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Abigail Adams in American Revolution Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction

Life History of Abigail Adams

Abigail as Women’s Rights Advocate

Abigail under the Influence of Her Husband’s Fame


Works Cited

Introduction Abigail Adams was a public figure in America in the late eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century. Among the outstanding stories written on her name is the fact that she was a wife to an American president and later a mother to an American president, a legacy shared with only one other woman in America.

This paper seeks to discuss Abigail Adams as a famous woman in her American times and whether or not her fame was due to her husband’s legacy or due to her own making. The paper will look at the life history of Abigail, her achievements as a woman and her husband’s influence over her outstanding status.

Life History of Abigail Adams Abigail Adams was born to William Smith on November eleventh in the year 1744. Her father was a religious leader and it is noted that her mother descended from lineage of highly regarded personalities in church among them, Quincy Elizabeth. Her family lived in Weymouth, Massachusetts among the Puritan settlers.

Abigail who was Smith’s second daughter did not have the opportunity to attend school. An excuse is given to her health which is claimed to have been unstable. She was however keen and learned a lot of things through observations. She also did some home reading, a fact that to an extent might have enlightened her.

Abigail got married to John Adams in the year 1764 and once again devoted her life to domestic life. The revolutionary war marked an empathetic emotion in her life as she felt the pain and suffering that people especially women went through in the event of war (American Revolution 1).

According to Gale, it was not Abigail alone who never went to school in the area at that period of time. It was common that women only had basic education and their primary focus according to the then traditions was to marriage. She however possessed outstanding personal qualities that made her adorable. Adams, who was later to become her husband, described her as “prudent, modest, delicate, soft sensible, obliging and active” (Gale 1).

In her marriage, she was active in the domestic chores taking care of the servant’s supervision, dealing with accounts records besides the household duties. She interestingly managed to have five children within a time span of eight years. She took the responsibility of being supportive to her husband as Adams was elected into congress (Gale 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lewis Johnson also expresses Abigail as a woman who participated in advocating for women’s rights in her writings though they were letters to her husband which could otherwise be taken to be husband and wife talks. She through her extensive reading became outstanding in administration and financial management of the affairs of their firm. She lived in their home for most of her marriage life where she managed her family (Lewis 1).

The appointment of her husband Mr. Adams to vice presidency elevated her to publicity in different circumstances. Her husband’s presidency further opened her way to fame as a complement to the president’s career as well as a talented woman. Her talent was majorly exhibited in writing (American Revolution 1).

Abigail as Women’s Rights Advocate Abigail is recorded to have raised issues with her husband over rights of the American women. She is recorded to have urged her husband in a number of letters that he together with the other legislators was supposed to empower women into leadership. In one of her letters in 1776, she is recorded to have implored Mr. Adams that together with the congress, they ought to think about women and incorporate them in the government.

She expressed her dissatisfaction over the former generations whom she described as having been mean and unfavorable to the women. She advocated against unlimited power in the hands of men accusing them of being tyrant if they had an opportunity. She was even categorical to threaten that that they, as women, would form a rebellion if no consideration was given to their empowerment.

The passive advocacy in her letters could still be considered as constructive owing to the fact that her husband was an important in the administrative figure in the country’s administration. He was important in that in the moments that followed, he rose to become the country’s vice president and then later the president.

If he therefore influenced women empowerment policies, then the policies could as well be attributed to his wife Abigail (Adams et Al. 7). Abigail is also counted by O’Connor as one of the figures in gender and women’s leadership. He recounts that Abigail was one of the early advocates as she wrote to her husband over the issue.

He also brings out the view that contrary to the traditional opinion that leadership was a career for men, a new face was experienced where women came out and took part in measures that were to bring change. The first of this change was according to him first noted in Abigail as she made it to her husband that the plight of women had to be taken into consideration (O’Connor 61).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Abigail Adams in American Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contrary to the soft approach of Abigail’s advocacy by some writers, Gelles claimed that “the most famous advocate of women’s rights” was Abigail. Gelles noted that Abigail did not submit to all views of her husband but rather was an integral influence in much of the decisions that her husband made in the political arena (Gelles 1). She was not pleased when her husband ignored her activism and this provoked her into a “feminist activist”.

