Transaction cost:- The most essential advantage connected with changing to a single currency was the removal of the need to change currency . Savings are very large because of the elimination of the transaction cost connected to the exchanging currency, the taxes for countries that have most of the exports to the European counties only. The significant decrease in the cost of exports will be most useful for small scale business to achieve economies of scale. “By switching to the euro, members of the EMU were expected to save as much as $30 billion a year (The Euro, the European, pp. 154)”, :- Daniel Portone.
Investment:- As there is low transaction cost there is large amount of investment because companies now this is one of the most important decreases in the cross border investment. This has lead to large cross border investment like in France the foreign direct investment has increased from 12% to 18%. The disappearance of the cost of transaction and the introduction of the common currency makes the money market deeper and integrated. The major financial institutes are being listed in the Euro, which in turn attracts potential investors to gain confidence in different EU financial markets . The market combination provides various links to dilute the risk in the EMU.
“If we assume that the French and German bond and equity markets are fully integrated, it will facilitate the adjustment to asymmetric shocks (see Figure 1). When France is hit by a negative shock, companies there make losses and that drives down stock prices of these companies.”- – Jean Monnet.which bring the profit to germen investors ,thus the boom in germany brings profit to French . ” A very similar mechanism also works through the fully integrated bond market”, – Jean Monnet
Exchange rate stability (Common Currency):- Common currency generates a platform to judge the price relationship, “make price difference more noticeable and helps to equalise it across borders.”- Jean Monnet .Along with the removal of the need to change currency, there is also problem with the volatility of the exchange rates also. When the rate fluctuates it also affects the profitability of the company and increasing the risk which in turn decreases the net investment into the country. Thus to stabilise the situation it is useful for a company to enter in a currency union. “.. having the same currency can boost trade by a factor of three. Canada again provides the example : inspire of close proximity to the US and similarities in culture , Canadian provinces trade twelve to twenty times more amongst themselves than with the US states” The common currency provides the member nation to compare the prices efficiently . “The poor regions would never become richer simply by devaluing its currency repeatedly. On the contrary the associated high inflation would introduce economic distortion and reduce its average real income”, :- Professor Alec Chrystal
Free movement of workers :- Free mobility area of the labour helps the countries to prevent from an asymmetric shock which is the result of inflation in one country A and a recession in country B . If there is mobility of labour ie they can move freely this will lead to release the inflation in A and increasing employment of the people in B. “For example, workers from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand account for 10 percent of the employment in Singapore. Emigration has been as much as 2 percent of the labor force of the sending countries”- (http://www.adb.org/Documents/ERD/Working_Papers/WP012.pdf )
The prevention of competitive devaluations and speculation:- The Monetary unions protect the member countries damaging effect of competitive devaluation of the currency which may lead to steeling the business of the other . But is any country which try to do this with the monetary unions has an adverse effect of high inflation.
Other advantages of joining the currency union are as follows. The country gets an access to larger markets and thus increasing the overall income of the country. It also reduces the effect of shocks from exterior instability to an individual country. Joining the currency union is very important for those countries which lack internal control . This allows free movement of goods and sevices without any obstacles. This also keeps peace between the nation as they now that they are all interdependent on each other . the one of the most important advantage is it it will increase the tourism in the countries as there is easy movement and no currency changes .
Disadvantages of currency union Loss of sovereignty: – This means that country adopting the Common currency has to give up the Monetary policies to the body who is controlling the union . like in the case of European union all the 12 countries had to give up their monetary rights to the European central bank with decides the monetary policies for all the nation . Its most biggest disadvantages come during the crisis when the situation are different in all the different countries and cannot be handled in the same way. Like in a case of sudden increase in the unemployment the governments income will decrease as taxes are not paid so the government will have to increase the taxes which will lead to further disaster decrease in the interest rates during the crisis will help some but will adversely affect the other . So it is very difficult to be in an currency union . “In the United States, Texas could not avoid a recession in the wake of the 1986 oil price fall, whereas demand for Sterling changed in the light of the new oil price, adjusting the exchange rate downwards.”- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm
Cost of adopting the new currency: – The adopting of new currency will have a very huge cost to the economy. These are like “Such changes include educating customers, changing labels, and training staff, changing computer software and adjusting tills.”- http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm “Lower inflation and reduced transactions costs of trade provide gains, while the inability to respond to idiosyncratic asymmetric shocks generate losses”.:- Andrew K. Rose1
New negative cross-border spillovers of fiscal policy:- “a national fiscal expansion raises the demand for savings, ceteris paribus pushing up the long-run interest rate and discouraging investment. In an integrated capital market strengthened by monetary unification, this effect will spread to other countries, imposing a negative externality. A monetary union may also generate new negative spillovers. An increase in domestic government purchases, in affecting the demand for domestic products, raises local inflation, thereby pushing up average euro-area inflation and forcing the ECB to contract monetary policy for the entire area. Further, a national fiscal expansion may cause an appreciation of the euro, thereby undermining the external competitive position of all union members.”- (http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/4305)
The other disadvantages of the Monetary unions are as follows, the one of the biggest disadvantage is the difference in languages with in turn leads to the decrease in the mobility of labour “Language in Europe is a huge barrier to labour force mobility. This may lead to pockets of deeply depressed areas in which people cannot find work” (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/single_currency/25081.stm.). The countries in the currency union also lose the ability to cope with the external shocks. It have to leave it on itself so be rectified with in today’s time is very difficult.
