Purpose The purpose of this research study is to investigate the advantages of using technologically advanced, or high priced, baseball bats in the Little League Baseball. The study will examine the benefits or advantages of using technologically advanced baseball bats, mostly made of Aluminum, over the wooden bat that has been traditionally in use.
Introduction In recent years, the subject of baseball bat performance has led to debates among players, regulating bodies, and even scientists and researchers. These debates arise due to the use of new technologies in making bats leading to baseball bats that perform exceedingly better than the traditional wooden bats. Research carried out in field studies and in simulated laboratory tests have concluded that technological advancement s have indeed improved the efficiency of bats, especially those made of Aluminum (Nathan et al, pp.).
These studies have also provided information on how best to improve bat performance regarding bat-ball collision (Russell, para. 1). These findings have led to debates on whether or not Aluminum bats should be used for playing baseball as they give unfair advantage to those who use them.
Aluminum Bats Aluminum bats have a number of advantages over wooden bats. Since it is harder than wood, the weight of aluminum bat can be varied more than wooden bats (Science Buddy). They are also less elastic than wood, implying that the bat loses less energy through rebound.
Lastly aluminum bats do have sweet spots that are relatively larger hence easement of the ability to frequently hit balls (Oracle).
Composite Bats Another important type of bat is the composite baseball bat, these types of bats are identical to Aluminum bats, but have a graphite wall on the inside. The bats are easy to swing, and provide relatively greater trampoline effect. They also have very low damping speeds, in addition to less bending stiffness (Kolenich. Para. 2).
Statistical evidence from the NCAA, the body that regulates collegiate baseball in the US, clearly indicates that technological advancements have led to improved performance in baseball. These improvements have been realized in areas such as batting averages, home runs per game, and strike out per nine innings from 1970 to 2010 (NCAA). These findings are shown below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fig. 1. Batting Averages Fig. 2. Home Runs per Game Fig. 3. Strike Outs per Nine Innings Terms, Concepts, and Questions Relating to the Study To complete the study, I will investigate the following aspects of the game of baseball: Physics of baseball; Ball-bat collisions; Sweet spot of a baseball bat; The grip of a baseball bat.
Research Questions The research will aim to answer several questions relating to the variables in the game of baseball. For example, is the distance better with a specific bat, does technology improve the feel/ grip of the bat. Are composite bats better than Aluminum bats? Does weight affect the speed of the bats? The results of the study will be useful to baseball coaches, baseball associations, and the players.
Method This study is targeting the little league baseball since it is vital that adoption of technological advancements in baseball should begin from the lowest levels and as the players move to the major leagues, they get used to the techniques, rather than introducing them to technologies after they have become seniors.
For this purpose, I will conduct my research mostly by following my son’s little league team, interviewing coaches, researching the internet, and actually buying a bat made using the latest technologies for my son to use for the research work. The schedule of my research work will follow the Dickinson Little League in Dickinson Texas.
Works Cited Kolenich, Eric. Check swing: Composite bats’ place in baseball is getting a closer look. Richmond Times Dispatch. 2009. Web.
Nathan, Alan M., et al. A Comparative Study of Baseball Bat Performance. 2010. Web.
NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). Division I Baseball Statistics Trends (1970-2010). 2010. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on A Proposal to do a Research on the Use of Technologically Advanced Baseball Bats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Oracle. The Physics of Baseball: Aluminum Bats. Web.
Russell, Daniel A. Physics and Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats. 2010. Web.
Science Buddy. Baseball Bat Debate: Baseball Bat Debate, Wood or Aluminum. 2011. Web.
Battleship Potemkin Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Sergei Eisenstein’s 1925 film Battleship Potemkin represents a classical example of formalist editing in cinematography. According to most well-known enthusiasts of this style of editing, such as Pudovkin and Eisenstein himself, the semantic significance of film’s mise en scene should not be dialectically explored but rather constructed.
Both individuals tended to perceive the process of movie’s editing as being similar to the process of composing music – just as composer constructs a melody out of individually sounding and often dissonant musical notes, film’s director endows a particular scene with semiotic significance by the mean of providing scene’s takes with contextual wholesomeness.
While outlining the essence of formalist editing, Gianetti (2001) states: “The environment of the scene is the source of the images. Long shots are rare. Instead, a barrage of close-ups (often of objects) provides the audience with the necessary associations to link together the meaning” (p. 157).
Given the fact that Eisenstein never ceased being closely affiliated with promotion of Communist agenda, it comes as not a particular surprise that he had chosen in favor of formalist editing – by juxtaposing scenes’ seemingly unrelated shots, he was able to endow his films with clearly defined ideological sounding.
In the same book from which we have already quoted, Gianetti provides us with the insight onto the actual technique of Eisenstein’s style of editing: “The conflict of two shots (thesis and antithesis) produces a wholly new idea (synthesis). Thus, in film terms, the conflict between shot A and shot B is not AB but a qualitatively new factor—C” (p. 158). In the next part of this paper, we will explore how Eisenstein went about applying the methods of formalist editing in Battleship Potemkin at length.