She then started soliciting for support from other sources like Mercy Warren. She is also noted to have challenged Thomas Jefferson over women’s rights. Her efforts to liberate women are therefore seen to have gone beyond the domestic or rather family discussions with her husband (Gelles 9).

Abigail under the Influence of Her Husband’s Fame It is notable that Abigail’s role in advocating for women’s rights was just but one of the reasons that rose her to fame. The fact that she was the wife to the vice president and later the president was a credit enough to give her fame. The presidency is a highly celebrated position and in her husband’s capacity, she was elevated to the eyes of the whole nation.

She would then be regarded among women and even publicized in her activities. The position would also put her into contact with influential personalities across the country who visited her husband. These among other things could have as well enhanced her fame (America 1; Abigail 1).

Conclusion Abigail having been born in a generation where women were disregarded and not educated fought her way through unstable health into basic education. She got married to John Adams who later became the vice president then president of the United States.

She tried to influence her husband into making reforms that would value the status of women in the country and in her failure at this level advanced to collaborate with others in the fight. She later took a stern position challenging even president Jefferson over the issue.

Much regard can therefore be made to her initiative in the initial stages of the fight for the rights of women rather than her capacity as a wife to a president. This is because the effects of the fight was and still is felt and appreciated among many more than her being the wife of a president. Her fame is therefore more attributed to the women’s right activism.

Works Cited Abigail et al. The book of Abigail and John. New York, NY: Cengage, 2002. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Abigail Adams in American Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More America. Abigail Smith Adams: Remember the Ladies. America, 2008. Web..

American Revolution. Abigail Adams. American Revolution, n.d. Web..

Gale, C. Women’s history. Gale Cengage Learning, 1996. Web.

Gelles, Belle. Portia: the world of Abigail Adams. Bloomington: Indian university press, 1995. Print.

Lewis, Johnson. Abigail Adams. Women History, 2011. Web..

O’Connor, Karen. Gender and Women’s Leadership. New York, NY: SAGE, 2010. Print.

Least Developed Countries Analytical Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Internal Conflict Connection between Colonialism and Status of Collective Identity Development

The impact of colonialism on ethnic group identity and the emergence of discrepancies between groups should not be underestimated in developing countries, specifically in post-colonial ones. In particular, the colonial past significantly contributes to ethnic discords as many antagonistic groups were reunited into a single colony whereas some individual tribes were divided between several future countries.

Such situation is typical of the countries in Asia, Africa and Middle East where colonial powers often ignited ethnic disputes by directing particular groups against each other. In other words, they resort to a “divide and conquer” tactics to take control of the local population.

According to Handelman, “[g]iven the enormous number of tribal groups in Africa, even if the European powers had shown greater ethnic sensibility, many multiethnic nations would have inevitably developed” (99). With regard to this, the multiethnic countries with colonial past are more inclined to develop a strong sense of collective identity within a particular ethnic or tribal group.

The European colonialism has contributed to a number of conflicts emerged among the African and Asian nations. The colonial divisions led to serious conflicts and deaths based on cultural and ethnical frictions. This particularly concerned the lands of East Timor that was withdrawn by Portugal and attached by neighboring Indonesia against the local population’s will (Handelman 100).

The same tensions were undertaken by the African ethnic groups. In general, the colonial past has left the trace of ethnic hostility between ethnic groups and has contributed to the development of chauvinistic ideology.

Defining Three Theories of Ethnic Identity Development and Origin Regarding Ethnic Conflicts

There are three major theories of ethnic development and origin that explain the emergence of conflicts between racial, ethnic, tribal, and nationality groups: modernization theory, dependency theory, and globalization theory. All these theories consider positive and negative aspects of different phenomena influencing ethnic identity development.