Should Britain join euro Britain is one of the biggest financial hub in the world, which is also the worlds largest hub for currency trading . Britain does the maximum currency trading . Britain from the beginning has been independent and has been flourishing . But it was a real shock to the Britain when EMU was formed and the biggest threat . After reading the list of journals , it is very difficult to say whether or not Britain should join the Euro or not . There are many arguments and thoughts over it and would like to bring them forward to you .
I would first like to bring forward all the positive aspects of the Britain joining the euro with the real facts about it . There has been a significant decrease in foreign direct investment in Britain after the formation of the EMU . “Britain’s share of the foreign direct investment coming into Europe has fallen by a half (see Table 3). In 2001 the Netherlands received more of this investment than Britain.”:- Richard Layard, Willem Buiter, Christopher Huhne, Will Hutton,
London as mentioned is a important financial hub, but “the pound has little to do with it”. Where most of the trading is done mostly in dollars in most of the transaction , but the euro outranked the pound ,where euro was involved in 41% and pound in just 24 % of the transactions (as seen in the table 1). The other thing is that this financial centre employ about 1,50,000 people creating £10-£15billion annual invisible exports . “If the UK exercises its opt-out, long-term damage would be inflicted on the City, which will ultimately lose its pre-eminence to Frankfurt or even Paris, in part because trading in the Euro will be focused within its area of operation”:- Brian Burkitt
The continues increase in the instability will decrease the attractiveness of Britain has as a destination of capital flow. “The stock of euro-denominated corporate bonds nearly tripled between 1998 and 2001, to 1.2 trillion Euros”. This clearly shows the euro-zone has reconstructed its business which has increased the annual cross border foreign direct investment by 4 fold. Britain almost has its 50% of its trade with the EMU, which is shown in table 2, so it would be better for the UK to join the euro and thus reduce its cost of import and exports .”During November 2002 the Chief Executive of Ford UK specifically stated that euro/sterling exchange rates were damaging the profits of the company”:- http://www.fpma.scot.nhs.uk/euro_pros_cons.pdf
The British consumers will be now able to compare prices all over Europe . “This will end the phenomenon of rip-off Britain that allowed coca-cola to charge double here what it charges in Spain, or Ford to charge 43% more for a focus than in Denmark.” :- Christopher Huhne . From long time the MNCs new that Britain is the “Treasure Island” and the consumer are willing to pay high price. Britain chance to exploit the Asia and the America is by joining the bigger currency that’s the Euro
Roles That Governments Play In Industrial Relations Economics Essay
China is the largest country in East Asia and has the largest population in the world which is 1.3 billion taken up one fifth of the total world population. After the year 1978, the country becomes one of the world’s fastest growing economies when Chinese economy changed from planned economy to transition economy. China owns a labor force of 778.1 million which covered 58 per cent of entire population including 50 per cent of the Chinese labor forces is in agriculture, 22 per cent in industry and 28 per cent work in service field. The share of GDP in these sectors are not equal to the percentage of people employed, agriculture contributes 14 per cent, industry 52.9 per cent and services 32.3 per cent. China has an inflation rate of 1.2 per cent and an unemployment rate of 10.1 per cent (Chen, 2001). The poverty rate in china declined from 53 per cent in 1981 to 8 per cent in 2001 due to the fast growing of industrialization. Chinese industrial relations characterize were favor of single, centralized trade union federation which dominated by the Chinese communist party (Cooney, 2007).
During the Chinese economic reform, industrial relations become very complicated; lots of labor dispute and industrial instability come out. The Chinese state plays a major role in regulating, controlling and intervene the industrial relations.
First, the Chinese government is the labor law and regulations maker such as establish the working hour, make sure the minimum wage standard, determine the working conditions, labor protection, social insurance and welfare system. In addition, the state engage into the labor market mainly to create conditons under the law to take measure to promote employment to help unemployed people, abolish the outdated polices and intervenes into the large scale of layoffs. Moreover, the state use the direct involvement and indirect involvement, active intervention and passive intervention, the intervention before the dispute and the intervention after dispute ways to coordinate and promote the employers and employees to reach agreement.
Second, the state plays the role as protector of the labor rights. Compare to the strong employers or employers in a weak position, workers legitimate interests are always under protection. As the protector in the industrial relations and social justice, the Chinese government takes the responsibility to settle the relations based on the respect of fundamental human rights and basis of labor rights, so that the majority of employees are able to share the social progress and economic development outcomes to achieve the industrial balance. As the premier, Wen Jiabao protect Chinese farmers rights as head of government, has been praised and recognized by society and also promote the formation of governance throughout the whole country wage issues. With the scientific development concept growth, the government will strengthen their method to protect labor rights.
