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A Clockwork Orange: Setting and Literary Devices Research Paper

One of the most important literary devices has traditionally been considered setting, because it is namely by providing an appropriate background for the development of literary work’s plot that author is able to instill readers with a proper cognitive mood.

For example, one of the reasons why Shakespeare’s tragedies were able to gain such an immense popularity with contemporaries is because the themes of love, treachery and revenge, contained in them, had been explored amidst clearly Italian settings. While referring to the role of settings in Shakespeare’s tragedies, Jones (1970) states: “Italian settings function as one of the allusions through which the world of Elizabethan plays is created, but Italy is not the world of these plays” (251).

The role of setting in Anthony Burgess’s dystopic novel A Clockwork Orange can be defined in a similar manner – even though it does not immediately affect the way in which novel’s characters address existential challenges, it nevertheless make it easier for the readers to gain a better insight into the workings of characters’ psyche. In our paper, we will aim at exploring this thesis at length.

The foremost reason as to why A Clockwork Orange is being commonly referred to as dystopia is that Burgess’s description of a futuristic society features the elements of capitalism and communism organically interwoven with each other.

On one hand, people in Burgess’s society appear to pursue with consumerist mode of existence, while taking a particular pleasure in being exposed to different forms of mass-entertainment, but on another – even the private aspects of their lives appear being controlled by the government, which in the novel serves the function of suppressing people’s ‘anti-social’ anxieties. Nevertheless, unlike what it is being the case in Orwell’s 1984, in A Clockwork Orange the government seems to be controlling citizens rather indirectly. This, however, does not weaken the extent of government’s oppressiveness.

In his article, while referring to the particulars of Burgess’s vision of dystopian future, Waterman (1984) states: “In Burgess’s dystopia, it is not the State which holds direct power over the individual, but rather labor unions to whom one owes allegiance… Only criminals and the insane would choose not to identify with the collective” (106). Thus, the foremost function of setting in A Clockwork Orange can be best defined as creating a proper perceptional framework for the readers to be able to affiliate themselves with ideas, promoted throughout the novel.

For example, while describing the Korova Milkbar, author had made a point in making this description utterly reminiscent of the way in which many today’s semi-legal bars in Western countries operate: “The Korova Milkbar was a milk-plus mesto… They had no license for selling liquor, but there was no law yet against prodding some of the new veshches which they used to put into the old moloko” (10).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the very fact that Alex and his ‘droogs’ used to attend Korova Milkbar, despite being minors, and the fact that this bar was never closed down by police, despite its shady practices, creates an illusion that novel’s plot unravels in some rather Liberal society.

This impression is being strengthened even further by the way in which Burgess goes about describing the appearance of Alexe’s room: “Here was my bed and my stereo, pride of my jeezny, and my discs in their cupboard, and banners and flags on the wall…” (37).

The description of Cat Lady’s house also implies its owner being of rather individualistically-sophisticate kind – someone, who could only feel comfortable while living in intellectually liberated society: “In the room you could viddy a lot of old pictures on the walls and starry very elaborate clocks, also some like vases and ornaments that looked starry and dorogoy” (59).

After having been exposed to these settings, readers most likely to conclude that Alex’s real problem simply had to do with the fact that he never experienced any hardships in his life, which in its turn, caused him to grow predisposed towards indulging in anti-social behavior.

Nevertheless, there is an apparent dichotomy between how author portrays Alex’s sophistically flamboyant lifestyle and socio-political realities of the ‘street’, as he implies an essentially Socialist nature of these realities.

For example, the following description of a scene with the drunkard, leaves very little doubt as to the fact that it was namely Burgess’s time in Soviet Union, which had inspired him portray this drunkard in the way he did: “When we got outside of the Duke of New York we viddied by the main bar’s long lighted window, a burbling old pyahnitsa or drunkie, howling away at the filthy songs of his fathers and going blerp blerp in between…” (21).