With regard to the above, modernization theorists are inclined to think that such factors as “literacy, urbanization, and modern values” can “mobilize various ethnic groups and set them against each other” (Handelman 114). Despite optimistic forecasts established before, these factors can become the main stumble block for the conflicting groups.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to dependency theory, ethnical conflict can arise from countries’ colonial past. In particular, the time of European colonialism was marked by the struggle of ethnic groups in Asia and Africa for independence. During the post-colonial period, the previously suppressed ethnic antagonisms came to the forth. Living in a new political order, theses groups are now fighting for state resources, such as schools, roads, and other important issues.

Finally, the globalization theorists tend to believe that this process of integration can contribute to the homogenization of all existing cultures in the world. However, this assumption is not valid as many ethnic and cultural tensions have emerged as a result of the imposition of global culture and suppression of local ethnicity.

Analyzing Wrong Assumptions Concerning a Positive Influence of Democratization on Ethnic Conflict with the Help of Pluralism Model

The rise of democracy all over the world has caused the opposite reaction. Despite the fact that a 1985-1995 period was marked by leverage of rates of countries making transition to democracy, this temporary euphoria was terminated due to the consequences the process brought.

Furthermore, the emergence of democracy as a result of modernization process has caused mixed outlooks toward this phenomenon that was retreated in many post-colonial countries. The problem is that “…democracy is most likely to emerge and survive when certain social and cultural conditions are in place” (Ingehart and Welzel 7).

Alternatively, ignorance of cultural issues will not positively contribute to modernization process in the developing countries. The decline of democracy has been observed worldwide due to the fact that developing countries are now less convinced that liberal democracy is the best way to an optimistic future.

Identifying Three Characteristics of Military Institutions That Enable Coups D’état

While discussing the character and nature of military intervention, political science resorts to two opposite perspectives. The first one is focused on the basic characteristics of the military institutions whereas the second one is connected with the analysis of a wider political environment in which the armed forces operate.

In order to understand what features trigger the emergence of coups d’état, it is necessary to outline the main features of military institutions (Handelman 246). First, the majority of military institutions tend to be socially and internally cohesive.

We will write a custom Essay on Least Developed Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, they should be able successfully intervene in domestic economy and generate stable political leadership. Regarding the ideological orientation of the armed forces enabling coups d’état, it should be noted that the majority of military intervention bears a right-wing character, though the coup itself is politically neutral.

Finally, due to the fact that the coup may not involve masses of people to cease the power, the military intervention should come from the government itself. In other words, the armed forces should have a direct access to governmental institutions allowing them to have a potential influence on the state.

Discussing the Difference between Theories Arguing That “Middle Class Is a Stabilizing Force” Being a Buffer against Military Interventionism and Theories Employing Economic Explanation for Military Intervention

Among theories withdrawing the necessity of military interventions believe that middle class can act as buffer against military intervention. At the same time, there are more conservative theories explaining the necessity to enhance the security system of the country and insure peaceful existence of the world society (Handelman 254).

Though these two schools of thoughts seem to be strictly opposed to each other, there is still a connection between those. Like conservative military institutions, liberal movements seek to ensure country for safety and economical stability where a consistent and strong military framework serves as a solid foundation for country’s security (Handelman 267).

At the same time, they also believe that middle class can hamper the process of military intervention because they stand closer to the armed forces and they realize that their enactment would bring no benefit to the globalized community.

Another common thing about both theoretical movements is that both approaches are congruent with the necessity to proliferate democracy and protection of human right and theories. This particularly concerns democracy peace theories arguing that there should be equality of human rights all over the world irrespective of economic level.

The major contrast between the presented theoretical frameworks lies in the methods and strategies they use to achieve their goals. In particular, liberal theorists are more prone to use peaceful methods of intervention believing that each group has the right to receive aid. In their turn, conservative theorists believe that military intervention should be carried out irrespective of the group needs, but with reliance on the situation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Least Developed Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Ingehart, Ronald, and Welzel, Christian. How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know about Modernization. In Robert Griffiths. Annual Editions: Developing World. 11/12. US: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Handelman, Howard. Challenge of Third World Development. US: Longman. 2009. Print.