Thirdly, the state can be considered as balance maker. In the industrial relations, the real conflict happened between employers and employees. At the beginning, the employees stand at the weak side, but with the growth of the Chinese trade unions power especially after established the collective consultation and collective contract system, the unions status has been further strengthened and employers are no longer facing the individuals but a group of worker, that is, group of workers which represented by union. Therefore, the balance of power between employers and employees has a big change. When employers and employees have a split on an issue in a particular period; one side is significantly powerful than the other, the industrial relations and the negotiations will be hard, the results of the consultation will not good for cooperation too. This could have a negative impact on the economic development and social stability. The state role in here, is to adopt a forcible adjust measure, to maintain the balance of power between both sides. Especially when the labor movement threatened the economic growth and employers’ benefits, the government often uses the power to put pressure on the union side to make sure the balance relations.
India is the second most populous country in the world with the seventh largest geographical area. The population in this country is more than 1 billion with the population growth rate of 1.4 per cent and literacy rate of 60 per cent. India has a large and multi-party democracy with a highly different kind of population based on the language, religion and ethnicity. Ethnically the country is dominated by Indo-Aryan race which occupied 72 per cent of the total population. Moreover, the country is consisted of 28 states and 7 union territories with a parliamentary system of democracy. According to the CIA world factbook collection in 2009, the India labor force is 523.5 million including 60 per cent in agriculture, 17 per cent in industry and 23 per cent in services. Majority of the workforce is from rural areas and in the informal sector of the economy such as 60 per cent for the total workforce are depended on the agriculture which provides less than one-fifth of GDP (Kuruvila, 2002). In addition, the country also one of the world’s largest economies at market exchange rates and the fourth largest purchasing power. Economic reforms since 1991 have transformed it into one of the world’s fastest growing economies, but it still suffers from high levels of poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition (India-Wikipedia).
The role of the state in India can be analyzed into four periods, that is, colonial period, post colonial period, emergency era from the year 1975 to 1977, and post liberalization era. In the colonial period, the country controlled by the British and the industrial relations were only means to maintain the colonies, the role of the state in that time was used to keep the peaceful industrial relations so as to have continued production. In the post colonial period, the state started to build its industrial relations structure on the pre-existing colonial law. The main purpose of doing that was again to achieve industrial peace. Meanwhile, the India unions were supported by policies that labors rights were be protected by laws too. However, the main reason of this activity did not changed as above. The Indian state was tolerant of unions and recognized the value of labor management cooperation in the context of planned economic development (Ali,M, 2005). The employers take more pressure but the protectionist policies in favor of them. Under the emergency era, the power of the unions has been restricted, but because this period was very short, it did not have a long term influence on the industrial relations. In the last era of globalization and liberalization, the state recognized that the policies should be flexible in the workplace practices to keep the industry competitive. Today the India employers facing the stress of fierce competition which come from the globalization and they wish to maintain the competitiveness.
The role of the India state runs through the whole industrial relations. There have always been detailed laws on collective bargaining, dispute resolution, employee participation and employment security (Ali,M, 2005). Three important pieces of legislation have played a very important role in shaping Indian industrial relation, they are: Trade Unions Act, 1926 (TUA), The Industrial Employment Act, 1946(IEA) and the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947(IDA). These three legislations influence each other to produce the clear Indian system ( Ramaswamy, 1984). As the situation in china, the India government plays a major role in regulating the industrial relations. After the year 1947, the country become independent and many trade union leaders have the important positions in the government too. In the IDA sector, the state owned the full power to intervene in the industrial dispute in anytime they want. The state has the power to refuse to send a dispute for adjudication, forbid strikes and do not permit lay-off, and all court can not take cognizance of an offence under the industrial dispute act except the strike is identified as a illegal movement by government. Generally, the India state plays a vital role in shaping the industrial relations.
Compare to china state, both of the state in two countries are powerful and play an very important role in the industrial relations. It is prefer to use the single and centered power to keep the industrial peace in china state and India was influenced by the British laws to handle the strikes in the industry. In addition, there is only one trade union in china that allowed by the china government but there are many trade unions in India and easy to establish new autonomous union. Moreover, compare to china union, the unions in India are financially independent.
3. What factors have influenced the growth and decline of trade unions? Compare the experience of two different countries in this regard and the likely future scenarios. Japan:
Japan is the second largest economy in the world which had 127 million of people, $4765 billion GDP, 68 million labor force and a labor force participation rate of 73per cent in 2000(Bamber, Lansbury and Wailes, 2004). Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Japanese trade union membership density has been around 22 per cent (Bamber, Lansbury and Wailes, 2004). The 90 per cent of the unions are organized by enterprise or establishment instead of occupation or job (Jeong