Just as it used to be the case in just about every Socialist country, the existential mode, on the part of most people in Burgess’s novel, simply did not correlate with what governmental propaganda implied it should have been.

We will write a custom Research Paper on A Clockwork Orange: Setting and Literary Devices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is another memorable scene when, before walking into his parents’ apartment, Alex gets to observe a municipal painting on hallway’s walls: “In the hallway was the good old municipal painting on the walls – vecks and ptitsas very well developed, stern in the dignity of labour, at workbench and machine with not one stitch of platties on their well-developed plots” (36).

Thus, the settings that are being featured in A Clockwork Orange, provide readers with the clue as to what was the actual nature of Alexe’s behavioral inadequacy – apparently, on subconscious level, he was well aware that there can be no ‘dignity’ in labor, as Marxists used to believe.

As we are well aware of from the lessons from history, it is namely those endowed with high intellect, which used push forward cultural and scientific progress. And, one’s heightened intellect reflects his or her lessened willingness to indulge in physical labor.

In its turn, this explains why in the novel, the government’s visual propaganda of ‘dignity of labor’ appears being always supplemented by graffiti-like add-ons that ridicule such propaganda. And, just as it has always been the case in Communist countries, in A Clockwork Orange the government does its utmost to eliminate even the traces of people’s visually expressed discontent on buildings’ walls, even though it can never do it promptly, due to its Socialist inefficiency.

In the scene where, after being ‘corrected’ by an application of Ludovico’s Technique, Alex walks back into his parents’ apartment building, he gets quite surprised on the account of government’s unusual promptness in taking care of rebellious graffiti: “What surprised me, brothers, was the way that had been cleaned up, there being no longer any dirty ballooning slovos from the rots of the Dignified Labourers, not any dirty parts of the body added to their naked plotts by dirty-minded pencilling malchicks” (128).

Thus, it would not be an exaggeration to suggest that the role of setting in Burgess’s novel is being primarily concerned with exploring the metaphysical inconsistency between a variety of rationale-based social theories, aimed at ‘reengineering’ people, and the innermost essence of these people’s psychological anxieties.

Although, at the beginning, novel’s settings appear to underline the absurdist subtleties of a portrayed dystopia, by the time main character undergoes the ordeal of being ‘mentally corrected’, the role of setting changes to emphasize the sheer extent of Alex’s psychological fragility.

The validity of this statement can be well explored in regards to the scene, in which Alex is being examined by the consilium of psychiatrists, so that Dr. Brodsky would be able to prove the effectiveness of Ludovico’s Technique: “Curtains had been drawn in front of the sinny screen and the frosted glass under the projection holes was no longer there, it having perhaps been pushed up or folded to the sides like blinds or shutters” (118).

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Clockwork Orange: Setting and Literary Devices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite the fact that, while providing readers with the glimpse into the setting of this particular scene, author did not specify much of details, it nevertheless did not deprive the scene of its situational intensity. Apparently, in A Clockwork Orange Burgess had made a point in trying to establish setting in a manner that would not disrupt the unraveling of the plot.

This, however, does not mean that the role of setting in Burgess’s novel is being underemphasized, as Soheback (1981) had suggested in her article: “There is relatively little description of places and objects in Burgess’ book.

The first-person narrator, Alex, is more interested in describing action and people, in describing his own feelings and the textures of music” (94). Even though Burgess never expounded on the subject of surroundings in every particular scene, as many inexperienced authors do, he was still able to turn setting into semiotically significant element of the novel.

The earlier articulated arguments, in regards to the role of setting in A Clockwork Orange, substantiate the validity of our initial thesis. Just as it being the case in Shakespeare’s Italia-based tragedies, in Burgess’s novel setting does not strongly affect the way in which plot unravels.

