfered the movements of conventional aircraft. This interference affected 140,000 passengers and 1,000 flights. It shows that Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) need to manage the traffic of airspace for drones. A drone can cause an aircraft crush. There is a major risk of drones if Transport Canada do not modify the current rules.
This document provides the information of the drone flight system and navigation system to make drones more safety. In order to avoid a drone flying inside an area that restricts drones, this paper include the useful equipment to stop the drone flying. Also, this paper provides the method for drones flying into airspace more safety after open the airspace.
2. Traffic Management
Air Traffic Management (ATM) and Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) are the most important parts of airspace. The main function of ATM and UTM are prevention of aviation accidents. ATM and UTM plays the role of police in order to manage the order of the airspace. The difference between ATM and UTM is that ATM manages the order of the conventional aircrafts, while UTM manages the order of unmanned aircraft. Both traffic managements are connected due to overlapping airspace. Researcher created the UTM that is seems as ATM but UTM has an additional feature which is an authority to control the unmanned aircraft [2].
2.1 System of Air Traffic Management
UTM is connected to night components (MET, AIS, SUR, NAV, ATM, UAS/RPAS, REG, AUTH and COM). These components help UTM to manage the order of airspace.
Fig. 2 Simplified structural model of the UTM System of Systems
Meteorological infrastructure (MET) provides the information of weather. MET determines the weather is suitable for drone flying. Automatic Identification System Infrastructure (AIS) is an automatic tracking system. AIS identifies the type of drones and report the position of drones. Surveillance Infrastructure (SUR) use the radars to track the position of drones. Navigation Infrastructure (NAV) provides the position information to drones. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System(s) (UAS) / Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS) is drones’ flight control system. UAS / RPAS controls the flight path using the data from NAV. Record Systems (REG) records the data of UAS / RPAS. The function is same as black box. Authority / State Information Systems (AUTH) has a highest authority to control the flight control system of a drone [2]. It avoids the drone flying into restricted area. Communication Infrastructure (COM) is a transmitter and receiver to communicate with the drones. The principle of UTM ensure the safety of the conventional aircrafts and drones that is no incident or accident with aircrafts [3].
3. Classification of drones
The classification of drones is significant in the airspace. It can help UTM to predict the performance of drones. For the conventional aircrafts, pilots need to know the information of aircraft before their flights because they need to fill the flight plan. This information is about the flight path, the weight of the aircraft and the model of aircraft. The UTM also needs to know this information. According to the rules in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), drone pilots must have a valid drone pilot certificate if the drone is not less than 250 grams that is the heavy drones impact the safety of public [4].
3.1 Classification of drones by size
The size of drones relates to the weight of drone. Drones are divided into four groups (Extra small drones, small drones, medium drones and large drones) [Table 1]. Extra small drones are about 10 grams. The drone pilot does not require a valid drone pilot certificate for this type of drones.
Table 1: Classification of drones by size [2]
Type
Magnitude
Load
Additional information
Extra small drones
~ centimeters
~ 10 grams
Nano, micro, mini drone
Small drones
~ 10 centimeters
~ kilograms
In common terms they are known as drones
Medium drones
~ meters
~ 10 kilograms
Launch of vehicles by human power – by hand – cannot be achieved.
They are not relevant from air traffic control aspect, because they can be operated
only in separated airspace with transponders.
Large drones
~ 10 meters
~ 100 kilograms
They are not relevant from air traffic control aspect, because they can be operated
only in separated airspace with transponders.

