Equally, good quality research must have the capacity to elucidate strong evidence in the form of quantitative or qualitative data that is relevant to a phenomenon or variable under study.
The development of an effective procedure or guideline of undertaking the research is of paramount importance in the context of allowing objective data to be collected, organized, analyzed and presented in ways that will allow people to acknowledge that the findings are not only informative, but the inferences drawn upon them are logical.
This paper purposes to evaluate some of differences and characteristics between quantitative and qualitative research designs.
Both qualitative and quantitative research studies have unique characteristics. To start with, it is imperative to note that qualitative researchers are mainly concerned with studying the subject matter in the natural settings in an effort to make sense of, or to understand, observable occurrences in terms of the meanings attached to them by people (Patton, 2002).
One of the characteristics of a qualitative research study, therefore, is that it is interested in studying real-world situations or occurrences as they unfold naturally without controlling or manipulating any variables. In essence, it is not predetermined as is the case with quantitative studies.
The second characteristic is that most qualitative studies utilize purposive sampling procedures. Specifically, cases designated for study are selected by virtue of the fact that they have the needed information and provide valuable manifestations of the phenomenon under study.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most qualitative studies, sampling of cases is aimed at getting more insight about the phenomenon under study, not empirical generalization from a sample of subjects to a population as is the case in quantitative studies (Patton, 2002).
The third characteristic of a qualitative research study is that the design adopted must be open and flexible enough to enable the researcher adapt to new inquiry depending on the level of understanding needed.
A qualitative design must have the capacity to accommodate new situations as they emerge in addition to allowing the researcher pursue new paths of discovery as opposed to a quantitative design, which utilizes rigid, unresponsive design (Patton, 2002).
Quantitative studies, on the other part, are basically undertaken by means of developing a testable hypothesis or research questions, and collecting data, which is then ordered and statistically analyzed to come up with findings. Finally, the inferences from the findings will differentiate whether the original hypothesis is supported by the evidence collected from the field (Creswell, 2003). One of the unique characteristics of a quantitative study is that the researcher is independent from the phenomena under study as opposed to qualitative study, where the researcher must always interact with the phenomena under study.
The second characteristic is that reality in a quantitative study is viewed in an objective and singular manner, intricately separate from the researcher (Creswell, 2003).
A qualitative study, however, views reality in a subjective manner. Finally, the facts collected from the field must be value-free and unbiased, but in a qualitative study, the facts are often value-laden and prejudicial.
The type of research design adopted by the researcher to a large extent influences the sampling method to be used for the study (Patton, 2002). A sampling method, according to Creswell (2003), is basically a technique employed in drawing samples from a larger population in such a way that the sample drawn will assist in the determination of some observations or hypothesis concerning the population.
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Immaterial Labor Essay
Nursing Assignment Help Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Immaterial labor refers to the two aspects of labor: informational content and cultural content. Informational content are the skillful changes utilized by workers in the labor processes that occurring in the industrial and tertiary sectors while cultural content refers to all the activities that cannot be categorized normally as work but determines the cultural artistic standards, fashions, tastes and consumer traditions that shape quality of service or product.
Mass intellectuality Empirical research and theoretical reflection of the new forms of work organization led to the radical modification of the management, composition and control of the work force that have profoundly influenced the roles of intellectuals within the society. Manual labor has undergone great transformation into intellectual labor due to the demands of capitalists and self-valorization as factors of production.
Intellectual labor requires workers to be subjective to the organization as the aim of modern management strategies is to make workers’ soul be part of the organization. The subjectivity of workers to the organization is the basis of achieving quality and quantity immaterial labor in production given that work is the ability to activate and manage a team of workers productively.
In addition to subjectivity of workers, activity is another attribute required for optimum productivity in an organization since the heart of productivity is collective learning and innovation of new organizational functions.
Subjectivity has a disadvantage of generating conflicts between various social classes within the organization because capitalist demands absolute subjectivity, which is practically impossible in the view of the competencies of the workers. The management concept of subjectivity seems to be an autocratic management as capitalist seeks to have a communicative process that totally involves and emanates from their subjects.
Immaterial Labor Immaterial labor activities entail forms of networks and flows characterized by the precariousness, hyper-exploitation, mobility and hierarchy hence its power depends on the professional and management capacities.
The challenge of immaterial labor is its interface position between production and consumption, which compels it to promote both productive and social relationship through the process of subjective though it seemed to be autocratic.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The big question revolves around the independence and ability of immaterial labor to develop organizational capacities and corporate relationship. According to the economists, industries do not create new power but takes an on-board power by adaption. On contrast, immaterial labor requires new forms of work organization to be innovated through activity.
The two differing views arise; one is the neoclassical analysis that tries to redefine the market problem by introducing cooperation and intensity of labor to optimize production. The other view is the system theory that conceives organization factors such as material or immaterial, individual or collective in eliminating market constrains.
The immaterial labor leads to the improvement of productive cooperation in aspects of production and reproduction of communication thus enhancing the concept of subjectivity. Integration of consumption into the immaterial cycle by Fordism and subsequent integration of communication disrupts producer-consumer relationship.
Conclusion In immaterial labor, informational and cultural content are the aspects that determine productivity in an organization. Harmonization and optimization of the aspects results in the expected quality and quantity of immaterial labor in production.
Although immaterial labor is very productive, capitalist’s demands of absolute subjectivity is an autocratic management characterized by the hyper-exploitation and generation of conflicts between different social classes within the organization.