Nevertheless, this setting is quite indispensible within the context of defining novel’s overall semantic content, as the exposal to setting in Clockwork Orange helps readers to get a better understanding of characters as three-dimensional beings, rather than stereotypically depicted good and wrong doers. The following is the summary of conclusions, regarding the role of setting in Burgess’s novel, to which we had come earlier:

In A Clockwork Orange, the specifics of how author went about establishing setting, are being reflective of his intention to add plausibility to his description of simultaneously semi-Socialist and semi-Capitalist future.

In Burgess’s novel, setting helps readers to gain a better insight into particulars of characters’ mentality, as it subtly promotes the idea that it is namely the essence of surrounding socio-political realities, which can be partially blamed for these characters’ often clearly defined behavioral abnormality.

One of the foremost characteristics of setting in A Clockwork Orange is that, despite the fact that it helps to establish a proper psychological atmosphere, it nevertheless remains semantically non-intrusive, for as long as the actual action is being concerned.

References Burgess, Antony. A Clockwork Orange. New York: W. W. Norton

Islam Religious Institution in New York Essay

Nursing Assignment Help Islam has several denominations that follow the laws and culture of the Islam way of life. Islam is divided into the following denominations Sunni, Shi’a, Sufism, Ahmadiyya, Kharijites and Quranists. The Sunni Muslims are the majority of all the Muslims and comprise of 90% of all the worlds Muslims.

Due to their large numbers they took up the title Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jama’ah which means people of the principle and majority. Shi’a is the second largest group and comprise of about 10-20% of the worlds Muslims. Sufism is a mystic-abstinent methodology to Islam that searches for celestial love and knowledge by using uninterrupted individual incidents of God.

They concentrate on the more spiritual characteristics of religion. Ahmadiyya Muslims came into being in the 19th century using the teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as their foundation. Ahmadis believe that they lead the revitalization and nonviolent spread of Islam.

Kharijites believe and specify that a leader should be chosen on the merits of his experience and devoutness and is removed if he performs unjust acts. Quranists are Muslims who basically and communally decline the Hadith which are the Muslim teachings[1].

Muslims first came into the United States as slaves who were brought to work in the huge plantations owned by white farmers. In the early 1950’s an incursion of Muslim professionals majority of them being physicians, chose to inhabit United States after finishing their studies as their home countries were not hospitable enough.

A large number of Muslim students also arrived in America to pursue their studies and due to this Muslim communities were formed and mosques put up in some cities like; Detroit, Ann Arbor, Indian, Iowa and Sacramento. Islam national groups were also formed during this period, Muslim Students Association (MSA) of the United States and Canada which changed to Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and their supporting organizations like the Regional and national conferences of Muslims.

In present day mosques, Islamic centers and schools are found in every community, Islamic Organizations and institutions thrive and they area able to address the concerns of the Muslim community in the United States[2].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the early sixties, the Centre commenced it purpose and actions on slam scale basis. It was an ordinary town house located at the corner of 72nd Street and Riverside drive. Plans were underway to build a mosque, a school, a library, a museum and a lecture hall that would serve the important Islamic role as well as being a landmark for New York City. The Islamic Cultural Centre opened in 1989 and held its first prayers in 1991, is quite often referred to as the ‘96th street mosque’.

It was the very fist mosque built form the ground up in New York City. The mosque comprises of two very important essentials of an Islamic house of worship; a mosque and a minaret. This provides a traditional external yard for believers to gather before services start.

The mosques geometrical form follows Islamic laws which forbid the representation of innate forms since they are made in God’s image. The design of the Islamic Cultural Centre Mosque is aimed at formulating its architectural appearance that represents the opulent and diverse traditions of the Islamic world in the perspective the 21st century.

The design takes into account both the traditions of Islamic architecture and the progression of architecture of the present time. The design is based on the use of geometric ordering principles of recurrent units of squares. Natural light from the large glazed areas crisscrossing the space plays a significant part in essential and improving the interior space. The prayer hall is finished with a huge dome with kufic inscriptions at the base, a spherical collection of lights hovering from the inside the dome provides an implicit ceiling above the worshipers giving the hall intimate scale[3].