3.2 Classification of drones by performance
The performance of drones relates to the maximum attitude of drone. Drones are divided into three groups (Low performance drones, medium-performance drones and high-performance drones) [Table 2].
Table 2: Classification of drones by performance parameters [2]
Performance level
Operational altitude
Payload
Endurance
Range
Low performance drone
Low altitude
~ 10 meters
~ gram
~ minutes
~ 100 meters
Medium performance drone
~ 10 – 100 meters
~ (1-5) kg
~ 10 minutes
~ km
~ 100 meters
~ (1-10) kg
~ 30 minutes
~ 10 km
High performance drone
medium altitude (~ 1-10 km)
~ 10 kg
~ hours
~ 100 km
high altitude (~ 10-30 km)
~ 100 kg
~ 10 hours
~ 1000 km
3.3 Classification of drones by flight control system
Glossary
AIS: Automatic Identification System Infrastructure
ATM: Air Traffic Management
AUTH: Authority / State Information Systems
CARs: Canadian Aviation Regulations
COM: Communication Infrastructure
MET: Meteorological Infrastructure
NAV: Navigation Infrastructure
REG: Record Systems
RPAS: Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems
SUR: Surveillance Infrastructure
UAS: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System(s)
UAV: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UTM: Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management
References
[1] drone delivery (2017). Amazon patent details the scary future of drone delivery [Online image]. Available: https://thenextweb.com/tech/2017/08/24/amazon-patent-details-the-scary-future-of-drone-delivery/
[2] Z. Sándor, “Challenges Caused by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in the Air Traffic Management,” Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 96–105, Sep. 2017.
[3] A. Vidovi?, T. Mihetec, B. Wang, and I. Štimac, “Operations Of Drones In Controlled Airspace In Europe,” International Journal For Traffic And Transport Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 38–52, Jan. 2019.
[4] Transport Canada, “Flying your drone safely and legally,” Transport Canada, 30-May-2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.tc.gc.ca/en/services/aviation/drone-safety/flying-drone-safely-legally.html.
Scholar
Challenges Caused by the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in the Air Traffic Management
Fundamental Concepts of Reactive Control for Autonomous Drones
Operations of Drones in Controlled Airspace in Europe
Toward a Secure Drone System Flying With Real-Time Homomorphic Authenticated Encryption
There’s No Place Like Home: Visual Teach and Repeat for Emergency Return of Multirotor UAVs During GPS Failure
The regulation of civilian drones’ impacts on public safety
Impact of drone delivery on sustainability and cost: Realizing the UAV potential through vehicle routing optimization
Application of hierarchical facility location problem for optimization of a drone delivery system: a case study of Amazon prime air in the city of San Francisco

Non-scholar
https://www.tc.gc.ca/en/services/aviation/drone-safety/flying-drone-safely-legally.html
https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/170620/dq170620f-eng.htm
https://www.tc.gc.ca/en/services/aviation/drone-safety/new-rules-drones.html

Photo
[001]
https://thenextweb.com/tech/2017/08/24/amazon-patent-details-the-scary-future-of-drone-delivery/