Analytical part Even the very beginning of Battleship Potemkin is being perfectly illustrative of how the utilization of formalist editing in film can achieve a strong dramatic effect. At first, there is a take of battleship’s physician wearing a monocle, meant to emphasize his association with the class of bourgeoisie (00.05.43).
After that, follows the shot of maggots crawling all over the piece of meat, which was supposed to serve ship’s sailors as food (00.05.45). After having exposed viewers to this take for a while, Eisenstein sharply replaces it with the shot of angry expression on sailors’ faces (00.05.60). It is needless to mention, of course, that from purely semantic perspective, the sequence of these shots does not make much of a sense.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, after having watched this particular scene, viewers quite unintentionally get to absorb the idea that Eisenstein wanted them to absorb – namely, the fact that, while serving in Russian Imperial Fleet, sailors used to be subjected to a number of different abuses, which had prompted them to revolt. Just as it is being often the case with today’s TV commercials, the main idea that combined earlier mentioned shots into something that conveyed cognitively recognizable ideological message, only existed in director’s imagination.
And, it is namely the fact that Eisenstein was a master of psychological manipulation, which had allowed him to impose his obscure and morally repugnant ideas upon viewers as representing some objective value.
Another clue as to the actual essence of Eisenstein’s formalist editing can be found in the scene where revolutionary speakers address angry mob (00.41.32 – 00.42.19). Given the fact that Battleship Potemkin is a silent movie, exposing viewers to the sight of crazed revolutionaries encouraging marginalized crowds to kill nobles, while intensely gesturing, making angry faces and spewing saliva, during the course of the process, does not appear rationally motivated – after all, there is no sound in the movie.
Nevertheless, by having this particular scene presented in his film, Eisenstein did not aim at subjecting viewers to Communist propaganda per se, but rather at making them cognitively comfortable with this propaganda as a concept, because on subconscious level, people tend to associate emotional intensity with intellectual honesty.
In other words, just as it is being the case with the shots of maggots crawling over the piece of meat, the shots of hook-nosed political activists instigating ‘proletarians’ to overthrow Czar had served the cause of psychological manipulation, on director’s part – a clearly formalist editing technique.
Nevertheless, it is specifically the scene of czarist police shooting at civilians in Odessa, which provides us with the full understanding of how the utilization of formalist editing had helped Battleship Potemkin to attain a cult status.
After police fires a salvo at demonstrators, we get to watch the following sequence of structurally unrelated takes: people running down the ‘Potemkin stairs’ (00.49.23), some kids laying on these stairs and crying, while being stepped upon (00.50.08), a bug-eyed woman experiencing an emotional distress (00.50.12), the older woman making jesters with her hands (00.51.18), one-legged man maneuvering through the running people on his crutches (00.51.48), police officers firing another salvo (00.51.51), woman with a baby in her hands catching the bullet (00.52.53), people running again in a chaotic manner (00.53.07), and finally the baby-carriage with a baby rolling down the stairs on its own (00.54.57), with this shot climaxing the whole scene.
We will write a custom Essay on Battleship Potemkin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apparently, Einstein was well aware of the fact that, even though the scenes of police shooting at civilians do not occur very often in reality, his depiction of such a scene nevertheless would be perceived by viewers as perfectly plausible, due to its strongly defined emotional undertones. In their turn, these undertones had been brought about by director’s mastery in utilization of formalist editing.
Conclusion Even though that in ‘artsy’ circles, the application of formalist editing in cinematography is being often considered as the only appropriate, due to such editing’s ‘sophistication’, the majority of movie goers do not subscribe to this point of view.
And, this has nothing to do with their lessened intellectual abilities, as is being implied by enthusiasts of ‘auteur’ genre in cinematography, but simply with the fact that this style of editing does not correspond to the linearly defined workings of Westerners’ psyche. In formalistically edited movie, there is very little of an actual movie, but mostly theory.
The watching of Einstein’s Battleship Potemkin is like observing Malevich’s Black Square painting – without having been introduced to both individuals’ highly irrational and superficially sophisticate life-philosophies, it would prove quite impossible to define the actual significance of their cinematographic/artistic creations’ themes and motifs, if we assume that they do exist. As Gianetti had put it: “Eisenstein’s theories of collision montage have been explored primarily in the avant-garde cinema, music videos, and TV commercials.
Most fiction filmmakers have found them too intrusive and heavy-handed” (p. 168). Thus, even though in Battleship Potemkin Einstein did succeed with providing an emotional appeal to the Communist cause, he nevertheless had failed in making this particular movie watchable – after all, viewers do not particularly enjoy the feeling of being intellectually manipulated by the mean of being forced to accept director’s own ideological agenda as representing an undeniable truth-value.
References Gianetti, L. (2001). Understanding movies. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.