Demographics in the City of New York suggest that it is the most popular city in the United States. Its crucial demographic features are its population density and cultural diversity. New York City is extensively multicultural as it has been an entry point for immigrants.

The percentage of New York’s population is: African American 25.1%, Native Americans 0.4%, Asian Americans 11.8%, Pacific Islander Americans 0.1%, Multiracial Americans 2.1% Hispanics and Latinos 27.5%, white Americans 32.5%.

Harlem houses the surviving Nation of Islam Headquarters and Sunni mosques that offer service to majority of African American congregation while the Upper East Side houses foreign embassies as well the United Nations Headquarters and First Avenue factors that lead to the diverse range of nationalities in attendance at the ICC[4].

We will write a custom Essay on Islam Religious Institution in New York specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Islamic cultural centre is involved in interfaith and community involvement activities that make it not only a place for Muslims but for other people to learn and get acquainted with the Islam religious way of life. Mosques as well as the Islamic cultural centre take part in non religious programs that eventually help the community as a whole. These activities include interfaith dialogues, media relations and visits to other schools and places of worship.

Looking for interfaith dialogues is an action that shows and reinforces the idea of communal space and common interest in the community issues. This shows that the different religions in New York city acknowledge and respect each other for the sake of the community at large. If these religions were to begin fighting against each other then the results would surely be disastrous.

The Islamic cultural centre has amalgamated with different groups in activities and coalitions that show case a huge deal of information concerning Muslim ways that requires them to actively take part in one’s religious neighbors[5].

The talks held between the Imam and Regional ADL members indicate a quest for common ground in fighting against prejudice and fight for equality of all. An important message passed across by the partnership between ADL and ICC is that the present matters more than differences encountered in the past. Though these two organizations do not have much common interest, their partnership was purely based on mutual present interest[6].

This shows joint apprehension, in retro respect of faith, and reinforces the dedication to taking care of the less fortunate in the society which is integrated into the Muslim faith making it alike with the practice of zakat. The school built next the ICC on the same plot integrates interfaith activities in its curriculum program which shows that Muslim learning incorporates cross-community education and association.

The students took part in the ‘Cordoba bread fest’ a multi faith event that was founded around the significance and meaning of bread in the Jewish, Christian and Muslim faiths. The event was named Cordoba to pay respect to the Spanish city that was once a community where all three faiths lived. Sponsors of this event included the ICC, a synagogue in New York, Catholic Archdiocese of New York and other religious organizations.

This shows that these faiths looked past their differences in the past and came together in a time of need and a time to show their solidarity for each other and harmony for the betterment of the community at large. Such programs as these describes Muslim partaking as productive looking for points of similarities and focusing on them as compared to looking for differences[7].

Bellah in his writing ‘civil religion in America’ 1967, asserts that ‘few have realized that there actually exists alongside of and rather clearly differentiated from the churches an elaborate and well institutionalized civil religion in America’[8]. This quote means that there are several different religious institutions in America which sows that the American people are deeply religious.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Islam Religious Institution in New York by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All these religions have similarities and differences that they look past and they respect each other for the betterment of the community at large. Bellah also notes that a compilation of beliefs and values with the uttermost respect to consecrated ornaments and embedded cooperatively.

This is to say that this different institutions are purely independent of each other and the political sphere however they do not compete with each other neither do they condemn each other they rather give the masses a chance to choose for the themselves the religion that best suits and takes care for their needs wholly and spiritually, not forgetting emotionally.

This diverse offer the American people a forum whereby they can carry out the Lord’s will on earth that is spreading the good news to all people the world over. If these religious institutions were to turn against each other and begin questioning or condemning each other the world as we know it would come to an end as the religious wars would spread in the whole world not only in America.