Women in Aviation: The Impact of the Past and the Hope for the Future

Abstract
The purpose of this research paper is to dissect and evaluate the role women have played in aviation from the earliest stages of flight to today’s current status. The rise of aviation is, more often than not, always accredited to men, like the Wright Brothers, without the slightest regard for the role women had a part of. It wasn’t until the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor that the rise of women in the aviation industry came to light. The roles and responsibilities men possessed during wartime were eagerly passed to the women surrounding them. As if the additional duties weren’t enough, these women faced major challenges, such as sexism, cultural stereotypes, and physical limitations, which hindered their growth within the industry. Such setbacks are still present and often ignored in today’s aviation society, especially within commercial and military flight. As fast paced as the aviation sector grows, the percentage of women continues to increase at a stagnant rate in comparison to then men within the field. Over the years an abundance of supportive organizations have provided the resources to encourage young women to enter the aviation industry. With these rising opportunities, it’s safe to say that the future of flight is female.
Keywords: evaluate, aviation, sexism, roles, responsibilities
Women in Aviation: The Impact of the Past and the Hope for the Future
December 17, 1903 has become the universally known day of aviation taking flight, literally. That was the day the Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, made history by flying a self-propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft a distance of one hundred and twenty feet in twenty two seconds. The first successful flight used a combination of gasoline power and propeller controls, which allowed the brothers to make a total of four flights that day, increasing distance and time with every flight. Little did the Wright Brothers know that, in just twenty two seconds, the era of aerial transportation and the competition to create bigger and better aircraft would begin.
The birth of aviation captivated dedicated men that spent all of their time and effort designing a diverse range of aircraft models and finding new ways to use them. During this time, women also showed considerable interest in the development of aviation by learning, participating, and enjoying every experience that came their way. Unfortunately, these same intrigued women faced a variety of challenges prohibiting them from succeeding in any career within the aviation industry.
In this day and age, women choosing to pursue careers within aviation isn’t as limiting as it has been in the past, but still faces certain setbacks that hinders their full potential in the industry. Resources like supporting organizations and scholarships have promoted increased female participation within aviation but still a list of questions and concerns arise. How have women in aviation, to include mechanics, pilots, etc., impacted the development of the booming industry? Why is it that the rate of female participation within the field continues to be slow? What is being done to counteract this problem? How are these concerns going to affect the future of aviation for women?
The Rise of Women in Aviation
Early 1900s
The Wright Brothers are credited for the first machine-powered flight, but their sister, Katharine Wright, is rarely recognized for her contributions to the flying invention. Katharine was the one that sought out help from teachers willing to entertain her brothers’ experiments. Although it was years later until she finally started flying with her brothers, she was well equipped with the mechanics of their creations. In addition to supporting her brothers emotionally, she funded a large portion of their experiments with her savings. Katharine is considered to be the silent partner of the Wright Brothers.
An early aviation pioneer that became the world’s first licensed female pilot in 1910 was Raymonde de Laroche. She is also credited as the first woman to fly a powered, heavier-than-air plane whilst setting new records for distance and altitude, 201 miles and 15,700 feet respectively. During World War I, de Laroche served as a military chauffeur for officers on the front line. She later tried to achieve her goal of becoming the first female test pilot which regrettably led to her death after crashing upon landing.
Aviation culture shifted after World War I when both men and women were given the opportunity to purchase planes that were decommissioned or created out of surplus. This freedom created self-proclaimed pilots and daredevils that performed dangerous stunts and sparked the beginning of air races and record-breaking flying contests. In the late 1920s women were in the prime working as test pilots or stuntwomen. Female aviators such as Pheobe Fairgrave, Ethel Dare, and Pancho Barnes made recording setting flights involving parachute drops and walking from one plane to another.
The competition of holding woman’s flying records for speed and altitude encouraged other women to participate. Aviators like Amelia Earhart, Louise Thaden, Harriet Quimby, and Blanche Scott were constantly challenging other women and always striving for better flights. Earhart, one of the more famous female aviators in history, taught students at Purdue University which was one of the few colleges within the states that offered aviation classes to women. In addition to urging young woman to become pilots, Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic by herself. Louise Thaden won the first women only race, the Women’s Air Derby (Powder Puff Derby), which was held as a part of the 1929 National Air Races. Harriet Quimby became the US’ first licensed female pilot and Blanch Scott was known for her daredevil stunts and mid-air circuses.
Impact of Pearl Harbor
Before the start of World War II, the issue of a woman’s place in the armed forces was always up for debate. The United States military had the pre-conceived notion that if a woman were to enlist, they would be better suited to fulfill non-combat jobs like nurses, mechanics, drivers, and journalists—just to name a few. It wasn’t until December 7, 1941, that the reality of a woman’s wartime role emerged with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After the attack, the sons, fathers, and brothers went off to support the war effort, and left the women behind to hold down the fort, both at home and in uniform. Though reluctant to enter the war, the US quickly rose to the occasion and committed to use all valuable assets, to include women. As the men fought downrange, the women proceeded to replace their men in defense plants and even volunteer for other war-related organizations.
Nearly 350,000 women volunteered for various women’s auxiliary groups working mostly office and clerical jobs. Some other jobs included driving trucks, repairing airplanes, working as laboratory technicians, rigging parachutes, operating radios, analyzing photographs, test-flying recently repair aircraft, and even training anti-aircraft artillery gunners by acting as flying target. About six thousand women like Patricia W. Malone taught male pilots how to read instruments and navigate the Link Trainer, a flight simulator. Everyday opportunities arose for these hardworking women like getting to work as scientists, analysts, and engineers for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Inevitably, sixteen of these brave women were killed from enemy fire and sixty-eight more were captures as Prisoners of War (POWs). Nearly two-thousand combat nurses were award merit decorations, Bronze Stars, and Purple Hearts for their efforts and sacrifices during wartime.
Challenges and Setbacks
At the end of the war, most of the women, most of whom actually wanted to stay in the industry, were not able to due to the men returning from war to go back to their day jobs. This was just the start of the stream of setbacks women faced during this time.
References
Douglas, Deborah G. 1990. “United States Women in Aviation, 1940-1985.” Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space. 1–142. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.01977245.7.1
Earhart, A. 1977. The Fun of It: Random Records of My Own Flying and of Women in Aviation. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=OVeXAwAAQBAJ

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