They have to account for their actions and inactions while discharging their duties. The only way to ensure accountability in local government is to set up mechanisms that will hold all local government actors accountable for their actions. Accountability ensures good governance (Levy, 2008).
To enhance accountability, the local government of Kerara has enforced and strengthened all its laws and regulations that relate to the governance of the local authorities. The laws require all public officials in the local government to account for their actions and inactions after a specified period of time.
With enhancement of these rules and regulations, all the local government agencies and other actors in the local government are expected to give an account of how they discharge their duties. This helps to avoid misappropriation of resources and holds all local government officials accountable for their actions. The laws also create an environment that renders all the law breakers on notice. This might lead to their dismissal or arraignment in court for failure to account for their actions (Levy, 2008).
The local government has also intensified its inspection, evaluation and monitoring of all local government work assigned to various departments and officials. Strengthening and intensifying the inspection, monitoring and evaluation structures enhances accountability by making sure that all public officials in the local government are inspected, monitored and evaluated. Any faults that are realized in the process of monitoring, inspection and evaluation must be accounted for by the actors in charge (Levy, 2008).
The local government has put measures in place that facilitate and encourage wider information dissemination. Any information regarding the operation and services rendered by the local government has been widely disseminated to the public. Wider dissemination of information to the public facilitates the feedback process and promotes traceability (follow up).
This mechanism holds the local government officials accountable to the public for their actions. Various suggestion boxes have been opened in various local government offices to be able to access grievances from the citizens and ensure that the grievances are appropriately addressed (Levy, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The local government has enhanced its auditing processes and periods. Auditing is now done on time by more that one auditing firm to enhance comparison of the outcomes and implementation of the best outcomes. A follow up structure has also been put in place to ensure that the recommendations are implemented for accountability facilitation (Levy, 2008).
Motivation has also been used by the local government to enhance accountability. The local government has set minimum accountability standards that have to be met by all public officials. Those who consistently meet the standards are rewarded to keep them motivated. However, those who fail to comply with the rules are subjected to various penalties. This helps to keep the actors on track towards enhancement of accountability (Levy, 2008).
The local government also trains its officials (especially the new officials) on their duties and responsibilities. The training enhances service delivery and accountability of the actors while delivering the services. The actors are trained on how to account for their actions in local governance.
Among the areas trained are public accountability and transparency measures. Civic education for citizens has also put them in a position where they can demand for local government actors to account for their actions (Levy, 2008).
Lastly, the local government has enhanced communication channels that allow free interaction between the public and the local government officials as a means to easily exercise accountability. The proper communication channels have ensured that all officers engaging in corruption or any form of office abuse are held accountable (Levy, 2008).
Reference Levy, H. (2008). How the state of Kerara ensured accountability in local governance. Accountability Review journal, 6 (2), 46-59.
The World Heath Organization Essay
Nursing Assignment Help The World Heath Organization (WHO) is a United Nations agency that is responsible for the provision of public health internationally including carrying out of programs that will help in disease control and improving of quality of human life. This organization was started in 1948 and has its headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland.
The main responsibility of this organization is to provide support and guidance to countries in matters concerning health by sponsoring research programs carried out to prevent and treat diseases, they are also involved in assessing heath trends, develop and transfer health technology, setting standards for health research projects being carried out and also setting the global health standards.
The organization has successfully completed various projects that include the eradication of small pox which was an endemic disease in the late 1960s a disease which would have seen approximately two million people die from it.
Other achievements include bringing together international efforts to control outbreaks’ of deadly diseases that include SARS, Tuberculosis, Malaria Swine flu and AIDS. In addition to disease eradication, the WHO also drums up the members of public to embrace a healthy living style by promoting and supporting campaigns that are health related. (Simmons et al 2007)
Every organization is said to bear with issues that affect the organization and one such issue is the external environment that has external forces affecting the healthcare of the organization, an example of these issues is finances (funding).
The WHO is funded by levies collected from its 191member countries, the World Bank, other donor governments (extra budgetary funds) among them Japan, countries in Europe and North America as well as public and private entities.
This means that for the organization to continue getting funds from higher donors and avoid financial constraints, the organization must prioritize their policies of health projects that would preferably attract large sum of donation from major donors, a recent example is when the organization took part in the campaign restricting of tobacco advertising aimed at reducing tobacco related diseases instead of working on its vaccination as critics argue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For this reason, the developing countries needs are neglected despite the fact they are the ones to requiring their services simply because they can’t afford to raise large sums of money.
Another issue that is of concern is the issue of workforce. The WHO has been on its fore front trying to help health systems of various governments in the developing countries in dealing with the crisis in terms of shortage of human workforce in the health sector.
This shortage in many countries is usually due poor management system bodies that are concerned with the workers welfare thus these people tend to move in search of better working standards, increase in pay, and improved living conditions in relation to development. (Simmons et al 2007.)
Health workforce crisis is a major concern to the world health organization agency mainly because it will result to difficulties in achieving the set health goals to an extent of canceling of on going health program projects. Those who to be affected the most are the many communities who depend on the well trained personnel’s to offer the important primary health services.
As one of the solutions, the WHO has launched a program that supports its member countries to increase the number of health workers in remote and rural areas where the shortage crisis is hardly felt by improving their retention schemes.
The important part of the program is teaching the countries various bodies concerned with health how they could expand their knowledge on having effective strategies and policies that address matters concerning the equal distribution of health workers around the country especially the rural and remote areas.in 2004, WHO was requested by the World Heath Assembly (WHA) its governing body to develop a protocol to use in recruitment of health practitioners internationally. The guidelines were to apply to all health workers and would be carried out on voluntarily basis.
Important constituents of the guidelines includes, assisting countries facing shortage of health workers, monitor migration of health workers by investing on research and information systems, information gathered would be used to set policies evidently-based in addition the WHO member states would have to advance the conditions under which the people in the health sector are working under using their individual resources. To sustain the health workforce the governments could start education programs and better retaining schemes.
We will write a custom Essay on The World Heath Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Simmons R., Fajans P., Ghiron, L., World Health Organization. (2007)Scaling up health service delivery: from pilot innovations to policies and programmes Nonserial Publication. New York: World Health Organization.