Each and every person would want to defend and fight for the religious institution they believe in and follow it would be a blood bath as the respect by the religious institutions as we know it would be long gone. Bellah’s quote captures the diversity of the religious institutions in America as well as the respect that these institutions have for each other not mentioning their independence form other aspects that may influence them.

In conclusion the Islamic Cultural Centre in New York plays different roles in the local community as well as the society at large.

These roles help a lot of different people in different ways, some of the roles that the Islamic Cultural Centre plays are: first, offering services to the Muslims who are based in and around Manhattan and the bigger Muslim community based in the United States of America by providing answers to their religious based questions, second, giving a platform where the faithful can conduct and carry out their prayers, third, offering lessons to the faithful and their children to expand their knowledge and understanding about their religion, informing American Public Opinion with accurate and factual information concerned with Islam, its doctrines, its ideology, its philosophy, culture and its countries; fourth, giving religious leadership to Muslim communities in the United States of America and accurate religious opinions and legal rulings of Islamic law concerning religious, cultural, and social questions; last but not least endorsing better understanding and cordial relations between Muslims and non-Muslims.

The Islamic Cultural Centre in New York represents Muslim American civic actors through their activities and the work they do. This in turn creates a lawful entry of religious actors and activities into the political realm.

The Islamic Cultural Centre ensures Muslim participation in the civic realm encompasses open-mindedness, discourse and municipal dialogue. It brings out general principles like honesty, nonviolence, cooperation, and obligation to social justice that are consistent in both the Islam faith and American civic norms.

It is therefore safe to conclude that the Islamic Cultural Centre represents upright norms and values that make the community a better place to live in not only of the Muslim faithful but for everyone. This tells us that apart from representing the Muslim faith and community in New York the Islamic Cultural Centre it also represents the needs and values of other people in the community, it does not discriminate against members of the community that are not Muslims neither does it force or coerce people to join their religion.

This building has brought a wider knowledge of the Muslim community to the greater New York community. Through explaining in detail the purpose of Islam and how it has been tarnished by wrong doer’s non believers are able to understand that Islam in itself is not violent but some believers try to make it out to be by finding loop holes. The centre offers teachings and has a library where one can learn more about the Muslim faith form its inception to the present. This centre also show cases architectural expertise by Muslims as well as show cases their doctrines in the Islam faith. This then attracts people as not only as a monumental spectacle in New York City but also as a place of worship and a place to learn.

This paper has looked at the different denomination found in the Muslim faith, a brief history of how Muslims came to the United States of America, the history, Architectural design of the Islamic Cultural Centre in New York, issues and activities that the centre is involved and takes part in, and the roles of the building in the community as well the things it represents to the Muslim faithful and the community at large.

The fact that the centre was build at a very central place in Upper Eat Manhattan shows that the American people have deep respect for religion and they value it immensely and that they have an interest in other religions not necessarily to joint them but be aware of their ways, cultures and values.

Works Cited Cristi Marcela, From Civil to Political Religion: The Intersection of Culture, Religion and politics p. 1. Web.

David W. Dunlap, “Michael A. McCarthy, 68, Architect of Mosque on Upper East Side,” The New York Times.

Di Lello, C. Anne Civic Islam in New York: The Dynamics of Muslim American Participation 2010 p. Web.

Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003) p. 666-690. Web.

Cultural Centre of New York 2010. Web.

Footnotes Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2003) p. 666-690.

Di Lello, C. Anne Civic Islam in New York: The Dynamics of Muslim American Participation 2010 p. 8.

Islamic Cultural Centre of New York 2010.

David W. Dunlap, “Michael A. McCarthy, 68, Architect of Mosque on Upper East Side,” The New York Times, July 18,2002, A19.

Di Lello, C. Anne

Di Lello C. Anne

Di Lello C. Anne

Cristi Marcela, From Civil to Political Religion: The Intersection of Culture, Religion and politics p. 1.